, Beijing, February 27 (Reporter Sun Zifa) The High-Tech Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China announced on the 27th the top ten scientific progress in China in 2020. Chinese scientists have made outstanding progress in actively responding to the new crown pneumonia epidemic , Chang'e 5 for the first time to achieve automatic sampling and return of the lunar surface, "Struggle" created a new record for China's manned deep diving, 10 items were selected.

  The details of the latest ten major advances in science in China in 2020 are as follows:

  ——Chinese scientists have made outstanding progress in actively responding to the new crown pneumonia epidemic.

  In the face of the sudden new crown pneumonia epidemic, Chinese scientists have united and cooperated, racing against time, and have made a series of outstanding progress, providing important scientific support for winning the battle against the epidemic.

  In terms of etiology and epidemiology, the new coronavirus strain was isolated and identified for the first time and the whole genome sequence of the virus was shared with the World Health Organization, laying the foundation for the rapid advancement of diagnostic technology and the development of drug vaccines; clarifying the role of new coronavirus invading cells Key mechanism; continue to deepen the research on virus transmission routes, provide scientific and technological support for the optimization of prevention and control strategies; quantitatively evaluate the effects of national defense control measures.

  In terms of research and development of detection reagents and animal models, at the beginning of the epidemic, rapid development of new coronavirus nucleic acid diagnostic reagents and development of immunological detection reagents have provided strong support for pathogen detection; animal models of mice and monkeys infected with the new coronavirus have been constructed. Provide support for drug screening, vaccine research and development, and research on virus transmission mechanisms.

  In terms of drugs and clinical treatment, it revealed the clinical characteristics of the new crown. In the absence of specific medicines, combined traditional Chinese and Western medicine, launched the eighth edition of the national new crown pneumonia diagnosis and treatment plan, and screened out clinically effective Chinese medicines and Western medicines and treatments such as "three drugs and three prescriptions" The method has been borrowed and used by many countries; analyze the structure of the new coronavirus and key proteins, reveal the mechanism of action of a batch of Chinese and Western medicines; propose scientific prevention and control plans such as the establishment of shelter hospitals, large-scale nucleic acid testing, and big data traceability. Improve the admission rate and cure rate, reduce the infection rate and mortality rate.

Progress 1: New coronavirus inactivated vaccine.

Photo courtesy of the High Technology Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology

  In terms of vaccine and neutralizing antibody research and development, we will also carry out research and development of inactivated vaccines, viral vector vaccines, protein subunit vaccines, nucleic acid vaccines, etc., adenovirus vector vaccines are the first to carry out phase 1 clinical trials in the world, and inactivated vaccines are the first in the world Carrying out Phase 3 clinical trials and obtaining conditional listing approval; identifying and creating a series of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies targeting the new crown spike protein S and receptor binding domain RBD, forming an anti-viral "cocktail" Chinese antibody combination program.

  ——Chang'e 5 realizes automatic lunar surface sampling and return for the first time.

  On November 24, 2020, the Chang'e-5 probe was launched at the Wenchang Space Launch Site in Hainan, and was directly sent into the Earth-Moon transfer orbit by the Long March V carrier rocket; after that, the probe experienced Earth-Moon transfer, near-moon braking, and circumlunar Flight, lunar landing, lunar sampling and packaging, lunar takeoff, lunar orbital rendezvous and sample transfer, lunar-ground incident, lunar-ground transfer and re-entry and recovery, etc. The flight phases lasted for 23 days. The Siziwang Banner of Inner Mongolia landed safely in the scheduled area.

Progress 2: Chang'e-5 probe.

Photo courtesy of the High Technology Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology

  As China's most complex aerospace system project with the largest technological span, Chang'e 5 completed the first extraterrestrial object sampling and packaging, the first extraterrestrial object surface takeoff, the first unmanned lunar orbital rendezvous and docking and sample transfer, and the first lunar-ground incident Many major technological breakthroughs in China's aerospace history, such as carrying lunar samples to return to Earth at high speed, finally realized China's first extraterrestrial celestial body sampling return.

The complete success of the automatic lunar surface sampling and return mission of Chang'e 5 marks the successful conclusion of the three-step plan of China's lunar exploration project to circumnavigate, descend, and return. It is a big step forward for China's aerospace industry and will deepen mankind’s approach to the moon. Contribute to scientific understanding of the cause and evolution of the solar system.

