Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, November 5th

  The U.S.'s malicious slander against China on the issue of the tracing of the new crown virus and the facts

  introduction

  For a period of time, the US has concocted various lies and rumors against China on the issue of virus traceability, which has long been slapped by China and the international community with detailed facts and data.

So far, more than 80 countries and more than 300 political parties, social organizations and think tanks have opposed the politicization of traceability issues in various ways.

  Recently, the US intelligence agency released a declassified report on the so-called tracing of the novel coronavirus, continuing to ignore the laws of scientific tracing, alluding to "the Wuhan Virus Research Institute leaked the virus," accusing China of lack of transparency and obstructing international investigations.

Traceability is a scientific issue. The US uses intelligence agencies to trace the source, putting inferior lies that have already been criticized, and putting them in an intelligence "vest". The real purpose is to confuse people and deceive the world, and continue to engage in "presumption of guilt" and political conduct. To find out the source of the problem, to blame, suppress and contain China.

  Based on the so-called U.S. investigation report and public materials from all parties, we once again list the malicious slanders concocted by the U.S. on the issue of virus traceability, and make the truth known to the world, so that the conspiracy and tricks of “political traceability” and “intelligence traceability” are useless. Retreat.

first part

  The U.S.'s malicious defamation of China on the issue of source tracing and the facts

  Disregarding science and facts, the United States has repeatedly fabricated lies to smear and accuse China.

China puts people’s life safety and physical health first, decisively launched the fight against the epidemic, and adopted the most comprehensive, rigorous and thorough “hard-core” prevention and control measures to effectively block the chain of virus transmission.

China adheres to the concept of a community of human health and health, immediately notified the international community of epidemic information, shared prevention, control and treatment experience with all parties without reservation, provided anti-epidemic assistance to the best of its ability, and took the lead in launching the world's largest vaccine cooperation operation. Make outstanding contributions to world public health security.

China has always taken a scientific attitude and actively participated in global scientific tracing cooperation. It has twice invited experts from the World Health Organization to China to carry out virus tracing research in order to make China's contribution to the ultimate victory of mankind in the epidemic.

  1. Regarding the U.S. claim that clusters of new coronary pneumonia cases first appeared in Wuhan

  Malicious defamation 1: The first cluster of new coronary pneumonia cases appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019.

  Fact: More and more clues, reports and studies have shown that the new crown pneumonia epidemic has appeared in many places around the world as early as the second half of 2019.

The time of the outbreak in the United States was earlier than the time of officially confirmed cases.

The Italian testing agency reports that the virus may even begin to spread as early as the end of the summer of 2019.

  ◆On December 27, 2019, Hubei Provincial Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine reported a case of pneumonia of unknown cause to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Jianghan District, Wuhan City.

On January 3, 2020, China began to regularly and proactively report the epidemic information to the World Health Organization, relevant countries including the United States, and China's Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions.

  In January 2021, the World Health Organization joint expert group survey showed that there was no evidence that there was a large-scale spread of the new crown epidemic in the months before the Wuhan outbreak in December 2019.

It is unlikely that a certain scale of new coronavirus infection will occur in Wuhan in October and November 2019.

  ◆ The National Institutes of Health analysis of more than 24,000 American people's blood samples collected in the first three months of 2020 shows that the new coronavirus appeared in the United States in December 2019, several weeks before the official first confirmed case.

  https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-study-offers-new-evidence-early-sars-cov-2-infections-us

  The research conducted by the University of California, Los Angeles and the University of Washington shows that the number of patients with respiratory symptoms and diseases has increased significantly from late December 2019 until February 2020, indicating that the new coronavirus has been before clinical awareness and detection capabilities are available. Spread in American communities.

  https://newsroom.ucla.edu/releases/covid-may-have-been-in-la-as-early-as-december-2019

  In March 2020, Robert Redfield, then director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, publicly admitted at a hearing in the U.S. House of Representatives that some of the flu deaths were actually infected with new coronary pneumonia.

The US also stated that it will conduct a "comprehensive retrospective investigation and research" across the country.

  In May 2020, the Mayor of Belleville, New Jersey, United States, Michael Melham said that he may have been infected with the new coronavirus in November 2019, and test results also showed that the antibodies in his body have been present for a long time.

  https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1666192464336468320&wfr=spider&for=pc

  In May 2020, "USA Today" reported that 171 patients with new coronary pneumonia in Florida, the United States had symptoms as early as January 2020, and none of them had travel experience in China, which was better than the first case of new coronary pneumonia officially reported in the state. The case appeared two months earlier.

  https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/05/05/patients-florida-had-symptoms-covid-19-early-january/3083949001/

  In June 2021, the "Medical News Network" reported that from December 13, 2019 to January 17, 2020, 106 samples of routine blood donation archives in 9 U.S. states showed positive responses to the new coronavirus detection antibody, of which 84 had medium And activity.

  https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210621/Study-shows-that-COVID-19-was-present-in-five-states-in-December-2019-even-before-the-first-reported-case-in-China.aspx

  In July 2021, the official website of the U.S. Department of Agriculture announced that the results of a study recently completed by its subordinate Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service showed that Illinois, Michigan, New York and Pennsylvania collected from January 2020 to 2021 Among the 481 North American white-tailed deer animal samples, 33% have detected antibodies to the new coronavirus, and 67% of the samples collected in Michigan have detected antibodies.

This is the first time that a new coronavirus neutralizing antibody has been detected in a wild animal. The presence of antibodies proves that a large number of white-tailed deer in the United States have long been infected with the new coronavirus.

The above study also showed that in the 143 white-tailed deer samples collected before January 2020, 1 case of new coronavirus antibodies was detected.

This means that as early as 2019, the new coronavirus infection has appeared in the American white-tailed deer population.

  https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/newsroom/stakeholder-info/stakeholder-messages/wildlife-damage-news/deer-sars

  In August 2021, the California San Jose Courier published an exclusive report, revealing that the new crown virus had spread in the United States as early as December or even November 2019, and caused many deaths in early January 2020.

These early deaths were distributed in different states in the United States, and some places were remote, and local people had very little contact with China.

Experts said that a more in-depth analysis of early deaths in the United States is needed.

  https://www.mercurynews.com/2021/08/22/exclusive-first-u-s-covid-deaths-came-earlier-and-in-different-places-than-previously-thought/

  The Palm Beach Post and the Miami Herald both disclosed that the Florida Department of Health website published data on 171 local patients who had symptoms of new crown pneumonia or tested positive for the new crown virus in January and February 2020. However, These data were deleted inexplicably.

  https://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/20200506/coronavirus-florida-without-explanation-state-puts-early-symptom-data-back-online

  https://www.miamiherald.com/news/coronavirus/article242851256.html

  There are a large number of posts on American social media published in the first half of 2020, showing that more than 200 people from the United States or countries closely related to the United States said that as early as around November 2019, they or others had been infected with suspected infections. The new crown virus disease, these people are real foreign netizens.

  Pagrinawan, the former press officer of the Philippine Embassy in the United States, detailed the timetable for the outbreak of the new coronavirus in the United States in his new book "Vaccines Cannot Cure the Racist Virus", and judged that the start time of the new coronavirus in the United States is June 2019. Then spread to all parts of the world.

  In September 2021, the Chinese Academy of Sciences preprint platform (ChinaXiv) released a study on the origin time of the new crown pneumonia epidemic based on big data modeling analysis.

Researchers established an optimized model based on infectious disease transmission models and big data analysis methods. Based on published data, they inferred the origin of the epidemic in 12 states in the northeastern United States, Wuhan, Zhejiang and other places in China.

The results of the study show that for the 12 states in the northeastern United States, the date of the first 50% infection of the new crown pneumonia epidemic is mostly between August and October 2019, and the earliest is April 26, 2019 in Rhode Island, and the latest It was November 30, 2019 in Delaware, which was earlier than the officially announced date of the first confirmed case in the United States, January 20, 2020.

The calculation results show that there is a high probability that the new crown pneumonia epidemic in the United States has begun to spread around September 2019.

  chinaxiv.org/abs/202109.00058

  ◆In November 2020, the National Tumor Research Institute of Milan, Italy, and the University of Milan, and other institutions published the results of the new coronavirus serum antibody test on 959 blood samples sampled from September 2019 to March 2020, and the positive rate reached 11.6%. Among them, 23 samples collected in September 2019 were positive.

  https://www.istitutotumori.mi.it/pagina-articolo/-/asset_publisher/QdaLDEjXASJj/content/covid-19-studio-su-cittadini-asintomatici-rivela-anticorpi-del-virus-sars-cov-2-nel-periodo-pre-pandemico-in-italia

  https://www.scienzainrete.it/articolo/nuovo-studio-rivela-sars-cov-2-giro-litalia-dallestate-2019/luca-carra/2020-11-14

  In January 2021, the Italian news agency "Local Italy" reported that in November 2019, a skin biopsy sample of an Italian woman was found to be reactive to the novel coronavirus in situ hybridization.

  https://www.thelocal.it/20210112/italys-new-patient-1-identified-milan-woman-had-coronavirus-in-november-2019/

  In July 2021, when institutions such as the University of Milan in Italy conducted sample testing, 13 out of 156 cases were found to have molecular evidence of new coronary pneumonia infection. Among them, samples of 11 cases were collected from August 2019 to February 2020. The time of the outbreak of the new crown epidemic officially announced in Italy.

In addition, on September 12, 2019, a urine sample of Italian measles patients was found to be positive for the new coronavirus nucleic acid, and the sequencing results have been uploaded to the public database.

This means that the new crown virus may have spread in Italy by the end of the summer of 2019.

  https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3883274

  ◆In May 2020, the French medical journal "International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents" published a paper entitled "The new crown virus has spread in France at the end of December 2019".

The researchers selected 14 cases of influenza disease in the intensive care unit from December 2, 2019 to January 16, 2020, and re-tested the new coronavirus nucleic acid in April 2020, and found that a 42-year-old man's sample was positive.

The lack of association between the case and China and no history of foreign travel before the onset of the disease indicates that the new coronavirus has spread in France at the end of December 2019.

According to public information, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in France increased in mid-December 2019. In December 2019, a throat swab sample from a hemoptysis patient in France tested positive for the new coronavirus RNA.

  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924857920301643

  ◆In June 2020, the University of Barcelona in Spain issued an announcement stating that researchers from the enterovirus team of the school had detected the presence of the new coronavirus in a wastewater sample on January 15, 2020.

  https://www.ub.edu/web/ub/en/menu_eines/noticies/2020/06/042.html

  2. Regarding the U.S. falsely claiming that the Wuhan Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences may leak the new crown virus

  Malicious defamation 2: The outbreak of the new crown pneumonia epidemic may be directly related to the Wuhan Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (hereinafter referred to as "Wuhan Institute of Virology").

