Year-end inventory


  This year, education is going to the sun

Editor's note

  2021 is the beginning of the third decade of the 21st century.

No matter how you look at it, this year is always unusual.

  "Let every child enjoy a fair and quality education", this is everyone's expectation.

This year, the introduction of the "double reduction" policy is undoubtedly the annual "C position" in the education sector. It is changing an industry and reshaping every family.

After that, the family affair of "carrying a baby in accordance with the law" became a national affair, and the status of sports in school life became higher and higher.

  Under the influence of the epidemic, all aspects of people's lives have been affected, and campuses are no exception.

This year, when the cunning virus entered the campus, what people saw was the school’s rapid response and the courage and responsibility of young people.

Born in the era of Z, the generation who looked up to the world ushered in "big ideological politics". The moments of breaking defenses one after another are also ideological and political lessons that shape the generation of powerful nations.

  Education is the country's major plan, and it is also the aspiration of the people.

  This year, the state set a new goal to increase the average number of years of education of the working-age population to 11.3 years during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period.

A small number is the huge demographic dividend behind education.

As another type of education, vocational education is breaking through the "ceiling" of social prejudice and academic qualifications.

"Destiny places her on Gaoya, and she presents fragrance to the world." Zhang Guimei, the principal of Randeng, moved a country by himself with the perseverance of an ordinary educator.

  2021 is about to pass.

  In the world of Go, masters have the habit of "replaying", in fact, "replaying" is a kind of reflection.

In the process of repeated deduction, the masters found problems and summed up their experience in order to adjust and improve.

Education also needs to "revisit" at this moment, sum up gains and losses, and find a new starting point for change.

  All the changes are for education to become better and more ideal: children can be more happy physically and mentally, teachers are studying teaching quietly, and scientific breakthroughs continue to be bred in colleges and universities...

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Annual "C Position"

"Double reduction" results have been shown

  If a big group photo is taken for the education event in 2021, then the person standing in the "C position" must be "double reduction".

  On May 21 this year, the 19th meeting of the Central Committee for Comprehensive Deepening Reform deliberated and approved the "Opinions on Further Reducing the Burden of Compulsory Education Students’ Homework and Off-campus Training." Institutions that link up with schools for profit and other issues must be seriously investigated and dealt with. On July 24, this document was issued by the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council.

  Subsequently, supporting measures in many places have been implemented one after another, from homework to classroom, from student to teacher, from family to society, a series of adjustments and changes that have swept across the country quickly emerged.

  The heavy workload of primary and secondary school students has a long history. "Training chaos" and "for fear that children will lose the starting line of score competition" is not only a pain for parents of students, but also a pain for basic education.

  Has the student's burden been reduced after the "double reduction"?

  The most obvious change is in the subject training market.

  At the end of December, the latest data released by the Ministry of Education showed that after the implementation of the "double reduction" policy, subject training has been drastically reduced. At present, offline off-campus training institutions have been reduced by 83.8%, and online and off-campus training institutions have been reduced by 84.1%.

Some of the remaining training institutions are turned into non-profit institutions, and government-guided prices are implemented to provide public welfare services to the people; those that are not suitable for conversion will be further written off.

  This change in the subject training market means that thousands of elementary and middle school students are freed from heavy extracurricular training. They have weekends and holidays, and the education chain called "theatre effect" is breaking. .

  At the same time, the burden of homework for students is also reduced.

  According to the person in charge of the relevant departments and bureaus of the Ministry of Education, at present, the problem of students' excessive workload has been initially solved.

According to statistics, the proportion of students completing written assignments within the specified time has increased from 46% before the "double reduction" to over 90% at present.

99.6% of the parents of students reported that the teachers did not assign homework to their parents this semester, or asked the parents to correct the homework.

  It is worth noting that "decrease" is only a means, and the ultimate goal of the policy is to clarify the education system and strengthen the school's main role in education.

  Actions are taking place across the country.

For example, Beijing is promoting the rotation of cadres and teachers on a large scale and in a large proportion; Shanghai’s compulsory education after-school service has implemented the "5+2" model, that is, 5 working days a week, at least 2 hours a day...