  —— "Struggle" created a new record for China's manned deep diving.

  The development of the "Struggle" all-sea deep manned submersible is a major research task in the field of key deep-sea technology and equipment in China's "13th Five-Year Plan". The project was initiated in 2016.

In June 2020, "Struggle" completed the final assembly integration and tank test.

In July 2020, the Struggle completed the first phase of the sea trial, with a total of 17 dives and a maximum dive depth of 4548 meters.

In October 2020, the Struggle set sail for the Mariana Trench to carry out the second phase of sea trials. During this period, a total of 13 dives were completed, of which 11 people and 24 people participated in 8 deep dive trials with a depth of more than 10,000 meters.

On November 10, the Struggle created a depth record of 10,909 meters for manned deep diving in China.

Progress 3: "Struggle" all-sea deep manned submersible.

Photo courtesy of the High Technology Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology

  As the only manned submersible equipment in the world that can carry three people multiple times to and from deep sea operations at the same time, the success of its development and sea trials has significantly improved the independent innovation level of China’s deep-sea equipment and technology, making China It has the ability to enter the deepest part of the world's oceans to carry out scientific exploration and research, which reflects China's comprehensive strength in the field of marine high-tech, and is an important milestone in China's deep-sea scientific and technological exploration.

  —— Reveal the key steps of human genetic material transmission.

  DNA replication is the basis for the precise transmission of human genetic material between cells. People are not clear about the specific process of identifying the DNA replication initiation site in higher organisms, which also hinders people’s understanding of the mechanism of cancer occurrence and development. understanding.

Li Guohong's team from the Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and his collaborators revealed a fine-grained mechanism for identifying and regulating the origin of DNA replication.

The study found that the histone variant H2A.Z can promote the dimethylation modification of the twentieth amino acid of histone H4 by binding to the histone methyltransferase SUV420H1.

The H2A.Z nucleosomes with dimethylation modification can further recruit the replication initiation site recognition protein, thereby helping to identify the DNA replication initiation site.

Progress 4: The epigenetic mechanism of DNA replication initiation regulation.

Photo courtesy of the High Technology Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology

  The study further found that the replication initiation site regulated by the H2A.Z-SUV420H1-H4K20me2 pathway has strong replication activity and is biased to be activated and used early in the replication period.

After disrupting this regulatory mechanism in cancer cells, the DNA replication and cell growth of cancer cells are inhibited.

After destroying this regulatory mechanism in T cells, the immune activation of T cells is also suppressed.

This study describes a novel epigenetic regulation mechanism of DNA replication mediated by H2A.Z, and provides a new perspective for understanding the identification of DNA replication initiation sites in higher organisms, and for solving the long-standing eukaryotic DNA replication The starting point is chosen to make an important contribution to the problem.

  ——Developed a transparent ferroelectric single crystal with ultra-high voltage electrical properties.

  Relaxor ferroelectric single crystal [PMN-PT] has excellent piezoelectric effect and has been widely used in ultrasonic imaging, sonar equipment, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

However, since its discovery more than 20 years ago, there has been no new breakthrough in piezoelectric performance, and due to the existence of ferroelectric domain walls, its light transmittance is low, which cannot meet the current development needs of piezoelectric devices with multiple functions and high sensitivity. New theories and design methods are urgently needed.

The research team of Professor Xu Zhuo of Xi'an Jiaotong University revealed the origin of the high-voltage electrical effect of the relaxation ferroelectric single crystal, and developed a samarium-doped PMN-PT single crystal, which is twice as high as that of an undoped single crystal.

On this basis, the use of electrical domain structure control eliminates the ferroelectric domain wall that scatters light in the single crystal. For the first time, high-voltage electrical properties and high light transmittance are obtained simultaneously in PMN-PT single crystals, which is a breakthrough For a long time, the two are difficult to coexist international problems.

The piezoelectric coefficient is 100 times higher than the existing transparent piezoelectric single crystal LiNbO3, and the electro-optical coefficient can be increased by up to 40 times. At the same time, it also has a higher threshold for resisting light damage and nonlinear optical effects.

Progress 5: Comparison of high-voltage electrical transparent ferroelectric single crystal and traditional ferroelectric single crystal.