  The truth: the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia has nothing to do with the Wuhan virus.

  ◆In May and August 2020, Wang Yanyi, director of Wuhan Institute of Virology, was interviewed by China International Television (CGTN) and National Broadcasting Corporation (NBC), respectively, and said that the statement that the new crown virus was leaked by Wuhan virus was "completely out of nothing." , The institute “has not been in contact with, studied or stored” the new coronavirus before.

  https://news.cgtn.com/news/2020-05-23/Exclusive-with-head-of-Wuhan-Institute-of-Virology-Let-science-speak-QJeOjOZt4Y/index.html

  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7iIQJnEiBXY

  https://www.nbcnews.com/news/world/inside-wuhan-lab-center-coronavirus-storm-n1236254

  ◆In March 2021, Wuhan Institute of Virology issued a statement stating that before December 30, 2019, the Institute had not been exposed to the 2019 novel coronavirus.

  www.whiov.cas.cn/tzgg_160286/202103/t20210323_5981805.html

  ◆ Authoritative figures in the international scientific community have repeatedly refuted the so-called "Wuhan laboratory leak theory".

  In February 2021, at the press conference of the China-WHO Joint Expert Group on Novel Coronavirus Traceability Research, the foreign team leader Anbarek said that the expert team had in-depth and candid discussions with relevant Chinese personnel and learned more about it. The Wuhan laboratory’s management, work practices, and recent virus research have concluded that it is extremely unlikely that the “Wuhan laboratory leak” will cause an epidemic.

  https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/r-S0Hlq-HchuJvV-gJBWvw?

  ◆ In an interview with CNN, Peter Dasak, chairman of the American Ecological Health Alliance, who has been cooperating with Wuhan Virus Institute for 15 years, said that Wuhan Virus Laboratory does not have the virus that caused the new crown pneumonia epidemic, so the virus It is impossible to originate from the Wuhan laboratory.

  https://edition.cnn.com/videos/tv/2020/04/26/exp-gps-0426-daszak-int.cnn

  In June 2021, Bloomberg News reported that Australian virologist Danielle Anderson, who had been visiting the Wuhan Virus Institute for several months, said that she had described the Wuhan laboratory in some media outside China and the Chinese scientists. Shocked by the attack.

  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2021-06-27/did-covid-come-from-a-lab-scientist-at-wuhan-institute-speaks-out

  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/videos/2021-06-28/last-foreign-wuhan-lab-scientist-video

  In July 2021, 24 internationally renowned experts published a paper in The Lancet, stating that there is currently no scientific evidence to support the theory that the new crown virus leaked from a Chinese laboratory.

Scientists from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and other countries published a preprinted article on the European scientific data sharing platform Zenodo, stating that "there is no evidence that the new coronavirus came from the Wuhan laboratory" and that "there is no evidence that any early cases are linked to the Wuhan virus. ", "There is no evidence that the Wuhan virus owned or studied the ancestors of the new coronavirus before the pandemic."

  ◆In August 2021, 21 virologists from the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, China, Australia, and Austria published papers in the journal Cell, and concluded that “there is no evidence that there is any link between the early cases of new coronary pneumonia and the Wuhan virus. , And there is no evidence that the ancestors of the new coronavirus were possessed or studied before the pandemic.” The virus is more likely to spread from animal hosts to humans, and “the new coronavirus has several characteristics of previous zoonotic events”.

  ◆September 2021, a study published in the preprint platform "Research Plaza" of the British "Nature" showed that the coronavirus and the new coronavirus carried by the chrysanthemum bats that inhabit some caves in northern Laos have common key characteristics , Which shows that there are viruses closely related to the new coronavirus in nature.

The paper shows that researchers collected samples from the above-mentioned chrysanthemum bats that inhabit some caves in northern Laos, and found three bat coronaviruses that are highly similar to the new coronavirus receptor binding domain (RBD) in these samples.

The researchers pointed out that the viruses code-named BANAL-52, BANAL-103 and BANAL-236 are "the closest known to the new coronavirus to date" bat coronavirus.

The BANAL-236 virus has almost the same RBD as the new coronavirus.

Mark Eliot, one of the authors of the paper and the head of pathogen exploration at the Pasteur Institute, said that these three bat coronaviruses may be the source of the new coronavirus and may pose a substantial risk of direct transmission to humans.

  https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-02596-2

  https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-871965/v1

  ◆In June 2021, Christopher Ford, former Assistant Secretary of State of the United States Department of State, issued an open letter exposing the process by which the Arms Control, Verification and Compliance Agency (AVC) of the United States Department of State concocted and disseminated the "laboratory leak theory".

From December 2020 to early January 2021, under the direction of the then U.S. Secretary of State Pompeo, Yu Maochun, the U.S. Department of State Policy Planning Office, instructed the Assistant Secretary of State Assistant Thomas Dinano and the consultant David Asher to bypass the biologics Scientific and biological weapons experts have assessed and continued to promote false assertions such as "the new crown virus is a biological weapon deliberately released by the Chinese government" to various departments of the US State Department.

After Ford sent several emails reminding them that they must organize scientists to conduct a serious assessment, AVC held an expert meeting in January this year.

Participating experts pointed out the key errors in the relevant documents at the meeting site.

Ford then emailed several senior State Department officials to inform about the meeting, pointing out that there were major problems with AVC's judgments.

According to Ford's inference, the senior officials of the US State Department may therefore not mention the "biological weapons theory" in the "Statement Note: Wuhan Virus Institute Activities" published on January 15 of that year, and instead proposed that "the new crown virus may originate from an accidental laboratory leak." Speculative statement.

  Malicious defamation 3: The personnel of Wuhan Institute of Virology were accidentally infected while collecting virus samples in the wild.

Three employees of Wuhan Institute of Virology were infected with the epidemic in November 2019.

  The truth is that none of the staff and graduate students of Wuhan Institute of Virology has been infected with the new crown virus.

  ◆In March 2021, the Wuhan Institute of Virology issued a statement stating that until now, its employees and graduate students have maintained zero infections.

  www.whiov.cas.cn/tzgg_160286/202103/t20210323_5981805.html

  ◆ Western media reports that "3 researchers from Wuhan Institute of Virology visited the hospital in November 2019, and the symptoms were consistent with the new coronavirus infection" report was completely out of nothing.

China has repeatedly asked the questioner to announce the names of these three people in order to make the facts clear, but no one has provided them so far.

  english.scio.gov.cn/pressroom/2021-07/25/content_77650203.htm

  ◆ In June 2021, Bloomberg News reported that the Australian virologist Danielle Anderson, who has visited Wuhan Virus several times, said that by the end of 2019, no one she knew in Wuhan Virus had become ill.

Anderson also said that when many colleagues from Wuhan came to Singapore for a meeting in December 2019, no one had discussed the spread of any "disease" in the laboratory.

  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2021-06-27/did-covid-come-from-a-lab-scientist-at-wuhan-institute-speaks-out

  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/videos/2021-06-28/last-foreign-wuhan-lab-scientist-video

  Malicious defamation 4: The management of the P4 laboratory of Wuhan Institute of Virology is "unscientific" and there are "security loopholes."

  The truth: The P4 laboratory of Wuhan Institute of Virology is a Sino-French government cooperation project, with strict protective facilities and measures.

  ◆As the laboratory with the highest level of biosafety protection, Wuhan P4 laboratory has not had any pathogen leakage or personal infection accidents since it was officially put into operation in 2018.

Wuhan P4 laboratory is designed, constructed and operated in accordance with international requirements and national standards. It not only has stable and reliable biosafety protection facilities, but also has established a complete biosafety management system and a team of professional support management and maintenance personnel.

The hardware facilities, management level, staff, and working methods of the Wuhan P4 laboratory are the same as those of other P4 laboratories operating safely in the world.

  Malicious defamation 5: Satellite images show that in October 2019, the number of vehicles in the parking lots of several hospitals such as Wuhan Zhongnan Hospital and Hubei Maternity and Child Health Hospital increased significantly compared with the same period in 2018. At the same time, Baidu searched for "cough" and "diarrhea" The number of words such as "has soared, so the new crown pneumonia may begin to spread in Wuhan at the end of August 2019.

  Facts: The relevant inferences are purely subjective, and the examples on which they are based cannot lead to corresponding conclusions. The relevant reports and studies are all absurd.

  ◆ In response, the World Health Organization stated that it cannot interpret the changes in the number of cars in hospital parking lots and "jump" two or three inferences, linking this to the new crown pneumonia epidemic.

  ◆China Baidu Company responded to this question with an index chart.

The chart shows that the search volume for "cough" and "diarrhea" has not changed significantly from previous years, and the search volume for "diarrhea" has decreased slightly around December 2019.

  ◆Zeng Guang, a high-level expert from the National Health Commission of China on the prevention and control of new coronary pneumonia, wrote an article that the study is a typical misuse of big data epidemiology and is very absurd in many aspects.

One is absurd in time.

The study pushed the spread of the new crown virus to August 2019 based on parking lot traffic and Baidu search data. The Wuhan Military Games was held in October of that year. If the virus had spread in August, then people from all over the world would come to participate in the Military Games. It is impossible for a soldier to be unconscious, and it is impossible for a U.S. soldier to go to a local hospital for medical treatment because of illness, let alone not notice it.

The second is the absurd understanding of the disease.

The study used data from Hubei Maternity and Child Health Hospital as one of the main evidences. This hospital is the main pediatric hospital in Wuhan, but the main people infected with new coronary pneumonia are not children, and the child infection rate is relatively low.

Third, it is ridiculous to search for "cough" and "diarrhea" as keywords.

Many patients with new coronary pneumonia have cough symptoms in the early stage, but not many have diarrhea symptoms in the early stage, and the symptoms will eventually become pneumonia.

If the virus has spread in August 2019, why haven't these symptoms turned into pneumonia for such a long time?

  Malicious defamation 6: The Wuhan Institute of Virology is only about 300 yards (about 0.27 kilometers) from the South China Seafood Market.

  Fact: The Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention is about 300 yards from the South China Seafood Market.

Wuhan Institute of Virology is more than ten kilometers away from the South China Seafood Market, with the Yangtze River in between.