  The "double reduction" leveraging the overall reform of basic education is becoming a reality.

Also in December, the Ministry of Education and other nine departments issued the "Fourteenth Five-Year Plan" County General High School Development and Promotion Action Plan, which aims to "revitalize the county in terms of student source security, teacher team building, trusteeship assistance, and standardization construction." "Given a package of top-level designs.

  The education ecology is being purified, the reform of basic education is developing in depth, and a new pattern of education development under the background of "double reduction" is being constructed.

"Heads-up generation" ushered in big thoughts and politics

  "Post-70s, 80s, 90s, 00s, before they go out to see the world, China can already look at the world, and it's not as'earth' as ​​we were..." On the afternoon of March 6 this year, President Xi Jinping The secretary said this when he visited the medical and health education members who participated in the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

  The generation that looks up to the world is a confident generation.

Their self-confidence comes from the strength of the motherland, and the country's calmness and calmness in the face of big changes and challenges.

  How to transform the self-confidence of the generation who looks up to the world into road self-confidence, theoretical self-confidence, system self-confidence, and cultural self-confidence has become a problem to be solved before educators.

  Song Xi, a girl from Peking University 10 years ago, was a generalist at school: campus singer, radio anchor, and sportsman, but she felt that all this was "a bit impetuous and boring, lacking a certain heavy value and meaning."

  In 2015, she embarked on a path that allowed herself to "endure hardship"-into the military camp.

  At the end of 2016, Song Xi became the only female marine and accompanied the Chinese navy formation to perform escort missions in the Gulf of Aden.

After retiring and returning to school, Song Xi became a naval propagandist and part-time counselor of Peking University. She boarded the school's ideological and political class podium to tell her story.

  In 2015, when Song Xi was enlisted in the army, 800,000 college students across the country signed up to join the army; by 2020, this number has become 1.2 million.

  As Song Xi said: “Every drop of sweat during training, every moment of loneliness when drifting at sea, fatigue from seasickness, and pain of injury all have great significance. That is, personal growth depends on the destiny of the nation and the value of life. Enter the torrent of the times."

  The sudden outbreak of new crown pneumonia last year has become a problem facing the people of the whole country.

Through personal experience of this thrilling battle against the epidemic, many teachers have deeply realized that epidemic prevention and control not only brings challenges, but also contains opportunities, and it is a big ideological and political lesson.

  The "big ideological and political course" is not only in the classroom, but also outside the classroom.

Education "small numbers"

Release talent "dividends"

  On March 5, Premier Li Keqiang introduced in the government work report the main objectives and tasks of my country during the 14th Five-Year Plan period. It mentioned that it is necessary to build a high-quality education system, deepen education reform, implement education quality and capacity expansion projects, and labor The average number of years of education for the age population has increased to 11.3 years.

  For the economic and social development of a country, how important is the number of years of education of the working-age population?

  According to the analysis of relevant data of 146 countries from 1950 to 2010 by the National Bureau of Economic Research, the total number of years of education per capita increases by one year, and the resulting economic output increases by at least 2%; related research from the World Bank also shows that, Every additional year of education time per labor force increases by 9% in GDP.

  In 2020, the average number of years of education for the working-age population in my country is 10.8 years, which is 0.5 years away from this target.

  Can the 0.5-year distance be achieved as scheduled?

  The person in charge of the relevant departments and bureaus of the Ministry of Education once calculated an account: In recent years, education has developed rapidly.

In particular, driven by the high-level popularization of basic education, as well as the expansion of the scale of higher education and the rapid increase in popularization, the average number of years of education for the main working-age population in my country has reached an average annual rate of more than 0.1 years since the fifth census in 2000. increase.

  In 2020, the gross enrollment rate of high school education has reached 91.2%, the gross enrollment rate of higher education has reached 54.4%, and the average number of years of education of the new labor force will reach 13.8 years.

By 2025, we will strive to increase the gross enrollment rate of higher education to 60%.

