​"The prestigious schools in the world for hundreds of years are nothing more than educating people"

——China Youth Daily·China Youth Daily reporter interviewed Qiu Yong, President of Tsinghua University

  The number of students in school is 40.02 million, and the gross enrollment rate is over 50%... Today, my country has built the world's largest higher education system.

  When more and more families have achieved the "zero" breakthrough for college students, becoming a university is no longer a distant dream, and being a "college student" is no longer the label of a few people, and more and more people truly think about the position and meaning of the university Less.

  When higher education enters the popularization stage, questions such as "what kind of college students the country needs", "how college students should become talents", "what is a good university teacher", "what should a university teach", and "what should a university learn" have repeatedly become Network hotspot.

The lively discussion is precisely because there are pain points behind them, and these issues also urgently need to be changed.

  As one of the "leaders" of domestic colleges and universities, Tsinghua University, which is about to enter its 110th year, has put forward a set of "Tsinghua Plan" for college reform with the theme of "newness".

To this end, a reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily recently interviewed Qiu Yong, president of Tsinghua University.

"Students' growth is the foundation, ability improvement is the key

  "One of the biggest challenges facing my country's university talent training is the lack of ability to train high-level and top-notch innovative talents." Qiu Yong told the China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily reporter that the most important thing in building a high-quality education system is the training of high-quality talents.

However, this task is "huge challenges and great responsibilities."

  "The challenge lies in the fact that the talents we cultivate must be able to deal with the major issues faced by globalization and other human beings, be able to achieve original innovation breakthroughs and overcome the key core technology of the'stuck neck', be able to adapt to social development and the progress of the times, and have a healthy personality. , A broad foundation, innovative thinking, global vision, and a sense of social responsibility. Therefore, education is the country’s top plan and the party’s top plan. Chinese universities must consciously identify education goals, improve education capabilities, improve education systems, and shoulder the responsibility of the party and the country. Mission and responsibilities entrusted." Qiu Yong said.

  Qiu Yong said that the current relatively single training model cannot create a good environment for a large number of top-notch innovative talents of different types to come to the fore. There are still some unsuitable and unreasonable places in various aspects such as teaching concepts, training systems, and training links. To a certain extent It restricts the cultivation of students' critical thinking and creativity.

  "Weng Tonghe, a famous politician in modern Chinese history and the teacher of the two emperors of Tongzhi and Guangxu, has a pair of famous couplets that said very well: the old family in the world for hundreds of years is nothing more than accumulating virtue, and the first good thing in the world is to read books. I also imitated that, "Hundreds of years of prestigious schools in the world are nothing more than educating people, and the world's number one career is still teaching." The most respected thing about the university is her persistence in educating people and continuous pursuit of excellence." Qiu Yong said.

  Looking back at the 110-year development history of Tsinghua University, education has always been in the most important and fundamental position.

So, what is the difference between Tsinghua's talent training positioning for undergraduates, masters, and doctoral students?

  Qiu Yong pointed out: “Undergraduate education is the foundation of a university, and it is also the place that best reflects the tradition and characteristics of the school. Without the improvement of the level of undergraduate education, it will be difficult to achieve the goal of building a world-class university. In undergraduate education, value guidance is The first is the foundation of educating people. It is necessary to give students full learning autonomy, so that students can have more time and space for independent thinking, continuously improve their own cultivation, and achieve diverse growth."

  "Master's education reflects the vitality of talent training in universities. Master's education is the main way to cultivate professional talents. It should focus on cultivating students' ability to solve practical problems faced by contemporary society, economy and industrial development. It is necessary to take into account the deepening of professional knowledge. , The cultivation of academic ability and the expansion of comprehensive quality, the training of vocational skills, improve the classification, selection, training, and evaluation systems and mechanisms, directly facing various industries, and better serving the country." Qiu Yong said.

  In Qiu Yong’s view, “Doctoral education is the highest level of academic education, reflecting the height of a university’s talent training, and representing the level of talent training in a country. It is necessary to cultivate the academic spirit of doctoral students and guide them to learn from academics. His love is integrated into his life, and defending the truth is his lifelong pursuit. It is necessary to cultivate the originality and critical thinking of doctoral students, and guide them to adopt the "spirit of independence and free thought" as their self-requirements in the academic field."

"Universities cannot delegate academic power to journal editors"

  "Universities cannot delegate academic power to journal editors and reviewers."

  At the Tsinghua University faculty and staff meeting held recently, Qiu Yong's words were screened on the Internet.

  In fact, since 2019, Tsinghua has been working hard to remove the shackles of thesis for students.

In 2019, the school revised the regulations on the cultivation of postgraduates studying for doctoral degrees, and at the same time issued the regulations on the standards of innovative achievements for graduate students applying for degrees, clarifying that the innovative achievements are fully presented in the form of dissertations, and the dissertation is the main basis for degree evaluation.

In June 2020, Tsinghua University took the lead in completing the reform of graduate degree evaluation standards among domestic universities.

  "In 2020, no graduate student cannot apply for a degree because the number of papers published does not meet the requirements." Qiu Yong said that there is no requirement for the number, which means that our requirements for the quality of papers will inevitably increase.

  For many years, thesis has been an inevitable topic in universities.

In response to the issue of papers, Qiu Yong said: "We must treat paper publication dialectically. Paper publication is very important to academic development and prosperity, and is one of the most important ways to present innovative results and promote academic exchanges. But too much emphasis on the number of papers is inevitable. This leads to academic utilitarianism and academic impetuosity." Qiu Yong emphasized: "Universities must have their own judgment and determination."

