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Since the first day of the emergence of the theory of evolution to the light, the theory has not escaped being the focus of many controversies and the target of many criticisms and sometimes denunciations.

The questioning of the theory of evolution did not include its main outputs or statements, but also extended to include the philosophy on which the theory is initially based, the methods of inference on which it is based, and the scientific implications that its promoters claim to have.

Hundreds of scientific papers and books have been written in criticism of theory, "Darwin's Black Box" by Michael Behe, "Evolution as a scientific theory or an ideology" by Yilmaz Irfan, "Evolution is still a theory in crisis" by Michael Danton, and dozens of other translated books and hundreds of untranslated books and research . The Discovery Foundation website alone reviews more than 100 peer-reviewed scientific papers published in authoritative scientific journals, all of which agree on one idea: blind Darwinian theory cannot explain the vital functions of living organisms, but there must be an "intelligent reason" for the emergence of these Objects[1].

In this report, we review together five books recently translated into Arabic that help the Arab reader to identify the most prominent aspects of criticism and the biggest crises and challenges facing the theory, which were authored by a group of specialists and researchers who believe in the invalidity of the theory entirely as an explanatory theory of how the vast diversity of living organisms appears on the face of it. Earth.

Designing Life: Discovering Signs of Intelligence in Biological Systems - William Dempsky and Jonathan Wells

(Designing Life: Discovering Signs of Intelligence in Biological Systems)

One of the most famous and easiest books on the theory of evolution for the non-specialist reader.

In this book, the authors take us to explore the depths of history, sometimes by excavating layers of ancient rocks and fossilized fossil bones, and at other times it takes us on a microscopic journey to examine the most accurate elements of life and how we can read its testimony about design and its purpose.

The book is approximately 450 pages of medium size, and is suitable for professionals and regular readers alike. In it, the specialist will find the resources required to expand his research base in the criticism of evolution, and the average reader will enjoy an interesting journey that begins from the layers of the earth and then enters the nucleus of cells and reaches the integration of physiological structures and their irreducible complexity and leads him to the emergence of the first life on earth until he settles at the end of the journey With a discussion on the philosophy of science and the ideological employment of science.

The book is characterized by its easy language and suitable for non-specialists, with its depth at the level of analysis and criticism, and it is a hearty and light meal at the same time, which plunges the reader into the Darwinian / moral controversy without overburdening him with details he can dispense with. He moves smoothly to the issue of genetic similarity between apes and humans, and then the reader immerses himself in an interesting discussion about the brain, language and mind. Another, and so did the book in all its chapters.

The authors state at the outset that the book "is not just a critique of evolution, but rather an expression of a fact that we see with our own eyes in all biology: design. Design has become a part of science by necessity, and science can only be understood through design, something that evolutionists have long denied, saying Biology is the science of studying absurd structures that have randomly evolved into a random result, which is completely contrary to the truth.

Icons of Evolution: Science or Myth - Jonathan Wells

In his introduction to the translation of the book, Abdullah Al-Shehri introduces us to the main goal of the book, saying: “The main message of the book Icons of Evolution revolves around two fundamental ideas: the first is to highlight the ability of natural science experts to employ science ideologically whenever they want or need it. The second idea is to highlight the ability to Natural science itself is to transform, through its theories, hypotheses, and supporters, into myths with hypostases and icons, narratives and narratives, symbols and special signs.

Wells states that most evolutionists rely on static icons to prove the correctness of their vision, such as the Yuri-Miller experiment in creating living things from nonliving elements, the diagram of the evolutionary tree of life, the similarity of bone structures between living things, Darwin's birds, and so on. Through twelve chapters and in an easy language suitable for beginners to learn the theory, Wells criticizes the main icons of evolution one by one, and shows the great flaw in the inference of these icons, starting from the ideological use of science, to the impossibility of the health of the alleged ape to evolve man from it, through the four-winged fruit flies , fossils of horses in the fossil record, Darwin's sparrows, English spotted moths, and more.

In 2017, the second part of the book was published, entitled "Zombie Science: Other Icons of Evolution." "University, your career will be disrupted. That's why I advise you to hide the book under another cover, and on page 189 I showed you how to make a fake paperback."

Wells received his Ph.D. from the University of California in Molecular and Cell Biology, his second degree after his degree in Religious Studies.

Darwin's Doubt: The Sudden Evolution of Living Beings - Stephen Meyer

Darwin's Doubt: The Sudden Evolution of Living Beings

Charles Darwin himself mentioned in his book “The Origin of Species” that life organisms evolve slowly, and new species appear over millions of years gradually and sequentially. An alarming anomaly that hopes that future fossil discoveries will eradicate it permanently.

It is for this big gap in theory that Stephen Meyer wrote this book, it focuses on a crucial period in geological history in which huge numbers of animal forms suddenly appeared, and without evolutionary ancestors preserved in the fossil record, a mysterious event usually symbolized by the Cambrian Explosion ).

It is a huge group of fossils dating back to about 550 million years ago in a geological era called the Cambrian Period and extending for about 65 million years.

According to the available information and the fossil record that currently exists, in the pre-Cambrian era, the multicellular animal population is very rare, while the complex organisms appeared during the Cambrian explosion immediately and suddenly without any gradual effect of their appearance, and then in a period of not less than 10 million years - this age Very short compared to the assumed times of evolution - and some scientists estimate it at only 5 million years[2], most of the living animal phyla today, in addition to some extinct ones, and these fossils represented a severe shock to the evolutionary community, as the fossils indicate more than 41 animal phyla , each phylum has a unique building style or physical plan [3].