The person in charge, judging from the dynamic development trend, the goal can be achieved as scheduled.

  Over the years, the state's investment in education has finally transformed the demographic dividend into a talent dividend.

Vocational education breaks the ceiling of academic qualifications

  In April this year, the National Vocational Education Conference was held in Beijing.

With reform measures such as classified examination enrollment, "1+X" certificate system pilot, and national credit bank, the development of vocational education has ushered in another spring.

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, especially since the State Council promulgated the "National Vocational Education Reform Implementation Plan" in 2019, my country's vocational education has embarked on the road of improving quality and enhancing value-added empowerment, and the landscape of vocational education has undergone structural changes.

  "Vocational education and general education are two different types of education, with equal importance." The opening sentence of the plan opens up a broad space for the high-quality development of vocational education.

  The sustained and rapid development of my country's economy has contributed to vocational education. It has trained and transported more than 200 million high-quality laborers in all walks of life.

In the fields of serving modern manufacturing, strategic emerging industries and modern service industries, more than 70% of new frontline employees are graduates from vocational colleges, and the social recognition of vocational education has increased significantly.

  However, due to the lack of clear and reasonable classification standards, the "ceiling" of academic qualifications has always existed, and vocational education has always been regarded as an "attachment" of general education.

In some people's minds, vocational education is "inferior to others."

  This situation is expected to be changed.

  In January this year, the Ministry of Education successively issued the "Administrative Measures for Undergraduate-level Vocational Education Specialty Setting (Trial)" and "Undergraduate-level Vocational School Setting Standards (Trial)", and vocational undergraduates began to move towards full practice.

At present, there are 32 undergraduate vocational schools nationwide, all of which have begun to enroll students.

  At the end of this year, the "Opinions on Doing a Good Job in Undergraduate-Level Vocational School Bachelor Degree Authorization and Awarding" issued by the Academic Degrees Office of the State Council made a substantial policy breakthrough in the plan of "breaking the ceiling": vocational undergraduates were included in the existing Bachelor's degree work system, bachelor's degree is awarded according to subject category, and the format of bachelor's degree certificate is the same.

More importantly, the certificates of ordinary undergraduate and vocational undergraduates have the same effect in terms of employment, postgraduate entrance examination, and public examination.

  In fact, the fundamental reason for people's concern and discussion about the value of vocational education academic qualifications lies in the expectation that vocational education will have gains and benefits.

  Nowadays, the accelerated development of vocational education not only provides more young people with the opportunity to receive education, but also effectively promotes better employment of more young people, and it also puts the country on the track of relying on the high-quality development of skilled talents.

"Top Stream" Teacher Zhang Guimei

One person touches all of China

  In 2021, Zhang Guimei won many awards.

  In February, Zhang Guimei was named "Moving China 2020 Person of the Year". In the same month, she was awarded the honorary title of "National Model for Poverty Alleviation". On June 29, she was awarded the "July 1st Medal" by the Party Central Committee. In November, Zhang Guimei won the honorary title of National Moral Model...

  Zhang Guimei is the party branch secretary and principal of Huaping Women’s Senior High School in Lijiang City, Yunnan Province. She was previously selected as the “National Model of Teaching and Educating” in 2020 and was awarded the title of “Model of the Times” by the Central Propaganda Department.

  Having won so many "ceiling" awards, although not a big star, Zhang Guimei deservedly became the "top-tier" in the minds of many Chinese people. Zhang Guimei's deeds are already well-known.

  What qualities of Zhang Guimei are most moving?

  People are first moved by her story.

  Zhang Guimei's way of leading the girls to change their destiny was "bitter"-nothing more than doing their best.

Zhang Guimei’s school is the first all-free female high school in the country. In 12 years, she helped more than 1,800 girls realize their dreams in college.

  But what really moved people was not only the "suffering", but also the attitude she accepted when faced with hardships, and the indelible hope that was revealed in the face of hardships.