  Malicious defamation 7: McCall, the Republican leader of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the US House of Representatives, published an investigation report on Wuhan Virus Institute, saying that Wuhan Virus Institute had issued an air conditioning system renovation contract worth 606 million U.S. dollars. This contract made people suspect air conditioners before the epidemic. Whether the system can work normally.

  Fact: The actual value of this contract is US$606,000. McCall reported a low-level error in the decimal point of the data and was copied and spread by irresponsible mainstream American media, exposing the United States hastily fabricated credentials and lacked independent and rigorous professionalism. .

  ◆ The McCall report also exaggerated the funding of the other six projects of the Wuhan Institute of Virology by 100 or 10 times.

For example, in the report, the security services of the Zhengdian Park of the Wuhan Institute of Virology, the maintenance of the P3 laboratory and the laboratory animal center, and the renovation of the hazardous waste treatment system cost 1.3 million U.S. dollars (about 8.3 million yuan) and 401,300 U.S. dollars (about 2.6 million yuan). ) And 1.5213 million US dollars (approximately 9.86 million yuan), while the actual amount is 830,000 yuan, 260,000 yuan and 986,000 yuan.

  When citing relevant data, McCall’s "researchers" removed the decimal point from the Chinese data, resulting in a slight difference and a thousand miles away.

The US "Washington Post", "Wall Street Journal" and others have quoted and spread the wrong contents of Republican reports without checking the facts.

  Malicious defamation 8: The Sierra Nevada Company, the main contractor of the US Department of Defense, once issued a report saying that the core basis for the new crown virus originating from the Wuhan Virus Institute was that in mid-October 2019, a large number of "roadblocks" were set up on the roads around the Wuhan Virus Institute.

  Fact: The US "Beast Daily" website pointed out by citing facts that the so-called "roadblocks" are actually related to the road works around the Wuhan Institute of Virology, and the traffic near the Wuhan Institute of Virology is no different.

  https://www.thedailybeast.com/pentagon-contractors-report-on-wuhan-lab-origins-of-coronavirus-is-bogus

  Malicious defamation 9: Wuhan Institute of Virology has cooperated with the Chinese military to carry out research on the "functional gain" of coronavirus.

  Facts: The Wuhan Institute of Virology has never cooperated with any other parties, including the Chinese military, to conduct research on the “enhancement of functions” of the coronavirus.

  ◆In July 2021, Zeng Yixin, deputy director of the National Health Commission of China, stated at a press conference that Wuhan Institute of Virology has not conducted research on the enhancement of coronaviruses, and there are no so-called artificial viruses.

  english.scio.gov.cn/pressroom/2021-07/25/content_77650203.htm

  ◆In June 2021, Shi Zhengli, a researcher at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, said in an interview with The New York Times that her laboratory had never conducted or cooperated in conducting a "functional gain" experiment to enhance the toxicity of the coronavirus.

  https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/14/world/asia/china-covid-wuhan-lab-leak.html

  ◆2021年6月,曾在武汉病毒所工作的澳大利亚病毒学家丹妮尔·安德森接受彭博社采访时表示,没有证据显示武汉病毒所搞“病毒功能增益实验”。

  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/features/2021-06-27/did-covid-come-from-a-lab-scientist-at-wuhan-institute-speaks-out

  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/videos/2021-06-28/last-foreign-wuhan-lab-scientist-video

  恶意诽谤10:武汉病毒所通过与北卡罗来纳大学教授巴里克合作,已掌握“无痕合成技术”,在人工干预病毒基因重组时“隐藏”改造标记。

  事实真相:武汉病毒所从未设计、制造和泄漏新冠病毒,也不具备全新设计和创造新冠病毒的能力。武汉病毒所并不掌握所谓的“无痕合成技术”。

  恶意诽谤11:2015年,巴里克曾与武汉病毒所合作刊文称,成功运用蝙蝠冠状病毒构建对人类具高致病性的嵌合病毒。

  事实真相:巴里克早在十余年前就掌握了合成冠状病毒的技术。他的确从武汉病毒所科学家石正丽及其团队获得了从蝙蝠标本中采集的生物样本的序列信息,但病毒改造和小鼠感染实验均在美国北卡罗来纳大学开展,其所构建的嵌合病毒并未提供给石正丽团队。

  ◆2008年,巴里克等在美国《国家科学院学报》上发表论文,详细记录了设计、合成并改造一种SARS样冠状病毒的方法。“在这项研究里,我们利用生物信息学、基因设计、大规模DNA合成、反向遗传学等方法,成功构建了可以复制的嵌合SARS样冠状病毒。”巴里克等人在论文摘要中写道:“为了试验从不可培养的蝙蝠SARS样冠状病毒到人类SARS样冠状病毒的可能出现途径,我们将蝙蝠SARS样冠状病毒基因组的受体结合域DNA序列替换为SARS冠状病毒的受体结合域DNA序列,人工合成并构建了包含SARS冠状病毒的受体结合域的嵌合蝙蝠SARS样冠状病毒。这种人工构建的新型嵌合病毒不仅能让小鼠感染患病,还能侵袭人类的呼吸道上皮细胞,也能够被蝙蝠和人体冠状病毒刺突蛋白特异性抗体有效中和。”

  https://www.pnas.org/content/105/50/19944

  ◆2013年,当武汉病毒所科学家石正丽及其团队从云南的蝙蝠洞里获得几种冠状病毒的基因组序列后,巴里克主动找到石正丽,表示希望获得这些冠状病毒的样本进行研究。石正丽将基因组序列分享给了巴里克,巴则在美国实验室里用他的病毒改造技术造出了一种可以感染人类的冠状病毒。这项研究中,病毒改造和小鼠感染实验均在北卡罗来纳大学开展,所构建的嵌合病毒并没有提供给石正丽团队。这一研究结果2015年发布在国际学术期刊《自然·医学》杂志上。

  https://www.nature.com/articles/nm.3985

  ◆2016年,巴里克联合北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校、哈佛大学医学院等机构的研究人员在美国《国家科学院学报》发表论文。论文结论中表示,他们以SARS样冠状病毒为模板制造出的嵌合病毒,在小鼠实验中展现出了可复制性。

  https://www.pnas.org/content/113/11/3048

  恶意诽谤12:武汉病毒所在2018年时打算向一处蝙蝠洞内“释放”被“基因改造的冠状病毒”,并向美国申请相关经费,但遭到拒绝。

  事实真相:武汉病毒所要“释放”到蝙蝠洞去的,根本不是什么“冠状病毒”,而是一种通过基因工程技术表达的蛋白而制造出的针对冠状病毒的雾化微粒“疫苗”,这种雾化微粒可以引起蝙蝠免疫反应,防止冠状病毒在蝙蝠之间传播,进而防止这个病毒传播给人类。此系美国国防部高级研究计划局的招标要求。

  ◆美国国防部高级研究计划局曾就一个为美军派往海外国家的士兵“应对新发传染病威胁”的项目进行招标,在美国生态健康联盟的组织下,武汉病毒所曾同巴里克等美国及其他国家科学家的实验室共同参与该项目的竞标。

  武汉病毒所不参与招标项目中一切涉及对病毒进行“基因改造”和重组病毒蛋白的实验。这些分子病毒学层面的操作,主要是由巴里克及其实验室进行。武汉病毒所在这份投标文件中的角色,主要是进行“田野工作”,即在野外搜集病毒样本,分析出哪些病毒存在变异后感染人类的风险,然后提取出相关病毒的基因序列,交给巴里克等美国的实验室进行分子病毒学层面的研究。

  三、关于美方诬称中方在疫情暴发初期掩盖真相

  恶意诽谤13:疫情暴发初期,中国政府“迟报瞒报”。

  事实真相:中国政府秉持科学态度,遵循流行病学规律,第一时间与世界卫生组织和国际社会分享病毒基因序列和疫情信息,及时、公开、透明地向包括美国在内的国际社会公布疫情信息。

  ◆新冠病毒是一种前所未知的病毒,人们对它的认知需要一个过程。任何政府在研判公共卫生危机时都需要十分慎重,必须经过反复研究对比和科学论证。中国作为首先报告疫情的国家,更加需要经过谨慎的科学研究。未经研究就贸然下结论,是对科学和人民的不负责。

  ◆中方作为世界卫生组织《国际卫生条例》的缔约国,始终本着公开、透明、负责任的态度,认真履行《国际卫生条例》规定的职责和义务。中方按照《中华人民共和国国境卫生检疫法》和《中华人民共和国传染病防治法》的规定,科学采取并及时调整出境卫生检疫措施,严防疫情跨境传播,不存在任何隐瞒和延误。

  ◆中国因为有过应对“非典”的经验,因此对疫情格外警惕,发现不明肺炎后立即开始科学调查和比对,第一时间分离出新冠病毒毒株,第一时间获得病毒基因序列并向世界卫生组织通报。专家作出疫情存在人传人的科学论证之后,中国政府第一时间将有1000多万人口的武汉“封城”。国际专家普遍认为中方行动最为迅速(详见《抗击新冠肺炎疫情的中国行动》白皮书)。

  www.scio.gov.cn/zfbps/ndhf/42312/Document/1682143/1682143.htm

  www.scio.gov.cn/zfbps/ndhf/42312/Document/1682142/1682142.htm

  ◆2020年1月3日,中方首次向美方通报疫情信息和防控措施。

  1月10日,中国疾控中心、武汉病毒所等专业机构初步研发出检测试剂盒,武汉市立即组织对在院收治的所有相关病例进行排查。国家卫生健康委、中国疾控中心负责人分别与世界卫生组织负责人就疫情应对处置工作通话,交流有关信息。

  1月11日起,中国每日向世界卫生组织等通报疫情信息。

  1月12日,武汉市卫生健康委在情况通报中首次将“不明原因的病毒性肺炎”更名为“新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎”。中国疾控中心、中国医学科学院、中国科学院武汉病毒所作为国家卫生健康委指定机构,向世界卫生组织提交新型冠状病毒基因组序列信息,在全球流感共享数据库(GISAID)发布,全球共享。国家卫生健康委与世界卫生组织分享新冠病毒基因组序列信息。

  1月13日,国家卫生健康委召开会议,部署指导湖北省、武汉市进一步强化管控措施,加强口岸、车站等人员体温监测,减少人群聚集。世界卫生组织官方网站发表关于在泰国发现新冠病毒病例的声明指出,中国共享了基因组测序结果,使更多国家能够快速诊断患者。香港、澳门、台湾考察团赴武汉市考察疫情防控工作。

