Continue to work hard to make the blue sky and white clouds permanent (new economic orientation · focus on the "14th Five-Year" goal)

  Controlling air pollution and letting the blue sky and white clouds reside is what the people want and people's livelihood is tied to.

The outline of the "14th Five-Year Plan" puts forward to fight the battle of pollution prevention and control, establish and improve the environmental governance system, promote accurate, scientific, legal and systematic pollution control, coordinate pollution reduction and carbon reduction, continuously improve the air and water environment quality, and effectively manage and control pollution. Risk of soil contamination.

  "The ratio of days with good air quality in cities at prefecture-level and above increased to 87.5%" as a binding indicator for economic and social development, was clearly included in the "14th Five-Year Plan" outline and became a "hard lever" for assessment.

Is it difficult to achieve this goal, and how to achieve it?

The reporter interviewed relevant departments and experts.

The overall air quality in cities in my country has not yet got rid of the "weather-influenced type"

  In recent years, various localities and relevant departments have deeply promoted air pollution control and promoted a significant improvement in the quality of the air environment.

Monitoring data shows that among 337 cities at prefecture-level and above in the country in 2020, the percentage of days with good ambient air quality is 87.0%, an increase of 5.8 percentage points over 2015; the average concentration of PM2.5 in cities that does not meet the standard drops by 28.8% compared with 2015. Exceeding the target requirements of the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan".

  As a special observer hired by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Ma Jun, director of the Public Environmental Research Center, an environmental protection society organization, is deeply touched by the improvement of atmospheric environmental quality: "On the blue map of the mobile phone application we developed, the public used to be exposed to pollution, but now they are exposed to the blue sky. The sense of blue sky is getting more and more."

  However, compared with public expectations, there is still a big gap in the quality of my country's atmospheric environment.

"my country's urban air quality has not yet gotten rid of the'weather-influenced' type on the whole. About 1/3 of the cities in the country still have PM2.5 concentrations that do not meet the national secondary standards, and regionally heavily polluted weather processes occur from time to time." Said Bai Qiuyong, director of the Ministry of Ecological Environment Monitoring.

  It is worth noting that the ozone concentration has a fluctuating and rising trend, which has become an important factor affecting the ratio of good days.

According to Lei Yu, director of the Institute of Atmospheric Environmental Planning, Institute of Environmental Planning, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, the average number of days exceeding the standard in 337 cities across the country in 2020 is 13.0%.

Among the days exceeding the standard, the days with PM2.5 as the primary pollutant accounted for 51.0%, and the days with ozone as the primary pollutant accounted for 37.1%.

In some southern cities, ozone has replaced PM2.5 as the primary pollutant in the atmosphere.

  The target for the ratio of good days proposed in the "14th Five-Year Plan" is only 0.5% higher than that in 2020. Isn't it too low?

This is not the case.

Affected by factors such as the new crown pneumonia epidemic, the intensity of pollution emissions will be reduced in 2020, and the ratio of good days will be significantly higher than in normal years.

  The National Center for Air Pollution Prevention and Control has scientifically assessed the impact of the epidemic on air quality through an internationally accepted air quality model.

The results show that in 2020, the impact of the epidemic on the concentration of PM2.5 will be 2 micrograms/m3, and the impact on the ratio of good days will be 2.2 percentage points.

After deducting the impact of the epidemic, the PM2.5 concentration in non-standard cities across the country was 35 micrograms/m3, a decrease of 25.0% from 2015; the ratio of good days was 84.8%, an increase of 3.6 percentage points from 2015, and it still exceeded the 13th Five-Year Plan. Target.

  "According to the overall requirements of adhering to the general tone of seeking progress while maintaining stability and continuous improvement of environmental quality, we propose that by 2025, the ratio of days with good air quality in cities at prefecture-level and above will increase to 87.5%." The Department of Atmospheric Environment of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment is responsible. People said that this goal seems to be not far from the monitoring results in 2020, but if compared with the results after deducting the impact of the epidemic, it is equivalent to using 5 years to achieve the air quality improvement goal of increasing the ratio of good days by 2.7 percentage points. This is roughly equivalent to the requirements of the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan".

The goal of air quality improvement is not easy to achieve and requires hard work

  The air quality improvement target of 2.7 percentage points is not much, but it is not easy to achieve.