  Not long ago, a letter from Zhang Guimei to young people was sent on the client of Xinhua News Agency. Someone asked Zhang Guimei a question like this: "I think my life may be like this. I am very hard. Should I accept my fate?"

  Zhang Guimei replied: "No one wants to experience severe cold, but it is often uninvited and without choice; few people dare to be sure that the future will be smooth sailing, but if you have experienced and seen it, you will believe it and are willing to take it. Give it to others strongly, so that everyone around you can feel it." "I believe that life is in the'winter' that must pass through, and there is an inevitable hope."

  If change requires power, then this power must come from hope.

Zhang Guimei's almost persistent "hope" gave the girls around her the strength to get out of the mountains.

  In an award-winning speech, Zhang Guimei's first sentence was: "I am an ordinary people's teacher".

  Indeed, no matter how many honors are added, Zhang Guimei always makes people think that she is a teacher first.

Some people say that the essence of education is that one tree shakes another tree, one cloud pushes another cloud, and one soul calls another soul.

  A great soul must contain infinite power.

As Zhang Guimei’s Huaping Girls’ School’s shocking oath puts it: “I was born a mountain instead of a stream. I want to look down on mediocre ravines from the top of the peaks. I was born to be a great man, not a grass, and I stand on the shoulders of great men. Despise the humble coward!"

  Zhang Guimei is using all her methods to influence and ignite the children in the mountains.

At the same time, she also ignited the hope of education in the hearts of Chinese people.

Reform of Physical Education Entrance Examination

Cracking the "fraction-only theory"

  In December last year, Wang Dengfeng, Director of the Department of Sports, Health and Art Education of the Ministry of Education, proposed that starting from 2021, most provinces will see a substantial increase in the scores of the physical education entrance examinations.

  This year, many provinces have successively introduced specific policies, and the "point increase" has become a highlight of local policies.

For example, Henan proposed that starting from 2024, the total score of the province's sports exam will be increased from the current 70 points to 100 points; Inner Mongolia proposed that the score of the Inner Mongolia Senior High School Sports Examination will be increased to 80 points by 2025; the new version of Beijing The compulsory education sports and health assessment program also increased the score to 70 points.

  In fact, in the past two years, many places across the country have tried and explored the reform of the physical education entrance examination. However, in the context of this year's "double reduction" policy, the significance of the reform of the physical education entrance examination has become even more different.

On the surface, it is the increase in the scores in the physical education examination, but in essence, it is a key to the utilitarian and short-sighted problem of "score-only theory".

  A review of the New Deals in various regions reveals that procedural evaluation is emphasized in the reform measures in various regions.

Taking Beijing as an example, Beijing proposes to conduct physical fitness assessments in the first semester of the fourth, sixth, and eighth grades, including body mass index, vital capacity, 50-meter run, sitting forward bending, 1-minute rope skipping, 1-minute sit-ups, etc. .

Li Yi, a spokesperson for the Beijing Municipal Education Commission, said that these items are not new content. The assessment only emphasizes the accumulation of the process and the achievement of basic national health standards.

This part accounts for 30 points, 10 points each time, and students can get a full score as long as they are good or above. The focus is on guiding children and parents to pay attention to the achievement of children's physical health goals as soon as possible.

  Even in the part of on-site examinations, Beijing has greatly increased the items selected by students. There are 22 items in total, an increase of 14 items than before. Students can choose 4 items to take the exam. There are more choices, which greatly increases students' high scores. , The chance of getting full marks.

  In a sense, the reform of the physical education entrance examination and the "double reduction" policy correspond to each other. When the children are freed from the burden of homework and off-school training, their figures reappear on the sports field to exercise their muscles and bones. Sweat.

  No sports, no education.

  The concept of "health first" is becoming a reality, and sports has become a lever to move the test-taking chain, so that the "five education" of morality, intelligence, physical education, and labor can be truly implemented.

  The effect of the changes has been shown. According to the latest data disclosed by the Ministry of Education, the physical health of primary and secondary school students is showing a trend of "gradual improvement". Among them, the excellent and good rate has risen from 26.5% in 2016 to the current 33%, an increase of 6.5. percentage point.