  1月18日至19日,国家卫生健康委组织国家医疗与防控高级别专家组赶赴武汉市实地考察疫情防控工作。19日深夜,高级别专家组经认真研判,明确新冠病毒出现人传人现象。

  1月27日,时任美国总统特朗普发推特称,美国正和中国就(新冠)病毒保持密切沟通。

  2月11日,中国疾控中心专家应约与美国疾控中心流感部门专家召开电话会议,沟通和分享疫情防控信息。

  2月13日,美国卫生与公众服务部相关负责人致函中国国家卫生健康委负责人,沟通双方卫生和疫情防控合作等有关安排。

  2月16日开始,由中国、德国、日本、韩国、尼日利亚、俄罗斯、新加坡、美国和世界卫生组织25名专家组成的中国—世界卫生组织联合专家考察组,利用9天时间,对北京、成都、广州、深圳和武汉等地进行实地考察调研。

  ◆第74届联大主席穆罕默德-班迪在埃塞俄比亚出席第33届非盟峰会时表示,中国驻联合国机构向联合国报告了有关疫情的详细情况,中国政府对疫情信息的发布及时、透明,让外界清楚中国正在发生的疫情情况,有利于多边合作防止疫情蔓延。

  恶意诽谤14:中国政府未正确、及时地处置疫情。

  事实真相:中国政府在最短时间内采取了最全面、最严格、最彻底的防控措施,把疫情主要控制在了武汉,有效切断了病毒传播链。

  ◆新冠肺炎疫情是新中国成立以来发生的传播速度最快、感染范围最广、防控难度最大的一次重大突发公共卫生事件。经过艰苦卓绝的努力,中国付出巨大代价和牺牲,有力扭转了疫情局势,用一个多月的时间初步遏制了疫情蔓延势头,用两个月左右的时间将本土每日新增病例控制在个位数以内,用三个月左右的时间取得了武汉保卫战、湖北保卫战的决定性成果,疫情防控阻击战取得重大战略成果,维护了人民生命安全和身体健康,为维护地区和世界公共卫生安全作出了重要贡献。

  ◆2020年1月23日,中方做出关闭离汉通道的决定。

  1月24日(中国除夕)开始,中国政府从各地和军队调集346支国家医疗队、4.26万名医务人员和965名公共卫生人员驰援湖北省和武汉市。

  1月25日大年初一,中共中央总书记习近平主持召开中共中央政治局常务委员会会议,明确提出“坚定信心、同舟共济、科学防治、精准施策”总要求,强调坚决打赢疫情防控阻击战;指出湖北省要把疫情防控工作作为当前头等大事,采取更严格的措施,内防扩散、外防输出;强调要按照集中患者、集中专家、集中资源、集中救治“四集中”原则,将重症病例集中到综合力量强的定点医疗机构进行救治,及时收治所有确诊病人。截至1月29日,31个省区市全部启动一级响应,全面进行严格管控。

  1月25日,国家卫生健康委发布通用、旅游、家庭、公共场所、公共交通工具、居家观察等6个公众预防指南。各个航空口岸严格检查,任何人有咳嗽发烧等症状均不允许通行,不存在所谓的大量新冠病人跑到海外。在此后较短时间段内,湖北以外其他疫情不明显的省区市同外国还有航班。但这些短暂出国人员回到国内后都进行了核酸检测,几乎没有人感染新冠病毒。

  中方在全国范围内排查确诊患者、疑似患者、发热患者、确诊患者的密切接触者等“四类人员”,采取分类集中管理,持续提升核酸检测能力。科学采取并及时调整出境卫生检疫措施,全国口岸实施严格的出入境卫生检疫,对出入境人员严格健康核验、体温监测、医学巡查、流行病学调查、医学排查、采样监测。对拟出境人员中出现确诊或疑似病例、有症状者、密切接触者,中方都按照有关规定将相关人员移交地方联防联控机制实施隔离、留验等后续处置,严防疫情跨境传播。实施最严边境管控,取消非紧急非必要出国出境活动。

  ◆2020年2月,中国—世界卫生组织联合专家考察组在北京举行新闻发布会,专家代表团一致认为,中国采取的措施非常及时有效,中国强有力的干预措施显著改变了疫情蔓延曲线,不仅阻止了疫情在中国的传播,也为全世界争取了时间。《科学》杂志研究报告评估,中国政府的防控措施使中国减少了超过70万的感染者。

  同月,中国—世界卫生组织新型冠状病毒肺炎联合考察报告发布。报告认为,面对前所未知的病毒,中国采取了历史上最勇敢、最灵活、最积极的防控措施,尽可能迅速地遏制病毒传播;令人瞩目的是,在所考察的每一个机构都能够强有力地落实防控措施;面对共同威胁时,中国人民凝聚共识、团结行动,才使防控措施得以全面有效的实施;每个省、每个城市在社区层面都团结一致,帮助和支持脆弱人群及社区。

  ◆2020年5月,国际学术期刊《自然》杂志刊发了中美英多国科研团队的研究。研究通过建模发现,中国使用的三大非药物干预措施(城际旅行限制、早期识别和隔离、接触限制和社交距离),不仅遏制了新冠肺炎疫情在中国的发展,也为全球赢得了时间窗口。研究指出,如果不实施强有力的非药物干预“组合拳”,则中国的新冠肺炎病例或将增加67倍,超过700万人。

  ◆2020年5月,美国耶鲁大学和中国暨南大学研究人员合作开展的一项研究显示,中国采取的“封城”、社区封闭管理、隔离、限制户外活动等措施极大降低了新冠病毒传播速度,病毒传播在2月中旬得到了有效遏制。截至2月29日,在中国实施的国家级和省级公共卫生措施可能在湖北以外避免了超过140万人感染和5.6万人死亡。

  ◆2021年9月,国际医学期刊《柳叶刀》杂志新冠委员会主席、美国经济学家杰弗里·萨克斯在接受马来西亚《星报》独家专访时表示,中国在抗击新冠疫情方面做得非常出色,世界本可以且应该能从中国的应对举措中学到更多知识。他还呼吁美国与中国展开良好合作,而不是试图强迫中国按照美国的意愿做事。

  恶意诽谤15:中国政府打压“吹哨人”。

  事实真相:中国本着公开、透明、负责任态度,第一时间对外发布了信息。没有打压所谓“吹哨人”。

  ◆湖北省中西医结合医院呼吸与重症医学科主任张继先2019年12月27日首次报告疫情病例,并因此受到嘉奖。

  ◆2019年12月30日,张继先医生报告可疑病例3天后,眼科医生李文亮在同学微信群转发信息称“确诊了7例SARS”,并请不要外传。该微信截屏在网上迅速传播造成恐慌。武汉警方于2020年1月3日请其前往派出所谈话,以训诫书方式予以劝导。1月中旬李文亮医生不幸感染,1月31日确诊为新冠肺炎。2月7日经抢救无效病逝。当日,中国国家卫生健康委对其逝世公开表示哀悼。国家监察委决定派出调查组赴武汉,就有关李文亮医生问题开展调查。3月19日,调查组公布调查结论并召开记者会。同日,武汉市公安局通报了有关处理结果,认为训诫李文亮一案适用法律错误,决定撤销训诫书。

  李文亮医生是中共党员。2020年3月5日,他被授予“全国卫生健康系统新冠肺炎疫情防控工作先进个人”称号,4月2日被评定为烈士。给李文亮医生贴上对抗体制的“英雄”“觉醒者”等标签,是对李医生及其家人的极大不尊重,是极不道德的政治操弄。

  美国机构“独立传媒研究所”详细调查了媒体如何不公正报道李文亮医生的来龙去脉,认为西方媒体将李文亮医生有关情况描述为中国政府隐瞒疫情的证据不符合逻辑。

  恶意诽谤16:中国政府指示销毁早期病例血清,导致无法确切判断病毒传播最初时间。

  事实真相:中方没有销毁早期病例血清。中国—世界卫生组织新冠病毒溯源研究联合专家组一致同意,将在武汉血液中心血液符合相关管理办法规定时,开展一些血清研究工作。

  ◆2021年7月,中国—世界卫生组织新冠病毒溯源研究联合专家组中方组长梁万年先生表示,中国—世界卫生组织新冠病毒溯源研究联合专家组在武汉曾专门邀请武汉血液中心的专家进行充分讨论。武汉血液中心的专家告诉专家组,他们保留有血样,但是这种留存的血液样本,仅用于应对因输血可能导致的医学争议或者法律诉讼来保留的,它的留存量很低。根据中国国家血站管理办法第31条规定,血液样本有其保存期,即在全血或成分血使用后两年内,只有发生医疗纠纷或者诉讼才能拿出来使用。

  中国—世界卫生组织新冠病毒溯源研究联合专家组一致认为,将在武汉血液中心血液使用两年后,符合相关管理办法规定时,开展一些血清研究工作。中方也正组织相关专家和单位就这方面工作做准备。目前,已提前就血液检测方法、检测的实施方案等做一些论证,待到期后具体实施。中方相关机构也表示,一旦有结果,他们会及时通知中方和外方专家组。

  恶意诽谤17:2020年1月,湖北省卫生健康委员会的一名官员下令基因测序公司和实验室停止测试并销毁患者样本。1月3日,中国国家卫生健康委员会发布了一道全国范围的命令,与湖北省卫生健康委员会所下达的命令类似,要求销毁病毒样本。

  事实真相:疫情发生后,中国国家卫生健康委立即组织国家级高水平的专业机构进行病原的平行鉴定工作,同时依法依规对病原体进行管理。

  ◆根据《传染病防治法》和《病原微生物实验室安全管理条例》的相关要求,中国法律法规对高致病性病原微生物样本的保存、销毁、实验活动等都有明确要求,对于实验室条件达不到生物安全样本保存条件要求的,应就地销毁或移交专业的保藏机构保管。有关机构销毁早期病毒样本符合相关传染病管理办法。

  ◆在病原微生物菌毒株分享方面,中国一直都是积极的贡献者。近年来,为防范全球流感大流行,在世卫组织框架下,中国向美国、日本、英国、澳大利亚、加拿大、俄罗斯等都提供了很多高致病性流感病毒毒株。在新冠毒株分享方面,中国同样持积极开放态度。

  四、关于美方诬称中方阻碍国际调查并指责其他国家

  恶意诽谤18:世界卫生组织专家组赴华溯源期间,中方限制专家进入相关现场,阻挠他们获取“原始数据”,拒绝提供早期174例病人病历。

  事实真相:中方始终本着开放、透明态度,同世界卫生组织就全球病毒溯源保持密切沟通合作,为世卫专家来华提供了大力支持协助。

  ◆中国率先认真落实世卫大会决议,先后两次邀请世卫专家来华开展病毒溯源研究。特别是2021年初,17名国际权威专家同中方专家组成联合专家组,在华进行了为期28天的考察研究。在双方共同努力下,世界卫生组织于2021年3月正式发布了中国—世界卫生组织新冠病毒溯源联合研究报告,就溯源问题做出最权威、最专业、最科学的结论。中方积极参与病毒溯源全过程,发挥了应有的领导作用。