"Air pollution prevention and control has entered the tough areas and deep water areas. What can be controlled has been controlled, and easy-to-take measures have been taken. It is necessary to further formulate measures around scientific and precise, and continue to promote structural adjustments in energy, industry, and transportation." Said Li Zuojun, a researcher at the Institute of Public Management and Human Resources of the Development Research Center of the State Council.

  At present, the structural adjustment of my country's industry, energy, and transportation has just started, and the problem of structural pollution is still prominent.

  ——The industrial structure dominated by heavy chemical industry has not fundamentally changed.

“Traditional industries are large in scale and high in proportion, and a large number of them are deployed in key areas for air pollution prevention and control.” Lei Yu said, the output of steel, coke, glass, and raw materials in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei and surrounding areas accounted for 37%, 21%, and 28% of the country’s total. %, 48%, and the output of power generation, steel, and cement in the Yangtze River Delta has reached 16%-18% of the national total.

  ——The coal-based energy structure has not fundamentally changed.

The relevant person in charge of the Department of Atmospheric Environment of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment said that the total coal consumption remains high and continues to grow. The proportion of coal consumption exceeds 50%. The coal consumption per unit of land area in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas is 4-6 of the national average. Times, Fenwei Plain coal accounts for more than 80% of energy consumption.

  ——The transportation structure based on road freight has not fundamentally changed.

The intensity of road freight is too high, and the proportion of road freight in key areas such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas is as high as 80%; it is expected that the number of motor vehicles will continue to grow rapidly.

  Ma Jun said that at present, the overall pollution intensity of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, and Fenwei Plain is still relatively high.

The annual emissions of atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds are at a high level of 10 million tons, far exceeding the environmental capacity. Once the atmospheric diffusion conditions are unfavorable, polluted weather will occur.

  "In addition, there is an urge to launch the'two highs' projects in some regions, which will further aggravate the structural problems of industries and energy." The relevant person in charge of the Department of Atmospheric Environment of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment said.

Promote the coordinated control of PM2.5 and ozone pollution, and the coordinated reduction of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

  The ratio of days with good air quality in cities at prefecture level and above has been increased to 87.5%. How to achieve this goal?

  "While controlling PM2.5 pollution, other pollution indicators should not deteriorate." Ma Jun suggested that during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, the coordinated management of PM2.5 and ozone should be one of the key targets for air pollution prevention and control, and nitrogen oxidation should be done well. Synergistic emission reduction of volatile organic compounds and volatile organic compounds.

  Among the days with severe pollution and above, the days with PM2.5 as the primary pollutant accounted for 77.7%, and the days with ozone as the primary pollutant accounted for 1.5%.

The relevant person in charge of the Department of Atmospheric Environment of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment said that during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, air pollution prevention and control will focus on the coordinated control of PM2.5 and ozone pollution, and promote the ultra-low emission transformation of the steel industry and the in-depth treatment of cement, coking, glass and other industries. Strengthen the control of motor vehicle pollution.

  my country's carbon dioxide emissions are striving to reach a peak before 2030, and strive to achieve carbon neutrality by 2060. The "14th Five-Year Plan" period is very critical.

Li Zuojun suggested to carry out the assessment and assessment of the coordinated management of urban carbon dioxide and air pollution, co-ordinate the response to climate change and ecological environmental protection, and carry out the "double-reach" action for carbon peak and air quality compliance.

  Lei Yu suggested that while setting overall air quality improvement targets, set differentiated, targeted, and more specific phased improvement targets for key regions and some cities.

Through the urban air quality target, the industrial structure and energy structure will be adjusted in depth and coordinated to reduce pollution and carbon.

  The relevant person in charge of the Department of Atmospheric Environment of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment said that pollution reduction and carbon reduction are in the same direction in promoting structural energy saving, curbing the expansion of "two highs" industries, and boosting the development of non-fossil energy.

During the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, we will focus on "coordinated efficiency of pollution reduction and carbon reduction" as the overall starting point and carbon reduction as the source of governance. We will strengthen top-level design, strictly control increments, strengthen inventory governance, and guide localities. Coordinate the prevention and control of air pollution and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  To win the battle to defend the blue sky, public participation is also an important part.

Ma Jun said that to promote the common governance of the whole people, the public consciously practice a green lifestyle, adhere to the concept of green consumption, promote the construction of a green supply chain, and let the blue sky and white clouds permanent.

  Drawing: Wang Zheping

  Our reporter Kou Jiangze

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