China News Service, Beijing, June 9th (Reporter Xia Bin) In 2021, China announced a complete victory in the fight against poverty. Under the current standards, 98.99 million rural poor people have all been lifted out of poverty.
But 43 years ago, in order to solve the food problem, 18 villagers in Xiaogang Village, Fengyang County, Anhui Province, pressed their red handprints and secretly signed the "Life and Death Agreement."
Why is there such a change?
This starts with the production method at the time.
In that era, the farmers’ enthusiasm for labor was severely frustrated by "producing a big boom and distributing a big pot of rice."
Food relies on resale, production relies on loans, and life relies on relief. If only one word can be used to describe Xiaogang Village in 1978, it would be "poor."
Poverty and starvation gave birth to reform consciousness.
On a winter night in December, 18 villagers in rags crowded in a thatched house, with dim oil lamps, signed a "secret contract" for the implementation of "large contract": assigning fields to households; Don't ask the country for money or food, complete the state handover and collective commission; if it fails, the cadre will be willing to go to jail, and others promise to raise his child until the age of 18.
In this way, more than 1,000 acres of farmland in Xiaogang Village were distributed to each farmer's home. It was not until the spring of the following year that Chen Tingyuan, secretary of the county party committee, heard of this small village's "extraordinary" behavior.
At that time, some people believed that Xiaogang Village’s approach was not supported by documents and violated the “one big and two public” people’s commune system. It was digging the footsteps of socialism and driving history backward.
In June 1979, during the National People's Congress meeting, Wan Li, then the first secretary of the Anhui Provincial Party Committee, had a conversation with Chen Yun about the contracting of production to households in some rural areas in Anhui.
In this conversation, Chen Yun made a statement of "with both hands in favor of the household contracting property."
In his view, mobilizing farmers' enthusiasm for production is the most effective and fundamental way to increase the output of agricultural products, and contracting production to households is such a good way.
Therefore, Chen Yun agrees very much for the household contract.
The “xiaogang model” that started secretly had a bumper harvest in the first year: farmers realized “turn over in one season” and “turn over in one year”. The total grain output of the entire production team reached 133,000 catties, equivalent to the period from 1955 to 1970. The sum of the output ended the 20-year history of eating state relief food in one fell swoop, and returned a national loan of 800 yuan for the first time.
The central government has seen the changes brought about by reforms.
On May 31, 1980, Deng Xiaoping issued an important speech, fully affirming and supporting the household contracting of production.
He mentioned that in Fengyang County where the "Fengyang Flower Drum" is sung, most of the production teams have contracted out, and they have also turned over in a year to change their appearance.
"Some comrades are worried whether this will affect the collective economy. I think this worry is unnecessary."
The fire of reform that has been ignited throughout Anhui has become more and more prosperous with the support of the central government.
In a blink of an eye, by the end of 1981, the agricultural production responsibility system was established in more than 90% of the production teams in the country.
On January 1, 1982, the central government approved and forwarded the "Minutes of the National Rural Work Conference", which clearly pointed out that the production responsibility system of the socialist collective economy was the production responsibility system of the socialist collective economy.
At this point, the household contract of production has been legalized, and the general trend of rural reform has also been determined.
From the implementation of household production contracting to the sudden emergence of township and village enterprises; from the abolition of agricultural tax, animal husbandry tax and special product tax, to the "three rights" separation of rural contracted land; from winning the battle against poverty to implementing the strategy of rural revitalization...
The unstoppable pace of reform has given a new look to the Chinese countryside.
Reforms in other areas of China are also proceeding steadily and steadily with unprecedented depth and breadth.
"Reform and opening up is a great awakening of our party, and it is this great awakening that gave birth to our party's great creation from theory to practice."
As General Secretary Xi Jinping said, for more than 40 years, the Communist Party of China has united and led the Chinese people, emancipating the mind, seeking truth from facts, boldly experimenting and bravely reforming, and breaking new ground.
Reform and opening up have become the most prominent feature and the most magnificent atmosphere of contemporary China.
On December 18, 2018, on the occasion of celebrating the 40th anniversary of reform and opening up, the Party Central Committee and the State Council awarded Xiaogang Village, the pioneer of rural reform, the title of "Reform Pioneer" as the leader of the "big contract".
The reform and opening up have gone through thousands of mountains and rivers, but we still need to travel through mountains and rivers.
The Chinese Communists vowed to carry out reform and opening up to the end, and continue to realize the people's yearning for a better life.