  In October 2020, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council issued the "Overall Plan for Deepening Educational Evaluation Reform in the New Era", which put forward new evaluation standards after "breaking the five standards" and set up the "baton" for education evaluation from the top level for the development of education.

The "Plan" pointed out that insisting on the combination of breaking and establishing: "Broken" is short-sighted behavior and utilitarian tendency, "Broken" is the system and mechanism of scientific performance of duties; "It is a mechanism for using talents oriented by character and ability.

  If there is “break”, there must be “establishment”. After breaking the old rules, how do universities build a new student evaluation system?

  "Reduce students' instrumental and utilitarian learning concepts, and encourage exploration and diversified learning."

  "Improve teachers' evaluation literacy and achieve scientific evaluation of student development and teaching effectiveness."

  "Evaluation depends not only on knowledge, but also on ability and quality."

  "Student performance evaluation has been changed from a'percentile system' to a'grading system'."

  ...

  Qiu Yong introduced that since 2014, Tsinghua University has comprehensively promoted the reform of the student academic evaluation system.

  Establishing a scientific evaluation system is not easy.

Qiu Yong believes: "We can also see that for various purposes, there are currently many rankings in society. With the development and growth of China's higher education, we have a great impact on the laws of running schools, academic innovation, and talent training. There is a more comprehensive, in-depth and accurate understanding and grasp of the current situation, pattern and future trends of the development of higher education."

  "We should look at university rankings more rationally." Qiu Yong said, "We should be more indifferent to external evaluation rankings, and we should attach great importance to the guiding role of internal evaluations. Internal evaluations are more valuable and meaningful to the development of the university itself. Let internal evaluation reflect the school-running philosophy and generate positive guidance. With the rapid development of China and China’s higher education, Tsinghua’s position in some international university rankings continues to rise, which reflects the recognition of international peers to a certain extent, but we face It is very clear to all teachers and students that Tsinghua Park does not and will never have a'ranking baton'."

  Qiu Yong said: "Thesis, titles, academic qualifications, and awards must not be the goals of academic research, and academics must not be shackled by fame and fortune. Instead, they must pursue true learning and be a true scholar who is indifferent and clear."

"Only innovation can drive forward"

  "Innovation is the hard power of universities. Without first-class innovation capabilities, there would be no first-class universities."

  In 1999, the "national innovation system" was first proposed in the government work report.

This year's government report pointed out that during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, it is necessary to "improve the national innovation system."

This year, Tsinghua University also proposed to establish a "University Innovation System" in the future.

  Qiu Yong believes that the innovative ability of a country and nation determines the future and destiny of the country and nation.

At present, the world is undergoing a new round of technological revolution, industrial transformation, and social transformation. Global technological innovation is unprecedentedly active, and the global innovation landscape is being reconstructed, providing a rare opportunity for national modernization and national rejuvenation.

  The same is true for a university: only innovation can drive forward.

  In October 2020, at the closing ceremony of the 18th Scientific Research Symposium of Tsinghua University, Qiu Yong listed 20 major problems facing the current scientific research and innovation of the school in one breath.

Academic ecology and academic community construction, basic frontiers and key core technologies are among them.

  "Accelerating the improvement of Tsinghua's scientific research and innovation capabilities and innovation levels is not only an urgent need for Tsinghua University to become a world-class university, but also an urgent need for national development." How to solve the problem, Tsinghua conducted seminars on 8 topics, including academic ecology and Academic community construction, discipline development planning and discipline adjustment mechanism, basic frontier and key core technology layout, major innovation platform and scientific research team construction, science and education integration and innovative talent training, etc.

"To develop and improve the'University Innovation System', Tsinghua University is to establish a university innovation based on a healthy academic ecology, guaranteed by a sound system and a smooth mechanism for academic governance, and aiming at the production of first-class academic achievements and the cultivation of first-class talents. The system continuously advances to the breadth and depth of science and technology, and becomes a strategic scientific and technological force serving the development of the country.” Qiu Yong explained.

  Qiu Yong introduced that in the "University Innovation System", the school will promote the construction of an academic community to form an academic atmosphere that dares to question; enhance the awareness of respecting and protecting intellectual property rights; classify and use different incentive mechanisms to coordinate and optimize the school's resource allocation; strengthen The basic research of 0 to 1" puts the promotion of original innovation ability in the most important position; respects the academic judgment of teachers and the academic community, and encourages teachers and students to explore freely.

  Today, Tsinghua University is about to celebrate its 110th anniversary. As the president, Qiu Yong has his own views on how to run the university well.

  Standing in a new historical position, Tsinghua, which is more confident and calm, must strive to expand the new pattern of running schools.

Qiu Yong said: "It is necessary to comprehensively deepen reforms, further enhance the systemicity, integrity, and coordination of reforms, and promote higher-quality development of the school from a new starting point. It is necessary to coordinate the advancement of system construction and cultural construction, and better respect for peace and harmony. Maintain the interests of teachers and students, better mobilize and stimulate the initiative and enthusiasm of teachers and students, and comprehensively promote the modernization of the university's governance system and governance capabilities."

  "The more calm Tsinghua University will be more determined, firmly follow the path of high-quality connotative development, and calm down to do things of real long-term significance." Qiu Yong said.

  China Youth Daily·China Youth Daily reporter Ye Yuting Source: China Youth Daily

  Version 05 on March 22, 2021

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