Photo courtesy of the High Technology Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology

  This transparent ferroelectric single crystal can greatly improve the imaging resolution of photoacoustic imaging systems in the diagnosis of breast cancer, melanoma and blood diseases. It also provides a great opportunity for the development of high-performance electro-optic modulators, optical phased arrays, and quantum optical devices. A brand new key material.

This single crystal material with excellent electro-optic, acousto-optic and acousto-optic-electric coupling effects is expected to further open up more new application fields.

  ——2020 Mount Everest elevation measurement.

  The height of Mount Everest has been paid attention to for a long time, and the height of Mount Everest has been accurately measured and announced to the world, demonstrating the country's comprehensive strength and technological level.

In the 2020 Everest elevation measurement, the Chinese team of scientists comprehensively used a variety of modern surveying and mapping technologies to achieve multiple major technological innovation breakthroughs and obtained the highest-precision Everest elevation results in history.

For the height measurement of Mount Everest, Beidou satellite positioning technology and domestically-made measurement equipment have fully taken the lead for the first time, and the application of domestically-made measurement equipment has achieved a major breakthrough.

Completing the ground gravity measurement of the summit for the first time and obtaining the gravity measurement results of the first summit of Mount Everest in human history will help improve the accuracy of the elevation measurement of Mount Everest.

The team of scientists overcame the extreme weather and harsh environment in the Mount Everest region, and for the first time achieved a historic breakthrough in the airborne gravity, optical and laser remote sensing measurement of 12,700 square kilometers on the summit of Mount Everest and the surrounding area, filling the gap in gravity data in the Mount Everest region. Improved the accuracy of Mount Everest elevation measurement.

Progress 6: The 2020 Mount Everest elevation survey team erected a survey target on the summit.

Photo courtesy of the High Technology Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology

  Compared with the elevation survey of Mount Everest in 2005, the accuracy of the geoid in the Mount Everest area has increased by 300%.

A team of scientists from China and Nepal carried out scientific and technological cooperation to establish the geoid of the Mount Everest region based on a global elevation datum for the first time, and for the first time in history to jointly determine the elevation of the snow surface of Mount Everest based on a global elevation datum of 88.886 meters.

In addition, the abundant observation data obtained by the Everest survey will provide valuable resources for the ecological environment protection restoration, natural resource management, geological research and survey, crustal movement monitoring, climate change, and glacier and frozen soil research in the Everest region. , Informative first-hand information.

  ——The ancient genome reveals the evolution and migration history of the Chinese population in the past ten thousand years.

  In the field of international paleogenomics, the paleogenome research on East Asia, especially the prehistoric population in China, is very scarce.

The research team of Fu Qiaomei from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences first conducted the largest, large-scale, and systematic paleogenomic research on prehistoric populations in northern and southern China, and successfully obtained 11 sites in northern and southern China through cutting-edge experimental methods25 The genomes of an individual between 9500-4200 years ago and a 300-year-old individual reveal the pattern of differentiation, subject continuity, and migration and integration history of the Chinese population since 9500.

Progress 7: Schematic diagram of changes in genetic characteristics of populations in different periods in East Asia, North and South.

Photo courtesy of the High Technology Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology

  The study found that the main population in the north and south of China had diverged 9500 years ago, but the evolution of the population in the same period in the south and north was basically continuous, and was not affected by obvious foreign populations. Migration interactions mainly occurred between populations in East Asia; in addition, It is clear that the Austronesian language group, represented by the aborigines of Taiwan Island and widely distributed in the Pacific islands, originated in the southern coastal areas of China and can be traced back to 8400 years ago.

This achievement fills in the gaps in important information about the genetics, evolution, and adaptation of prehistoric humans in the East, especially in China, and has made important scientific contributions to clarifying the formation process of the Chinese nation and revising the evolution model of the populations in the south of East Asia.

  ——Big data portrays the 300 million-year history of the earth’s biodiversity evolution with the highest precision so far.

  The origin and evolution of life is one of the ten scientific mysteries in the world.

More than 99% of the creatures that have lived on the earth have been extinct. Rebuilding the history of the earth's biodiversity through fossil records is one of the most important ways to understand the current status and future trends of biodiversity.