  ◆2021年2月,世卫专家组成员、美国生态健康联盟主席彼得·达萨克接受美联社采访时称,中方人员与世卫团队展开了广泛而坦诚的交流,“想去的地方都去了,想见的人都见了”,并发布推文称与武汉病毒所人员的交流坦诚、公开,就病毒溯源提出的重要问题均得到了回答。

  https://apnews.com/article/china-granted-who-full-access-wuhan-52dae25c21db7c80c404251e481f88bc

  ◆2021年7月,中国—世界卫生组织新冠病毒溯源研究联合专家组中方组长梁万年表示,西方一些人称中方没有提供早期174例病人病历,其实这些病人数据已全部在武汉向中国—世卫专家组展示,专家组阅看了相关材料并就此开展了大量工作,将数据集中分析和研究,也共同得出最终报告上的结论。根据中国相关法律规定,病人的临床数据,包括流行病学的调查数据、实验室的检验数据都涉及个人隐私,不得泄露。中方没有让专家进行拷贝和拍照,只是为了保护病人隐私。国际专家表示充分理解,认为此系国际惯例。

  恶意诽谤19:中方施压世界卫生组织修改报告结论,将“病毒通过实验室传人”由“不太可能”改为“极不可能”

  事实真相:中方从未向世界卫生组织施压,相关报告结论系经过周密的科学论证得出。

  ◆2021年3月,世界卫生组织发布中国—世卫组织新冠病毒溯源联合研究报告。联合专家组外方组长安巴雷克在记者会上表示,其团队从未被迫删除报告中的关键元素,所有科学家均对此表示支持。

  https://news.cgtn.com/news/2021-03-31/Head-of-WHO-s-international-experts-hails-cooperation-with-China-Z4thEpnTY4/index.html

  ◆2021年7月,中国—世界卫生组织新冠病毒溯源研究联合专家组中方组长梁万年表示,实验室传播有两种路径,一是由人工合成产生。对此科学家们已明确得出不可能的结论。第二是自然产生的病毒遭泄漏。泄漏的关键点是实验室有没有该病毒,对此武汉病毒所已经有明确结论,但为了进一步验证,世卫专家组专门到武汉病毒所进行了详细了解,和相关人员对现场进行了考察,特别是了解其规范流程、管理制度、安全制度的执行,包括武汉病毒所从事的研究项目。掌握相关信息后,专家组从“支持实验室泄漏”与“不支持实验室泄漏”两个维度分析了相关证据,在世卫联合研究报告上有详细记录,最终得出“极不可能”的结论。

  恶意诽谤20:美国重启“溯源调查”后,中方阻挠国际调查,拒绝分享信息。

  事实真相:病毒溯源是科学问题,中方始终支持并将继续参与科学溯源,反对将溯源问题工具化、将科学问题政治化。

  ◆中国始终秉持科学态度积极参与全球新冠病毒溯源合作,先后两次邀请世卫专家来华开展病毒溯源研究。中方专家还主动向世界卫生组织提交了对第二阶段溯源工作的中国方案。中方不认同的是被高度政治化的溯源,不接受的是偏离了世卫大会决议要求的溯源,不参与的是无视第一阶段研究结论和建议的溯源。中国正积极落实第一阶段联合研究报告的建议,开展后续补充性研究。

  ◆新冠病毒溯源是一个复杂的科学问题,应该也只能由全球科学家合作开展研究。美方罔顾科学和事实,动用情报部门搞溯源,本身就是将溯源问题政治化的铁证。国际社会普遍反对美方行为,迄今已有80多个国家以致函世界卫生组织总干事、发表声明或照会等方式反对溯源问题政治化,100多个国家和地区的300多个政党、社会组织和智库向世界卫生组织秘书处提交反对溯源政治化的联合声明。

  恶意诽谤21:中方通过各种手段极力掩盖信息,要求美国国家卫生研究院删除早期新冠病例基因序列。

  事实真相:中方从未掩盖信息,相关指控毫无事实依据,是彻头彻尾的阴谋论。

  ◆有报道称中方研究者于2020年删除了已经上传至由美国国家卫生研究院(NIH)管理的NCBI数据库的疫情早期部分病例基因序列,并据此推测中方对溯源有所隐瞒。中方进行了充分调查、了解。报道提到的序列删除问题,起源于武汉大学的研究人员发表在国际刊物《SMALL》上的一篇论文,题目是《纳米孔靶向测序用于准确和全面检测SARS-CoV-2和其他呼吸道病毒》。2020年3月投稿的时候需要测序结果,所以研究人员将具体的新冠肺炎病毒的测序结果上传至NCBI数据库。

  6月9日,该刊物向研究人员发送拟出版的样稿。研究人员发现,文章中原有的描述病例样本病毒测序数据上传地址的内容在审稿过程中被删除了。所以研究人员认为,没有必要再把数据存放在NCBI数据库中,并于6月16日给NIH发邮件要求撤回数据。NIH按照工作流程自行删除。这名研究人员完全没有隐瞒、掩盖的必要性,更没有这样做的主观意图。近期,中方研究人员已将所有61个新冠肺炎样本的242条测序相关数据上传到中国国家生物信息中心建设的GSA数据库,这个数据库是公开的,全球研究人员都可以查看查询。

  另据了解,上述论文中提到的样本最早采样时间是2020年1月30日,距疫情开始已过去一段时间,并不是早期样本。这些样本序列对新冠病毒溯源研究能够提供的信息和价值都是很有限的。但美国弗雷德·哈钦森(Fred Hutchinson)癌症研究中心的一名研究人员杰西·布卢姆(Jesse Bloom)在没有得到中国学者确认,也完全不了解此事来龙去脉的背景下,就杜撰了所谓的阴谋论,声称这是中国想掩盖真相。这种做法背离事实,也违反了科学伦理,遭到许多国家专家批评。

  恶意诽谤22:中方压制国内科学家自发溯源,审查涉溯源论文发表,禁止武汉病毒所人员自由接受采访。

  事实真相:中方从未压制国内科学家、审查涉溯源论文,而是积极组织科学家开展溯源工作。中国科学家积极发表病毒溯源论文,武汉病毒所人员多次接受媒体采访。

  ◆疫情发生后,在世界卫生组织发起的联合研究之前,中国科学家就在科技部、国家卫生健康委等相关部门领导下开展了比较广泛和深入的溯源工作。

  ◆2020年6月,中国科技部部长王志刚表示,截至2020年5月底,国内的科学家发表论文已经有206篇,国外的研究团队发表论文也有282篇,中国与美国、英国等国外团队联合发表溯源相关的论文有19篇。建成了全球共享的新冠病毒信息库,已经收集分享了全球范围内的新冠病毒基因序列36442条,其中高质量的病毒序列达到18967条。

  ◆2020年以来,中国科学院武汉分院院长袁志明、武汉病毒所所长王延轶及研究员石正丽等多名人员先后多次接受媒体采访,其中包括路透社、《科学》杂志以及美国全国广播公司(NBC)等多家境外媒体深度采访。

第二部分

  美国抗疫失败、散播病毒并甩锅推责的事实真相

  美方一再指责中方发动信息战、虚假宣传干扰调查,企图转移国际社会对溯源问题的关注。事实上,中方要求美国接受世界卫生组织病毒溯源调查,完全基于美国媒体自己的公开报道。根据这些报道,美国抗疫失败是不争的事实。抗疫期间,美国国内出现了政治凌驾科学之上、政府决策失误、国家层面统筹不力、防疫措施落实不到位、核酸检测工作不足、疫情信息公开缺位等一系列问题。在国际上,美国也成为头号“病毒扩散国”“疫情源头嫌疑国”和“全球抗疫破坏国”。在病毒溯源问题上,美方至今拒绝回应国际社会对德特里克堡、北卡罗来纳大学生物实验室以及美国200多个海外生物实验基地等合理关切,试图掩盖真相,逃避责任。美国有责任和义务给全世界一个交代。仅列举一些事例如下。

  一、美国德特里克堡基地是美国生物军事化活动的大本营。该基地中的美陆军传染病医学研究所问题最为突出,且存在与新冠病毒关联的诸多疑点。德特里克堡基地继承了侵华日军“731部队”的魔鬼遗产,国际社会对于该基地活动不合法、不透明、不安全的关切早已有之。

  ◆德特里克堡基地历史上是美国生物武器计划的中心,陆军传染病医学研究所是最主要的实体。该基地被称为美国政府最黑暗的实验中心。美1969年宣布放弃生物武器、1975年加入《禁止生物武器公约》后,仍在该基地继续研制和贮存生物战剂。

  https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2019/09/15/cia-fort-detrick-stephen-kinzer-228109

  https://www.nytimes.com/1982/09/07/us/us-continues-defensive-germ-warfare-research.html

  陆军传染病医学研究所拥有美军方唯一的P4级实验室。该研究所储存有几乎所有已知的高致病性病原体,包括埃博拉病毒、炭疽杆菌、天花病毒、鼠疫杆菌以及非典(SARS)冠状病毒等。该研究所多名研究员从事SARS、中东呼吸综合征(MERS)等冠状病毒相关研究。2003年SARS疫情发生后,该研究所与北卡罗来纳大学巴里克团队合作,研制出一套用于合成SARS病毒的全基因序列克隆平台,相关成果以论文形式发表;论文中称,在获得SARS病毒RNA后的两个月内,即成功合成了SARS病毒全基因序列。这说明上述机构早在2003年已具备极其成熟的SARS相关冠状病毒的合成及改造能力。

  https://globalbiodefense.com/2019/10/20/army-study-leads-to-approval -of-new-smallpox-vaccine/

  学术论文:《Methods for Producing Recombinant Coronavirus》、《Cynomolgus Macaque as an Animal Model for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome》、《MERS-CoV Pathogenesis and Antiviral Efficacy of Licensed Drugs in Human Monocyte-Derived Antigen- Presenting Cells》、《Reverse Genetics with a Full-length Infections cDNA of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus》