Hence the importance of Mayer's book. According to Mayer himself, this book "documents Darwin's greatest doubt, and what happened to him, and tests an important event in a crucial period of geological history, in which huge numbers of animal forms suddenly appeared, and without evolutionary ancestors preserved in the fossil record , a mysterious event usually symbolized by the "Cambrian Explosion".

The book was so important that Wolf Lönnig, chief biologist at the Max Planck Institute, said about it: "Darwin's Doubt is to this moment the most recent, accurate and most comprehensive review of the evidence presented in all relevant scientific fields during the forty years that it I spent it studying the Cambrian explosion. It is a fascinating investigation into the origin of living organisms and a compelling argument in favor of intelligent design"[4].

The first part of the book describes the mystery of the missing fossils that gave rise to the first suspicions of Darwin, the lost ancestors of Cambrian animals in the pre-Cambrian fossil record, and then lists the continuous and failed attempts by biologists and paleontologists to solve this mystery. The second part, which Mayer called "How to Build an Animal", explains the reason for the intensification of the problem of the Cambrian explosion by discovering the importance of information for living systems. Information revolutions in the history of life.

The second part of the book examines the problem of how necessary biological information is produced through the undirected mechanisms - natural selection and random mutation - to build Cambrian animal forms. Criticisms of these mechanisms build on recent biological research.

Then the book concludes its chapters by presenting the subtraction that provides a more accurate and effective solution to explain the emergence of life on the surface of the earth.

Although the book is huge - the number of its pages is about 800 pages - it is an indispensable reference in identifying the issue of the Cambrian explosion and the enormous challenge presented by these fossils in the face of the theory of evolution.

Science and the Origin of Man - Douglas Axe et al

Book (Science and the Origin of Man)

“Man is not just an evolutionary product, he is a revolution by all standards”[5]

(Gilbert Cheersterton)

The theory of evolution presents the idea of ​​contempt. The central theme of this book is a critique of the narrative presented by Darwinian evolution theory about the origin of man and his evolution from animal lineages among other living creatures.

At the beginning of the book, Douglas X reviews the time required for alleged mutations according to the theory of evolution, and reports to us the research published in the Journal of Genetics, in which researchers estimated that for a single mutation to occur at a binding site on the DNA strand and settle steadily in the primate lineage, it takes six million years After that, the research team estimated that it would take 216 million years for two steady mutations to occur.

Axe faces these facts very frankly, saying that "216 million years will take us back, according to the evolutionary timeline, to the Triassic Period, when mammals first appeared, and one or two mutations in six million years are simply not enough to produce the sixteen necessary anatomical changes in time." available".

In this vein, Ax continues his book and refutes the objections to its evidence, and even faces every objection on the opposite side. Every redress that the theory redresses in order to remedy its gaps does not make the problem easier, but rather increases the complexity of the crisis and makes the area of ​​ambiguity wider and denser, and the conditions necessary to achieve the theory more difficult. Even an impossibility.

Douglas Axe received his Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology, and he obtained post-doctoral research seats at the University of Cambridge and the Cambridge Consulting Center for Medical Research, and he has several peer-reviewed papers published in the journal Nature and several other journals.

As for the last chapter, Anne Jueger, PhD from the University of Washington, reviews the scientific evidence, using Darwinian tools at the same time, to reach a conclusion confirming the impossibility of starting the human lineage with the first pair "Adam and Eve".

Gogger relies primarily on population genetics in her presentation, which many evolutionists rely on to promote the idea that humans cannot have descended from a single pair of people.

Gogger embarks on an interesting journey to refute this statement and prove the validity of the idea of ​​the first human pair from which the entire human race descended.

Pseudo-speciation: The Myth of Observing Large-Scale Evolutionary Change - Casey Skinn

Casey Skinen focuses in this book on the issue of speciation, that is, the emergence of new species in reproductive isolation, which is promoted by evolutionists, saying that scientists were able to monitor changes in which one organism moved to another living species, and one of the most famous sources that promote this claim is The famous "TalkOrigins" evolutionary site, which is the site that refutes his claims and refutes them one by one.

Skin tells us that when we do a careful analysis of the site's technical publications, we discover that the speciation claims are completely incorrect for several reasons: not a single example of all shows large-scaled biological change, and most examples do not. The production of new species according to the standard definition (a group of reproductively isolated organisms) has been shown, and even the only example in which a new plant species has been produced by hybridization and polyploidy does not result in a significant biological change.

Skinen concludes the introduction to his research, saying that "only one example has documented the existence of an actual new species, but later studies have reversed its result, and of course the site did not mention those studies... This seems like a fraud."

The book is about 100 pages of small size, and it is translated by the Braheen Center.

It is a highly specialized book and its language may be difficult for the average reader who does not have a general idea of ​​biology and chemistry, because Casey Skinen, in turn, holds a bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Earth sciences from the University of California, where he expanded in the study of evolution, and also studied law at the same university, which Perhaps it is a contributor to his inability to transcend the barrier of specialization and simplify the content to the ordinary reader.

He worked as director of geological research at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, then as research coordinator at the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture, before devoting himself to debate and research into anti-evolution.

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