The proportion of overweight and obesity, and the proportion of poor eyesight among students in each school has shown a downward trend year by year.

"Bring a baby in accordance with the law"

Family affairs change state affairs

  On October 23 this year, the National People's Congress passed the Family Education Promotion Law, which will be officially implemented on January 1 next year.

This is the first time that my country has legislated family education, which is a milestone in the cause of family education.

  The Family Education Promotion Law first puts family education at the height of the law. In the past, the "housework" that occurred between parents and children "inside the house" has become an important "state affair."

  Family education is no longer a dispensable matter. Parents should assume the main responsibility of family education under the framework of the law.

From then on, parents have to "bring their babies in accordance with the law."

  In addition, the Family Education Promotion Law also highlights the word "promotion". The legal provisions have a chapter on "state support", which clarifies the responsibilities of the state. It also clarifies that from the provincial level to the county level, as well as enterprises, institutions, and groups Organizations and other institutions are responsible for family education and must provide strong support.

  The promulgation of the Family Education Promotion Law is not so much a legislation as it is an education.

  Once upon a time, family education oscillated between two extremes, one end is "chicken baby" and the other end is "stocking". No matter which end they stand on, parents simply and rudely believe that they are right. In disputes and swings, the identity of the parent They are also blurred. They sometimes look like babysitters, sometimes teachers, sometimes supervisors, and sometimes spectators. In the chaotic role, the cross-border and absence of family education are intertwined, and huge internal friction brings huge anxiety...

  Now, with the promulgation of the law, the whole society has put many issues related to family education on the table. In the analysis and discussion, the boundaries of family education have become clearer: family education, school education, and social education Settle their own places and perform their duties, and leave the knowledge-learning to the school, so that life education can really happen in the family, while the out-of-school education is based on practical education; the responsibilities of parents are also clear, just like the law As stipulated in the article: Parents or other guardians cultivate, guide and influence the moral quality, physical fitness, life skills, cultural accomplishment, and behavior habits of minors in order to promote the comprehensive and healthy growth of minors.

  All the changes have taken place, and the original intention of the changes is for the better growth of the children and for us to have a better tomorrow together.

Examination of the epidemic on campus

  This year, all campuses across the country have undergone a major examination for the epidemic.

  In April this year, the Ministry of Education requested the deployment of new coronavirus vaccination work in the education system.

Since then, campuses across the country have opened the curtain of student vaccination.

  As of November, the new crown vaccination rate for students over 18 years old across the country has reached more than 95%.

my country's 3-11-year-old population has been vaccinated against 8.4395,000 people with the new coronavirus, and 49.44 million people have been vaccinated against the booster immunization.

  On campus, how to ensure that schools start school on time and safely under strict, scientific and precise epidemic prevention and control has become a big test for schools everywhere.

  Nucleic acid testing and vaccination have become "standard equipment" in many schools.

However, the cunning virus still entered the campus, and the school's rapid response and the heartwarming actions of teachers and students have frequently become hot topics on the Internet.

  After the campus was closed, Dalian Maritime University became "favored by all kinds of students".

Not only provide free eggs for breakfast, but also free chicken drumsticks for students at lunch and dinner.

Late one night, a student left a message "I want to eat candied haws, can the canteen sell it?" The school logistics teacher replied: "We will try to help you." Unexpectedly, the candied haws were quickly "on the shelves" at the school because of a student's message.

  As the epidemic broke out suddenly, the Zijingang campus of Zhejiang University was closed for management.

In the past hour, nearly 500 student volunteers gathered quickly.

"I'm a party member, I'll go first." "I'm a medical student, let me go." ... At the nucleic acid test site, teachers and students lined up with masks wearing masks, and some people lined up while reading books.

  Today, people have ushered in another winter accompanied by the epidemic, and campus prevention and control are still in progress.

  Every cold winter will pass, and every spring will come.

  China Youth Daily·China Youth Daily reporter Fan Weichen and Ye Yuting Source: China Youth Daily

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