  2007年,该研究所发表论文称,利用埃博拉病毒进行了恒河猴动物实验,实验用的病毒毒株是通过反向遗传学技术改造获得,专门去除了弗林酶切位点,以观察病毒的毒力变化,而弗林酶切位点被认为是导致新冠病毒毒性超强的原因之一。2018年,该研究所使用非洲绿猴,实施MERS病毒感染模型研究,了解发病机理并研发疫苗。新冠肺炎疫情暴发后,该研究所与美陆军医学研究与发展部下属另一家研究所“华尔特里德陆军研究所(WRAIR)”共同研发新冠肺炎疫苗。

  www.usamriid.army.mil

  学术论文:《Proteolytic Processing of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein is not Critical for Ebola Virus Replication in Nonhuman Primates》、《African Green Monkey Model of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Infection》

  ◆美国陆军传染病医学研究所曾发生多起生物安全事故。

  2001年美国发生致5人死亡的炭疽袭击事件,嫌疑人来自该研究所。2009年美官员在该研究所检查时,发现有病原体未列入实验室数据库,遂暂停其实验室部分研究工作。

  https://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/02/washington/02anthrax.html

  https://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/10/world/americas/10iht-10germs.20070589.html

  2014年5月,德特里克堡基地在美国内被起诉,原因是该基地的生物研究机构处理有毒物质存在漏洞,导致该地区三氯乙烯含量上升为标准水平的42倍。2015年2月,马里兰州弗雷德里克县106个家庭和个人就该基地产生有害物质导致人员伤亡提起集体诉讼,并提出7.5亿美元赔偿要求。然而,美政府及陆军一直否认该基地存在不当行为。

  https://www.baltimoresun.com/maryland/bs-md-fort-detrick-lawsuit-20140509-story.html

  https://post111.com/supreme-court-wont-hear-fort-detrick-death-lawsuit

  2019年6月,美国疾控中心检查陆军传染病医学研究所P4实验室时发现严重违规,2019年7月下令关闭其实验室,并叫停所有研究活动。根据美疾控中心报告,该实验室主要有7项违规:一是该研究所系统性地违反生物安全等程序,有员工打开实验室门后未关闭,并从房间移走大量有害废物,大大增加了病原体逸出和污染外界的风险;二是在对灵长类动物解剖时,有员工多次进入实验室而未佩戴必要的呼吸防护设备,暴露在含有危险气溶胶的生物环境中;三是缺少对员工培训的合格考试,导致无法评估员工是否理解和掌握了培训内容;四是有员工处理生物危害性废物时未佩戴手套;五是未能防范未经授权人员接触实验室废物,被试剂污染的个人防护设备应存储在专门区域,但该区域未限制外来人员进入;六是员工未及时、准确盘点库存毒素;七是实验室建筑物和内部设施表面未密封,导管盒、天花板和生物安全柜上方接缝处均有裂缝。2019年11月该实验室重启活动,但未公布整改情况。

  https://wjla.com/news/local/cdc-shut-down-army-germ-lab-health-concerns

  ◆上述关停事件后,德特里克堡基地附近社区大规模暴发呼吸道疾病。2019年7月,弗吉尼亚州Greenspring社区有54人出现咳嗽、肺炎等症状,该社区距德特里克堡基地仅1小时车程。弗吉尼亚州卫生官员称,2019年夏当地呼吸系统疾病数量增加了近一半。

  https://abcnews.go.com/US/respiratory-outbreak-investigated-retirement-community-54-residents-fall/story?id=64275865

  https://www.washingtonpost.com/dc-md-va/2019/08/02virginia-reports-higher-than-usual-number-respiratory-illnesses/

  ◆2019年7月,美国威斯康星州暴发神秘“电子烟肺炎”。患者症状包括呼吸急促、发烧、咳嗽、呕吐、腹泻、头痛、头晕和胸痛。从那时起,美国内发生了前所未有的全国性肺伤疾病暴发。截至2019年12月17日,50个州共报道了2500余例相关住院病例。专家认为,这类疾病代表了一种或多种新的临床综合征,需进行更多研究来确定其病因。

  https://www.news-medical.net/news/20190821/Mysterious-lung-disease-linked-to-vaping-spreads-across-14-US-states.aspx

  https://edition.cnn.com/2019/08/17/health/vaping-lung-disease-states/index.html

  学术论文:《Pulmonary Illness Related to E-Cigarette Use in Illinois and Wisconsin--Final Report》

  《柳叶刀》等国际主流学术期刊和媒体刊文表示,区分“电子烟肺炎”和后来被发现的新冠肺炎是有“难度”的,因为两者的一些症状很“相似”,会导致诊断上的困难。

  https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanres/article/PIIS2213-2600(20)30450-1/fulltext

  https://www.medpagetoday.com/pulmonology/smoking/90294

  应对武汉新冠肺炎疫情的中国权威肺病专家在查阅了60篇涉及美国“电子烟肺炎”病例的研究论文,并对其中142位“电子烟肺炎”患者的250张肺部影像图片、临床信息以及文献原文进行了仔细全面研究后,发现这些病例中有16个更有可能是新冠肺炎的“疑诊患者”,有5个临床症状和治疗情况相对完整的患者,还被这些专家认定为 “中度可疑”。而这16个病例中有12个病例的发病时间,都在2020年以前。

  news.sciencenet.cn/htmlnews/2021/8/462683.shtm

  ◆美国民众请愿公开德特里克堡相关信息。2020年3月,民众在白宫请愿网站发起请愿,要求美政府公开该基地信息,特别是2019年关停陆军传染病医学研究所实验室的原因,并澄清是否与新冠病毒有关。美政府没有做出任何回应,该网站已被整体下线。

  二、美国北卡罗来纳大学生物实验室安全事故频发。

  ◆2015年1月至2020年6月,北卡罗来纳大学共向美国国家卫生研究院报告28起涉及基因工程微生物的安全事故,其中6起涉及包括SARS、MERS和新冠病毒在内的冠状病毒,且许多病毒经过了基因改造,共8名研究人员可能被感染。除了2020年4月1名研究人员因被感染新冠病毒的小鼠咬伤隔离14天之外,其他所有面临病毒感染风险人员均正常工作生活,且有关事故报告还特意删除了基因编辑情况、事故处理过程等关键细节,并拒绝向公众解释潜在的风险。

  https://www.propublica.org/article/here-are-six-accidents-unc-researchers-had-with-lab-created-coronaviruses

  https://www.propublica.org/article/near-misses-at-unc-chapel-hills-high-security-lab-illustrate-risk-of-accidents-with-coronaviruses

  三、美国是全球生物实验室最多、最不透明的国家。

  ◆美国在包括非洲、中东、东南亚以及前苏联地区的25个国家和地区设立了200多个海外生物实验室,其中有些实验室所在地曾经暴发过大规模传染病。俄罗斯方面有官员表示,俄方认为美国控制的实验室在俄罗斯和中国边界附近开发生物武器。乌克兰、格鲁吉亚、伊朗等国均有官员对美国海外实验室的安全性和所从事的秘密活动表示担忧。

  ◆2021年9月,俄罗斯卫星通讯社报道称,韩国消防安全教育文化协会将驻韩美军的生化实验室与德特里克堡告上法庭。韩国军方人士也揭发了驻韩美军的真实情况,他们表示德特里克堡曾15次向驻韩美军发送炭疽病菌,美军还在釜山港码头设立了一个生化实验室。消息人士称,韩国团体起诉美军与德特里克堡是因为恐惧,炭疽病菌曾经被当作生化武器使用,德特里克堡将这种危险品运到韩国境内的驻韩美军生化实验室,说明美方在酝酿一个大阴谋。

  四、素有“冠状病毒猎手”之称的北卡罗来纳大学教授巴里克掌握人为改造病毒却“不留痕迹”的技术,且长期同美军方开展密切合作。

  ◆2020年9月,巴里克在接受一家意大利媒体采访时表示,他可以做到人为改造病毒却“不留痕迹”。

  https://www.huffingtonpost.it/entry/e-possibile-creare-un-virus-in-laboratorio-senza-lasciare-traccia-la-risposta-dellesperto_it_5f5f3993c5b62874bc1f7339

  ◆2003年,一篇巴里克参与发表的论文展示了这种技术的威力,成功复活了一个“非典”SARS病毒。后来,巴里克等人还就这一成果申请了专利,并于2007年获得批准,专利代号为US7279327B2。

  https://www.pnas.org/content/100/22/12995

  https://patents.google.com/patent/US7279327B2/en

  ◆巴里克凭借该技术在全世界搜集各种冠状病毒的样本进行研究。按照美国《麻省理工科技评论》杂志的说法,这是因为他想复活和造出更多冠状病毒,以研制能对抗这些病毒的药物。

  https://www.technologyreview.com/2021/06/29/1027290/gain-of-function-risky-bat-virus-engineering-links-america-to-wuhan/

  ◆2020年5月,美国NBC新闻网的地方频道WRAL在报道中指出,巴里克对于冠状病毒的研究在一些人看来是突破性的,但在另一些人看来则是鲁莽和不计后果的。他们害怕巴里克的技术一旦不能妥善地应用,或他拥有的病毒一旦泄漏,将会造成可怕后果。

  https://www.wral.com/coronavirus/controversial-virus-research-seen-both-as-groundbreaking-reckless/19098107/

  ◆美国是全球冠状病毒增益功能研究最大的资助者和实验方。病毒“功能增益”实验所需嵌合病毒的方法是巴里克的独家专利,该技术所需辅助软件和基因比对设备等也同样为美国独有,任何人使用都需要获得授权并留有痕迹。巴里克掌握着一种通过“反向遗传技术”改造乃至“增强”冠状病毒的技术。根据美国《麻省理工科技评论》杂志报道,在这项技术的加持下,巴里克不仅可以依据冠状病毒的基因片段就培育出活生生的病毒,还可以改造冠状病毒的基因,创造出新的冠状病毒。

  https://www.technologyreview.com/2021/06/29/1027290/gain-of-function-risky-bat-virus-engineering-links-america-to-wuhan/

  ◆巴里克与德特里克堡内从事高危病毒和冠状病毒研究的两家研究机构,即美国陆军传染病医学研究所(USAMRIID)和美国国家过敏症和传染病研究所下属的“综合研究设施”(The Integrated Research Facility,IRF-Frederick)均有密切联系。大量科研论文显示,巴里克曾与美国陆军传染病医学研究所进行过不少涉及冠状病毒的研究。2018年英国《自然》杂志上的一篇论文显示,来自德特里克堡“综合研究设施”的一位名叫利萨·托尔泽夫斯基(Lisa Torzewski)的研究人员和巴里克合作,用被修改了基因的MERS病毒感染了猴子。

