Lausanne (dpa) - The ruling by the top sports judges to halve the doping sanctions against Russia has met with some harsh criticism in the USA.
The managing director of the US anti-doping agency Usada, Travis T. Tygart, spoke of a "devastating decision".
The Olympic and Paralympic Committee of the USA praised the retention of the "strict sanctions" imposed by the World Anti-Doping Agency Wada, but was also "deeply disappointed" by parts of the decision that "significantly weaken the sanctions".
Like the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) initially refrained from evaluating the verdict and possible consequences.
The decision of the International Sports Court Cas that the Russian anti-doping agency Rusada does not comply with the world anti-doping code is recognized, the Bonn-based sports umbrella organization announced.
"After this decision, the IPC Board of Directors will meet in early 2021 to discuss the next steps," announced the IPC.
On Thursday, the Cas International Sports Court pronounced a Solomonic judgment in what, according to Wada President Witold Banka, was a "groundbreaking case".
The judges in Lausanne confirmed the exclusion of Russia from the Olympic Games in Tokyo in 2021 and the 2022 Winter Games in Beijing.
Even at the 2022 World Cup in Qatar, no team will be allowed to compete under the Russian flag.
During this period, unaffected athletes in the country can compete as neutral athletes at major events.
To do this, they have to meet certain anti-doping conditions.
The Russian anthem may not be played or sung, the Russian flag may not be worn or hoisted on team clothing.
According to the CAS judges, the ban began with the pronouncement of the verdict on Thursday and ends on December 16, 2022.
The World Anti-Doping Agency banned Russia for four years in December 2019 for manipulating doping data from the Moscow laboratory.
If the Cas had fully confirmed the Wada penalty and the ban had come into effect with the judgment, Russia would not have been allowed to start at the 2024 Games in Paris.
Usada boss Tygart, known for his tough line, disapproved of the CAS judgment with hearty words and at the same time attacked the Wada and the IOC.
It is a "catastrophic blow to clean athletes, the integrity of sport and the rule of law".
There is no consolation for the weak and watering results in this dirty and state-sponsored doping affair in Russia, which has been going on for a decade.
Even if the instinctive first reaction was a shock, such a judgment could have been seen coming.
"The Wada and the IOC have manipulated and mistreated this dirty Russian doping affair from day one, and once again put politics above principle," said Tygart.
The US Olympic and Paralympic Committee (USOPC) reacted less sharply to the CAS decision.
They were "pleased with the elements of the CAS ruling, with which the strict sanctions of the Wada against Russian sports organizations are being upheld, and deeply disappointed with other elements of the ruling that significantly weaken these sanctions".
USOPC interpreted the verdict as an attack on doping-free sport.
"Regardless of the ultimate impact of implementing the CAS ruling, we must acknowledge that it is only the final chapter in a terrible story of a calculated and at least partially successful program to attack clean athletes and basic Olympic and Paralympic values," the association wrote.
© dpa-infocom, dpa: 201218-99-737933 / 3