People's Daily Online, Beijing, January 20 (Reporter Sun Hongli) Infertility is a reproductive disorder caused by a variety of factors. In my country, the incidence of infertility is 7%-10%.

In November 2021, the National Health Commission released the "Core Information on Infertility Prevention and Health Education" (hereinafter referred to as "Core Information").

  Recently, around the content of "Core Information", Li Rong, chief physician of Peking University Third Hospital, Jiang Hui, chief physician of Peking University Third Hospital, and Huang Guoning, chief physician of Chongqing Maternal and Child Health Hospital, made relevant interpretations for the public and introduced the knowledge of infertility prevention and treatment. and skills.

Age-appropriate marriage and childbearing are more likely to conceive

  Age is a key factor affecting fertility, and age-appropriate marriage is more likely to conceive.

  "Core Information" pointed out that the fertility of women shows a downward trend after the age of 30, the fertility of men declines rapidly after the age of 35, and the fertility of men begins to decline after the age of 40.

  Li Rong said that with the increase of age, the functions of all aspects of the human body gradually decline, which is an irreversible process, and the reproductive system is no exception.

Pregnant women of advanced age (birth age 35 years and older) are at significantly increased risk of developing chromosomal abnormalities in their embryos (such as Down syndrome), leading to poor outcomes such as cessation of embryo development or spontaneous miscarriage.

In addition, elderly pregnant women are prone to a series of complications such as hypertension and diabetes during pregnancy, which may lead to adverse maternal and child outcomes in severe cases.

  Li Rong pointed out that the best reproductive age for women is 22 to 28 years old, or at most 35 years old.

Although men have longer reproductive cycles than women, older men giving birth also increases the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in the embryo.

The average life expectancy of human beings has been significantly prolonged, but the age of menopause for women has not changed much, suggesting that the majority of women of childbearing age should give birth at the appropriate age.

How to scientifically prepare for pregnancy?

  How to scientifically prepare for pregnancy?

The "Core Information" pointed out that both men and women who are planning to get married or plan to become pregnant should take the initiative to go to medical institutions to receive services such as pre-marital medical examinations, pre-pregnancy eugenic health examinations, and fertility consultation and guidance.

Maintaining an appropriate frequency of sexual life, monitoring ovulation through medical methods, and choosing intercourse during ovulation can help to get pregnant.

  Jiang Hui said that for prospective couples who plan to get married, especially prospective parents and expectant mothers who plan to become pregnant, it is recommended to carry out relevant medical examinations, pay attention to the physical health of both parties, and especially to detect problems affecting the reproductive health of both parties as early as possible.

  Expectant mothers and fathers who are preparing for pregnancy should understand the basic common sense to improve the probability of pregnancy. The core problem is to grasp the ovulation time of the woman. Under the guidance of a doctor, ovulation can be monitored by calculating the female menstrual cycle, measuring basal body temperature and ultrasound examination. .

The best time for intercourse is generally the day before the woman ovulates, and the man should abstain from sex for 2 to 5 days before that, so that the quantity and quality of semen can reach the best state.

For couples who have irregular menstruation and difficult to accurately grasp the day of ovulation, they can adopt the strategy of having intercourse every other day.

Smoking and alcohol use affect fertility

  A healthy lifestyle is essential for getting pregnant.

The "Core Message" states that smoking and alcohol abuse can affect sexual performance and fertility, as well as embryonic and fetal development.

  Jiang Hui suggested that expectant mothers and fathers who are preparing for pregnancy must prepare for pregnancy in advance, and men generally prepare at least 3 months in advance.

First of all, we must quit smoking and limit alcohol, because a large number of harmful substances such as nicotine, tar, arsenic, and cadmium in tobacco will seriously affect the spermatogenesis function of the testicles.

At the same time, a reasonable diet, sperm production requires a lot of vitamins and trace elements such as zinc and selenium. During pregnancy, you should eat more foods rich in vitamins and trace elements, such as vegetables, fruits, and seafood. At the same time, you should pay attention to moderate exercise and regular work and rest.

  The "Core Message" also pointed out that exposure to toxic and harmful substances such as lead, mercury, benzene, pesticides and radiation may lead to infertility, abortion or miscarriage.

Long-term exposure to high temperatures, saunas and hot baths can cause a decline in sperm quality.

  Jiang Hui pointed out that during pregnancy and pregnancy, you should try to avoid exposure to these harmful substances, such as do not perm and dye your hair, and do not make decorations at home for the time being.

If you have to come into contact at work, you must minimize the time and dose of contact, and take protective measures, such as wearing masks, gloves or gas masks.

Radiation has teratogenic and mutagenic effects. Try not to do chest X-rays, CT and other radioactive examinations during pregnancy.

  For men, the high temperature environment will also affect the spermatogenesis function of the testicles.

The suitable temperature of the testicles in the scrotum is about 35 degrees, while that of the human body is about 37 degrees. Therefore, high temperature environments such as saunas and hot springs, including fever during a cold, will directly damage the spermatogenic function of the testicles and reduce sperm counts. quality, affecting male fertility.

Therefore, during pregnancy, you should pay attention to preventing cold and keeping warm, especially to avoid colds. During pregnancy, try to avoid saunas and hot springs as much as possible, and it is not suitable to take hot baths for a long time.