  ◆巴里克曾经教导过的博士生利萨·亨斯利(Lisa Hensley)曾是USAMRIID的科学家,并与巴里克有过多次合作,后来还加入了IRF-Frederick,并担任这家美国政府科研机构的副主任。巴里克拥有的那些丰富的冠状病毒“资源”以及改造和创造冠状病毒的“技术”,也就通过这些合作和人脉,被广泛运用在了德特里克堡内。但应用这些危险病毒技术的USAMRIID、IRF-Frederick乃至巴里克自己在美国北卡罗来纳大学的实验室,都存在不良安全记录,而且都直接涉及从事最危险病毒研究的P4实验室。

  五、美国拥有世界上最先进的医疗技术、最完备的医疗体系,却成为确诊和死亡人数最多的国家之一,充分反映美应对疫情不力。

  ◆虽然世界卫生组织2020年1月30日就宣布新冠肺炎疫情构成“国际关注的突发公共卫生事件”,但美国却直至3月13日才宣布国家紧急状态;虽然很多和美国同步暴发疫情的国家都已经有效控制疫情,而美国疫情仍呈波动上升态势;虽然远离中国、远离湖北和武汉,但美国疫情防控成效却大大落后于湖北周边省份。

  与中国应对疫情反应相比,从2020年1月3日中方向美方通报疫情信息,到3月13日美国宣布进入国家紧急状态,美国政府花了70天时间。即便以2月2日美方对所有中国公民和过去14天到过中国的外国人关闭边境为起算点,到3月13日美国宣布进入国家紧急状态,美方也耗费了40天。

  ◆2020年10月7日,美国媒体援引一份政府内部备忘录报道称,与白宫相关的新冠肺炎确诊病例已升至34人,感染源头很可能是9月26日时任总统特朗普在白宫玫瑰花园举行的大法官提名仪式,该活动被定义为“超级传播事件”。视频和照片显示,这场活动只有不到三分之一的人佩戴口罩,几乎没有人保持安全的社交距离。

  10月8日,美国《新英格兰医学杂志》发表社论,谴责特朗普政府对新冠病毒大流行的反应“完全不合格”,“把一场危机变成了一场悲剧”。

  10月,美国外交政策领域知名智库“外交关系委员会”支持的独立工作组发布专题报告《提升大流行应对准备:新冠疫情的教训》,反思了美国应对疫情过程中存在的问题和缺陷。报告认为,白宫缺乏一个强有力的协调中心和专业团队。尽管情报部门和公共卫生部门已经发出警告,美国也宣布疫情为国家安全威胁,但没有采取相应行动,动员全国力量十分缓慢,耽误了数周宝贵时间,也未能实施全国性的检测和接触追踪。联邦没有明确的指导原则,导致许多州过早地放松了管制措施,进而出现新的感染高峰。特朗普政府针对公众的公共卫生风险沟通存在错误。官员未能向公众提供清晰、可靠和基于科学的信息,未能保护公共卫生官员免受骚扰和人身攻击,未能及时发布公共卫生措施指南。美联邦、州和地方各级政府职责不清。联邦对州和地方卫生系统的投入不足。美国国内与国际缺乏协调。缺乏多边机制来鼓励疫苗、药物和诊断等的全球联合研发和公平分配。现有的国家和全球流行病监测和评估系统存在局限性,公共卫生官员和研究人员无法及时获得数据。

  ◆2021年8月,中国人民大学重阳金融研究院、太和智库、海国图智研究院联合研究发布《“美国第一”?!美国抗疫真相》报告,指出美国是“抗疫失败国”,反科学反常识,掩盖真相,将抗疫问题政治化、抗疫措施货币化,富者财产急剧膨胀,普通民众生活倒退,社会撕裂、种族矛盾进一步加剧。党争之下的联邦体制相互掣肘、层层推诿,构成了“散装美国”抗疫格局。美国对疫情在全球范围内的扩散具有不可推卸的责任,疫情暴发后,依然有2000多万美国公民出国。同时,美国奉行“疫苗民族主义”,对外出口新冠疫苗仅占美国疫苗产量的不到百分之一。除了拒绝国际疫苗合作,美国还大搞“溯源恐怖主义”和对他国的有罪推定,并以“退群再入群”的行为扰乱国际抗疫秩序。

  ◆美国国内两党之间关于抗疫问题的“指责游戏”从未停止。疫情暴发以来,美国两党一些政客就在如何看待和应对疫情的问题上争斗不止,将抗疫政治化,大搞“党争优先”,导致美国联邦政府和地方政府之间、不同党派主导的州之间抗疫措施力度不一,抗疫资源分配不均,就连戴不戴口罩这样简单的问题都引发了一场“政治大战”。有美国媒体形象地指出,美国人对疫情的反应充斥着“红队对阵蓝队”的政治色彩。

  2021年6月,16名国会众议院共和党人共同提出一项法案,要求禁止商业公司、医院、疗养院、高校、保险公司等强制或以其他方式要求其员工、客户或学生接种疫苗。

  2021年6月底,泰德·克鲁兹、苏珊·柯林斯等共和党籍资深联邦参议员联合发起动议,敦促美国疾控中心取消自2021年2月起实施的口罩强制令。该强制令是美国总统拜登上台后实施的新政之一,要求全美范围内所有乘坐公共交通工具的人员都必须戴口罩,违者可能面临刑事处罚。而克鲁兹等共和党人认为,已接种疫苗者无须遵守口罩令。

  六、美国政府淡化疫情,迟报瞒报,导致疫情大暴发。

  ◆美国著名调查记者伍德沃德在其新书《愤怒》中曝光时任美国总统特朗普接受采访录音部分内容,证实特朗普在美疫情初期明知新冠肺炎疫情的严重性,仍在公开场合刻意淡化病毒威胁。2020年2月7日,特朗普对伍德沃德表示,他认为疫情非常棘手。2月10日,特朗普在白宫公开活动中声称美状况很好,很多人认为病毒到了4月就会因为天气转暖而消失。3月19日,特朗普对伍德沃德表示,他有意淡化疫情的严重性,因为不想制造恐慌。3月25日,特朗普又在白宫记者会上声称,没有人能预料到疫情发展态势。在7月的采访中,特朗普撇清自己对疫情的责任,声称疫情不是他的错。伍德沃德称,特朗普本可在2月初发表国情咨文时强调新冠病毒的威胁,但却没有抓住机会。如果特朗普能在第一时间告知美民众真相,在抗疫方面能做得更好一些,就不会有如此多无辜的生命遭到病魔荼毒。

  ◆美国疾控中心官网2020年3月初停止更新并删除了新冠病毒检测人数及死亡人数的相关数据。

  ◆2020年8月,医学期刊《柳叶刀》主编理查德·霍顿在英国《卫报》撰文指出,中国医生迅速向政府发出预警,政府随即向全世界发出警告,然而西方国家没有听取这些警告。试图把这次新冠病毒大流行归咎于中国,就是要改写新冠肺炎疫情的历史,掩饰西方国家自身的失败。

  ◆2020年5月,佛罗里达州公共卫生部门主持专项新冠肺炎疫情统计的琼斯博士在接受采访时说,她不断接到政府指令,要求修改新冠肺炎确诊数字,删除可疑病例早于确诊病例的数据,为全州重启经济营造虚假舆论环境。她执意坚持在系统内录入真实数字,遭到佛州政府的解雇,理由是她“行为乖张,不服从命令”。

  七、美国压制专业人士在疫情问题上发声,对科学家搞党同伐异的噤声运动,造成严重后果。

  ◆2020年3月10日,《纽约时报》刊发重磅报道:《“它已经无处不在”:美国如何错失了遏制新冠病毒的良机》。文中记述了一名美国“吹哨人”海伦·朱博士在美国疫情暴发之初所做的一系列努力,以及在此期间不断受到的阻碍和压制。

  海伦·朱博士是华盛顿大学西雅图分校的传染病学专家。1月下旬,美国第一例确诊新冠肺炎病例出现在她所在地区。由于海伦·朱博士的实验室并非临床实验室,所以开展冠状病毒测试需要得到当局批准。但几乎她接触的所有官员都拒绝了她的提议,州监管机构甚至要求他们完全停止测试。

  海伦·朱博士说,“感觉在坐以待毙,等待大流行的到来。我们之前能帮上忙,但什么都做不了”。2月25日,海伦·朱博士和她的同事们在没有政府批准的情况下开始进行冠状病毒测试。结果证实了他们的担心。他们很快在美国首例新冠病毒感染病例地区的一名青少年(既没有旅行史、也没有接触过已知病例)那里查出了阳性检测结果。海伦·朱博士判定,美国的情况已经不妙了。这名青少年病例极有可能预示着:“病毒已经无处不在了。”

  ◆“西奥多·罗斯福”号航空母舰舰长布雷特·克罗泽因舰上发生疫情呼吁采取果断行动,让舰员下船隔离,避免不在战时的水兵赴死,被五角大楼以“判断失误”为由解除指挥职务。美国众议院军事委员会民主党议员发表声明称,“新冠病毒大流行带来了一系列新的挑战,我们还有很多不了解的地方。克罗泽舰长担心船员的健康和安全是有道理的,他只是没有妥善处理巨大的压力。解除他的指挥权是一种过度反应。”

  ◆在美国,先后服务过6任总统、曾获得代表美国平民最高荣誉的“总统自由勋章”的著名传染病专家福奇,因反驳共和党人的荒谬言论,频遭白宫“口诛笔伐”。福奇透露其家人甚至收到反对者的死亡威胁,不得不寻求安全部门的帮助。超过3000名美国卫生专家签署联名公开信,批评白宫刻意败坏福奇的声誉,表示新冠肺炎疫情是美国有史以来面临的最大挑战,但白宫刻意“抹黑”福奇,将他“边缘化”,转移公众的视线,这种做法“十分危险”。

  https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/08/05/899415906/fauci-reveals-he-has-received-death-threats-and-his-daughters-have-been-harassed

  ◆曾在武汉病毒所工作的澳大利亚学者丹妮尔·安德森因反驳武汉实验室泄漏论,遭到美国国内极端分子尖酸刻薄的攻击和谩骂,不得不向警方报案。

  https://www.smh.com.au/national/eat-a-bat-and-die-vile-threats-against-wuhan-lab-conspiracy-buster-20210701-p5861i.html