However, the low time resolution and coarse classification of the earth's biodiversity in the geological historical period cannot accurately identify sudden major biological evolution events, nor can it provide an important reference for the evolution of modern earth ecosystems.

Progress 8: Paleozoic marine biodiversity curve and important evolutionary events.

Photo courtesy of the High Technology Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology

  The team of Shen Shuzhong and Fan Junxuan of Nanjing University, together with domestic and foreign experts, created an international large-scale database, independently developed artificial intelligence algorithms, and made breakthroughs by using "Tianhe-2" supercomputing, and obtained the world's first high-precision Paleozoic marine biodiversity of more than 300 million years Evolution curve, time resolution is more than 400 times higher than similar international research.

The new curve accurately depicts the many major extinctions, recovery and radiation events in the evolution of the Earth’s biodiversity, revealing the synergistic relationship between changes in biodiversity, atmospheric carbon dioxide content and global climate change, and will promote the entire evolution of paleontology Research changes.

  ——Deeply analyze the markers and intervention targets of multiple organ aging.

  With the increasing degree of population aging, in-depth research on aging and scientific responses to population aging are major national needs in the new era.

Focusing on core scientific issues such as the mechanism and intervention of aging, the Liu Guanghui research group and Qu Jing research group of the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Zhang Weiqi research group of the Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the Tang Fuchou research group of Peking University jointly tackle key problems, using multidisciplinary cross-cutting The method has revealed new biological markers and adjustable targets for mammalian multi-organ aging at the system level.

Progress 9: System biology research on calorie restriction delaying multi-organ aging.

Photo courtesy of the High Technology Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology

  In terms of the analysis of aging mechanism, it is found that the imbalance of redox pathway homeostasis is the main molecular feature of primate ovarian aging, which provides new biological markers for the evaluation of ovarian aging and decline in female fertility, as well as for finding measures to delay ovarian aging The development of intervention strategies for related diseases provides new ideas.

In terms of aging intervention, clarified that calorie restriction ("seven percent full") can delay the new molecular mechanism of multi-organ aging by regulating the immune inflammatory pathways of various tissues of the body, revealing the scientific connection between metabolic intervention, immune response and healthy life span .

These research results deepen people's understanding of the heterogeneity and complexity of organ aging, and lay an important foundation for the establishment of early warning and scientific response strategies for aging and aging-related diseases.

  -Experiments have observed quantum interference phenomena in chemical reactions.

  The process of chemical reaction is accompanied by complex quantum mechanical phenomena, but it is usually difficult to directly observe, so the nature of chemical reaction is also difficult to get a thorough understanding.

The research team of Academician Yang Xueming, Academician Zhang Donghui, Sun Zhigang and Xiao Chunlei of Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences provided a research example.

They found that in the H+HD→H2+D reaction, within the range of collision energy of 1.9-2.2 electron volts, the backscattering of the product H2 (v'=2, j'=3) showed significant oscillation ( Where v'is the vibrational quantum number and j'is the rotational quantum number).

Through topological analysis, it is found that the reaction has two completely different reaction paths, and the oscillation is caused by the quantum mechanical interference between the two paths.

Progress 10: Two ways of H + HD reaction.

Photo courtesy of the High Technology Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology

  The study revealed that the quantum geometric phase effect still exists at the lower energy of the reaction and can be observed.

This is very similar to the well-known Aharonov-Bohm effect, which clearly reveals the quantum nature of chemical reactions.

  It is understood that the annual selection event for the “Top Ten Progresses in Science in China” is organized by the High-Tech Research and Development Center (Basic Research Management Center) of the Ministry of Science and Technology, and has been successfully held for 16 sessions so far.

  The selection process for the "Top Ten Progresses in Science in China" is divided into three links: recommendation, preliminary selection and final selection.

The selection of the top ten progress in 2020 received a total of 286 recommended scientific research progress results, which are divided into four disciplines: mathematical and astronomical sciences, chemistry and materials sciences, earth and environmental sciences, life and medical sciences according to the distribution of recommended scientific progress Group, invited experts to select 31 advances from the recommended scientific advances to enter the final selection.

The final election takes the form of online voting, inviting more than 3,200 experts and scholars, including academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, academicians of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, directors of national key laboratories, experts and project leaders of some national key R&D plans, to vote on the progress of 31 candidates online. Progress with the top 10 votes was selected.