  In addition, Li Rong pointed out that long-term anxiety, depression or fear and other negative emotions will affect the desire to have children and the harmony of sexual life, and also affect the secretion of female hormones and even normal ovulation of the ovaries, resulting in infertility.

Couples who are planning to have children should maintain good mental and health status.

  "The external environment, mental factors, etc. can affect the menstrual cycle of women. Any disorder in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovary will cause ovarian dysfunction, ovulation disorders, and menstrual disorders. Long-term poor mental state may It aggravates this disorder and causes infertility." Li Rong explained further.

How to Avoid Unplanned Pregnancy?

  Abortion can cause certain harm to a woman's body.

Li Rong pointed out that whether it is medical abortion or surgical curettage, there may be secondary chronic pelvic inflammation or uterine cavity adhesion.

Pelvic inflammation may lead to tubal adhesions, obstruction, hydrops and a poor pelvic environment. Such a poor pelvic environment will prevent sperm and oocytes from meeting, resulting in infertility.

After an abortion, menstrual flow may decrease. When you want to have a child, you may find that you can’t get pregnant, or you are prone to miscarriage when you are pregnant. Repeated abortions increase the risk.

Even if no miscarriage occurs, there is an increased risk of preterm birth or intrauterine growth restriction.

  So, how can you avoid unwanted pregnancies when you don't have a family plan?

  Li Rong said that in the short term, couples who do not have a birth plan can use contraceptive tools (that is, condoms), or consider using oral contraceptives. Young women without contraindications taking oral contraceptives is actually a very safe and effective method. Contraceptive measures, do not have to worry too much about the so-called "side effects" of the drug, and can quickly resume ovulation after stopping the drug, without affecting the follow-up fertility plan.

Emergency contraception is not a conventional contraceptive method, and the success rate of contraception is not high, so it is not recommended to routinely use emergency contraception for contraception after sex.

Couples of childbearing age should arrange their fertility plans reasonably according to their own needs, choose suitable and efficient contraceptive methods, and escort their health and future healthy fertility.

Ovulation-inducing drugs and other abuse are harmful to health

  Infertility is a reproductive disorder caused by a variety of factors. Females of childbearing age have normal sex without contraception for at least 12 months without pregnancy, which is called infertility, and in males, it is called infertility.

What are the causes of infertility?

  Huang Guoning said that the etiology of infertility is relatively complex, involving common problems of both men and women. It is necessary to pass the routine analysis of the man's semen, the woman's ultrasound to monitor ovulation, basic endocrine determination and fallopian tube patency. , both factors or unexplained infertility, etc., combined with the couple's medical history and clinical manifestations, choose further targeted auxiliary examination and treatment.

  Huang Guoning emphasized that female ovulation disorder is one of the main causes of infertility.

Irregular use of ovulation induction drugs often leads to the development of multiple follicles, bringing many potential risks, such as multiple pregnancy, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, etc. The incidence rate is significantly increased, and even life-threatening in severe cases.

Therefore, these drugs must be used under the guidance of specialists to reduce or avoid complications and ensure the safety of mothers and babies.

Oligospermia, asthenozoospermia and azoospermia are important causes of male infertility, but the abuse of sperm-promoting drugs may also lead to harm to health, and must be used under the guidance of specialist physicians.

Buying and selling eggs and surrogacy seriously damage women's health rights

  Human assisted reproductive technology refers to the use of medical technology and methods to manually manipulate gametes (sperm, eggs), zygotes (fertilized eggs), and embryos to achieve the purpose of conception.

  Huang Guoning said that only a small number of infertile patients need to be treated by human assisted reproductive technology to obtain pregnancy.

Infertile couples receiving assisted reproductive technology need to have clear indications, and there are some restrictions on contraindications. They must receive assisted reproductive treatment in a formal medical institution approved by the state. Information on the institution list can be found on the official website of the National Health and Health Commission. Inquire.

  In recent years, human assisted reproductive technology has been pouring into the public's attention. "Core Information" emphasizes the rational application of human assisted reproductive technology and prohibits the sale of eggs and surrogacy.

  Huang Guoning said that the trading of eggs, sperm and embryos not only undermines human ethics and social order, but also may cause the abuse of germ cells and genetic confusion due to the lack of effective supervision, threatening the national reproductive health and safety.

Once eggs become a commodity, it may induce the use of overdose of ovulation-stimulating drugs on egg donors, increase ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, increase the risk of surgical bleeding, infection, and even life-threatening in severe cases.

For economic purposes, egg donors may deliberately conceal their family history of genetic diseases and infectious diseases, resulting in the birth of unhealthy offspring.

  Huang Guoning pointed out that the act of surrogacy is actually the commercial lease of a woman's uterus. This process will seriously affect the mental health of the surrogate and bring medical risks such as obstetric complications. At present, surrogacy is underground, which will undoubtedly increase surrogacy. The psychological and physical safety risks of the surrogate, and obstetric complications such as hypertension, diabetes, and postpartum hemorrhage after pregnancy will also increase the physical safety risk of the surrogate, which cannot be guaranteed.

In addition, fetuses born by buying and selling eggs and surrogacy may face ethical and legal disputes over the ownership of the fetus.

  "The sale of eggs and surrogacy not only seriously damages women's health rights and interests, but also violates social order and good customs, and tramples on the bottom line of ethics and morality. The majority of women, especially young women, should enhance their awareness of self-protection and consciously resist illegal activities such as egg trading and surrogacy. " Huang Guoning emphasized.