  ◆美国卫生与公众服务部下属生物医学高级研究和发展局前局长里克·布莱特的专业建议遭遇卫生部高官“不友好的对待”,他本人因未按政府指令扩大药物使用范围遭报复性解职。

  ◆美国医学专家彼得·霍特兹发文称,一群极端保守的美国国会议员和其他具有极右倾向的公职人员正对美国著名生物科学家发起有组织、似乎经过精心协调的攻击。

  https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-antiscience-movement-is-escalating-going-global-and-killing-thousands/#

  ◆《柳叶刀》新冠肺炎疫情委员会疫情溯源特别工作组中的美国专家受到“威胁”,被施压要求放弃有充足科学证据的自然起源论,转而支持“实验室泄漏论”。

  八、美国政府“政治私利至上”,不断甩锅推责,散布虚假信息,污蔑他国。

  ◆长期以来,美国一直在不遗余力地用虚假消息攻击中国。美国Politico网站曝光共和党参议员全国委员会给党内各阵营发送一份长达57页的备忘录,鼓动共和党候选人通过积极攻击中国来应对疫情危机。该备忘录给出三大攻击路线:一是批评中国掩盖疫情;二是指责民主党对手对华立场软弱;三是强调自己会向中国追责。该备忘录还表示要把中国作为2020年美大选的中心议题。这表明,栽赃、攻击中国已经成为共和党竞选的“全政府策略”。

  ◆据美国媒体披露,2020年3月20日,美国白宫国安会要求各联邦机构统一口径,通过各种途径对外宣称中国策划掩盖疫情,导致全球大流行。同日,时任美国国务卿蓬佩奥对记者表示,中国、俄罗斯和伊朗正在散布虚假信息,诋毁美国为防控疫情所做的工作。美方一方面要求联邦机构统一口径来对外攻击抹黑中国,另一方面又指责是中国、俄罗斯和伊朗在散布虚假信息。到底是谁在散布虚假信息,一目了然。

  ◆布鲁金斯学会约翰·桑顿中国中心及东亚政策研究中心高级研究员乔纳森·波拉克博士在接受《中美印象》采访时表示:“相比中国,美国抗疫工作糟糕透了。特朗普难辞其咎,现在将他自己的错误归咎于中国和其他相关方,然而新冠病毒可不是民主党的一员,也不隶属中国政府。”

  ◆疫情发生以来,美西方社交媒体上充斥着大量的疫情阴谋论,美国有些官员、议员、媒体、机构在拿不出任何证据的情况下,炮制和散布了大量针对中国的虚假信息,无视基本事实,对中国进行“有罪推定”式的抹黑和攻击。

  ◆2020年4月,美独立新闻网站“灰色地带”发文揭露美国保守派记者与政府配合散布虚假信息全过程:《华盛顿邮报》记者罗金曾屡屡炮制假新闻,他在4月14日以似是而非口吻对美国驻华使馆电报断章取义,把反华分子虚构为“科学家”,撰写出漏洞百出的“爆料”文章。15日晚,共和党参议员科顿发表阴谋论,称中国政府要为疫情所有损失负责。17日,时任美国务卿蓬佩奥将该阴谋论“带到全球舞台”,要求中国允许专家进入武汉病毒研究所调查。

  https://thegrayzone.com/2020/04/20/trump-media-chinese-lab-coronavirus-conspiracy/amp/?__twitter_impression=true

  ◆2020年6月,澳大利亚研究院发表报告指出,美国借疫情操纵网络水军,散布新冠病毒为中国政府人为制造生化武器的阴谋论。

  ◆美国记者迈克尔·戈登引用美方一份所谓未公开的情报,声称基于“3名武汉病毒研究所人员患病”的信息,对所谓“新冠病毒从武汉实验室泄漏”的虚假信息进行炒作。正是这个记者,在19年前以捕风捉影的造假手段炮制了伊拉克“试图获得核武器”的假消息,直接助推了美国发动伊拉克战争。如今,同样是这个人以相似的谎称匿名消息的手段,再次炒作“新冠病毒从武汉实验室泄漏”,这根本没有任何可信度。

  九、美国放任游客向他国输出病毒导致当地疫情暴发。

  ◆根据美国国家旅游办公室发布的数据,2020年4月至2021年3月,美国公民累计经空港、陆地出国2319.5万人次。2020年11月至2021年1月系美国疫情高峰期,日均新增确诊病例18.6万例,同期美国公民日均出国8.7万人次,达到阶段峰值。

  ◆2020年2月至2021年1月初,新西兰自美输入病例182例,位居新西兰输入病例第二位。

  ◆2020年3月20日,澳大利亚总理莫里森表示,在澳大利亚确诊的新冠肺炎病例中,约80%是输入性病例,其中大多数病例来自美国。

  ◆2020年5月,以色列特拉维夫大学研究结果显示,该国约70%确诊病例感染的病毒毒株来自美国。

  ◆加拿大魁北克国家公共卫生研究所和麦吉尔基因组中心研究结果显示,魁北克疫情感染源主要来自欧洲和美洲,而非亚洲。

  ◆2020年4月,日本国立传染病研究所调查报告显示,自3月以来的第二波大规模传染可能是欧美输入病例导致。

  十、美国大肆驱赶非法移民,向拉美国家输出病毒。

  ◆美国有线电视新闻网(CNN)援引美国国土安全部边境巡逻部门消息,2020年3月至9月,美国共遣返16万非法移民。

  ◆美国华盛顿拉丁美洲研究所等60多家机构发表联合声明,谴责美国政府在全球疫情暴发期间驱逐非法移民,将全球置于风险之中。在美国遣返的哥伦比亚移民中有三分之一感染新冠病毒。

  ◆危地马拉卫生部长2020年4月表示,50%—75%的自美遣返人员被确诊,占该国确诊人员总数的19%,其中仅4月13日一架载有76名自美遣返人员的航班中,就有71人核酸检测阳性。

  ◆2020年6月18日,美国《纽约时报》发表题为《为什么说美国正在出口新冠病毒?》的社论指出,美国现在是世界上新冠肺炎确诊病例最多的国家,在美国遣返的移民中,新冠病毒检测呈阳性的人不在少数,对他国公共卫生造成威胁。

  十一、驻外美军随心所欲,加剧日本、韩国感染几率。

  ◆2020年7月初,日本冲绳县知事召开新闻发布会说,驻日美军基地数十名士兵确诊,但美军拒绝采取隔离措施,大批士兵依旧离开基地在外狂欢。

  ◆2021年2月13日,在驻韩美军乌山空军基地工作的一名士兵违反韩国防疫政策,在家中举行聚会,有19名外国人和2名韩国人参加,随后聚会人员中出现确诊者。到2月22日,参与聚会者中已有9人确诊感染。

  ◆2021年5月31日,大量驻韩美军人员休假外出,在釜山海云台海滩聚集且拒不佩戴口罩,引发当地民众不满。

  十二、美国“携毒”军演,可能导致英国、泰国“中招”。

  ◆2021年7月12日,“伊丽莎白女王”号航母与美国海军“里根”号航母和“硫磺岛”号两栖攻击舰在亚丁湾进行联合演习。演习后两天,“伊丽莎白女王”号航母被曝出现疫情,大约有100例新冠感染病例。消息得到英国皇家海军发言人证实。

  https://www.maritime-executive.com/article/positive-covid-tests-on-british-flagship-hms-queen-elizabeth

  ◆路透社2020年8月2日报道,泰国国防部表示,赴美参加联合军演后,9名从美国夏威夷返回的泰国士兵被确诊感染新冠病毒,泰国紧急暂停了泰军与美军的联合演练计划。

  https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-health-coronavius-thailand-idUKKBN24Y0E0

  十三、美方奉行单边主义,拒绝国际合作。

  ◆在叫嚣调查其他国家实验室的同时,美国恰恰是唯一反对建立多边生物核查机制的国家。早在2001年,国际社会本已就《禁止生物武器公约》(BWC)核查议定书基本达成一致,正是美国以“生物领域不可核查”为由,突然单方面退出,导致国际社会的努力付诸东流。20年来,美国一直无视国际社会的呼声,独家反对重启BWC核查议定书谈判。即便没有溯源问题,美国也应该给国际社会一个交代。

  ◆第73届世界卫生大会于2020年5月19日协商一致通过了应对新冠肺炎疫情决议,要求查找新冠病毒的动物源头和向人类的传播途径,包括中间宿主的可能作用,以减少今后发生类似事件的风险。中国同144个国家一道,是这个决议草案的共同提案国。而美国等少数国家没有参加决议的共提。

  ◆2020年5月,世界卫生组织卫生紧急项目负责人迈克尔·瑞安表示,世界卫生组织没有收到美国政府提供的任何有关新冠病毒起源的数据或具体证据。

  十四、美方持续向世界卫生组织施压,针对中国进行政治操弄。

  ◆2020年初开始,在国际抗疫关键阶段,美国先是缩减世界卫生组织经费,随后威胁并最终正式通知联合国退出世界卫生组织。这是美国奉行单边主义、退群毁约的又一例证。美国这一做法破坏国际抗疫努力,未能履行应尽的国际责任和义务,也没有展现一个大国应有的责任和担当。美国媒体批评此举破坏国际公共卫生合作,损人不利己。

  ◆ In July 2021, British analyst Tom Fody wrote on the "Russia Today" website that the United States has long used political manipulation to pressure the World Health Organization Secretariat.

As early as a year ago, when the new crown pneumonia epidemic spread to the world, the US government tried every means to carry out various political manipulations against China.

  https://www.rt.com/op-ed/530050-china-us-who-function/

  ◆In January 2021, Peter Dasak, chairman of the American Ecological Health Alliance, as a member of the World Health Organization international expert group, went to Wuhan to conduct a joint traceability study. He publicly responded to the US media's "China obstructs the WHO traceability research in Wuhan" to discredit the argument. , He was threatened by American politicians and had to withdraw from the research project on traceability of the new crown virus.

  ◆On July 28, 2021, at the UN General Assembly’s briefing of the independent expert group on the response and assessment of the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the deputy permanent representative of the United States to the United Nations exclusively attacked China on the issue of traceability, deviated from the theme of the meeting, and slandered China. This is the United States’ interference with the international community. Another example of public health cooperation.

  ◆The Chinese side advocates the promotion of the verification of American biological laboratories under the United Nations biosafety framework, and has submitted to the World Health Organization the two "Questions about Fort Detrick" and "About the University of North Carolina Barrick's Research on Coronavirus." A non-document and an open letter on the World Wide Web that conveyed the voice of the Chinese people and requested the investigation of Fort Detrick, requesting the World Health Organization to conduct formal traceability investigations of the US Army Institute of Infectious Diseases and the University of North Carolina, but it has not received a clear reply.

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