It was not a passing event in the history of Iraq, but rather heralded the start of a series of military coups in the entire Arab region. On October 29, 1936, Lieutenant General Bakr Sidqi led the first military coup in the history of Iraq and the Arab region.

To overthrow the government of Yassin Al-Hashemi.

The coup inaugurated a state of political instability, and the military began to actively intervene in political life.

My sincere coup did not come out of nowhere;

The period that followed the death of King Faisal I in 1933 and the inauguration of his son, King Ghazi, was fraught with disagreements between parties and military leaders divided between parties that support complete independence from Britain and others that take into account their interests and between leftist and Arabist currents.

Al-Wondawi believed that King Ghazi lacked "charisma" and the ability to resolve political disputes in the country (Al-Jazeera Net)

A Leadership Vacuum:

The professor of contemporary Iraqi political history, Dr. Muayad Al-Wandawi, says that King Ghazi did not possess the same capabilities that his father enjoyed from the respect and appreciation of the politicians and the military, and a distinguished ability to preserve the country from tensions.

In his interview with Al-Jazeera Net, Alondway indicated that King Ghazi lacked "charisma" and the capacity for effective political action, and therefore was not decisive in resolving the disagreement and conflict between politicians, including the military.

As for the professor of political science at the University of Mosul, Dr. Mahmoud Ezzo, he pointed out that the political and military class in Iraq that followed the establishment of the Iraqi kingdom was a product of the Ottoman Empire, but because of King Ghazi’s weakness, it found a favorable opportunity to interfere in the affairs of government for its personal interests.

Ezzo: The political and military class in Iraq that followed the establishment of the kingdom was a product of the Ottoman Empire (Al-Jazeera Net)

In his interview with Al-Jazeera Net, Ezzo believes that all the politicians and soldiers were far from the peaceful transfer of power, and they saw King Ghazi as less than commanding and controlling them, and they were the ones who established the army and state institutions, so that period witnessed the formation of many governments that did not stay much.

This proposition is supported by Abdul Razzaq al-Hasani in his book “The Modern Political History of Iraq” (seventh edition 2008), where he indicates that since the death of King Faisal I, governments have not been stable. Within 3 years between 1933 and 1936, 6 ministries were formed in Iraq.

He adds that since Yassin Al-Hashemi took over the ministry, intrigues were being hatched in Baghdad to corrupt the plan of Al-Hashemi and his companions, and two of his ministers were pretending to be loyal to him, and in secret encouraging the hostile elements and turning public opinion against the government.

Consequently - according to Al-Hasani - the Al-Hashemi government formed in May 1935 only lasted 18 months, and witnessed 8 revolutions in various regions of the country, and the authorities at that time used force to suppress them, in addition to the Al-Hashemi government itself using its supporters from different Iraqi regions who entered The capital, Baghdad, with their weapons to support the government.

Yassin Al-Hashemi faced many difficulties from opponents and greedy for power (communication sites)

The coup incident

Yassin al-Hashemi was a military commander in the Ottoman army, and one of the most prominent contemporary of King Faisal I after the establishment of the Iraqi kingdom, and during the reign of King Ghazi he founded the National Brotherhood Party, which brought him to head the government.

Al-Hashemi faced many difficulties from opponents and greedy for power, which is indicated by historian and professor of modern history at the University of Mosul, Dr. Ibrahim Al-Alaf, as the period of the thirties of the last century revealed the emergence of two political trends within the Iraqi army.

Al-Allaf explained to Al-Jazeera Net that the first trend was calling for Iraq to be for the Iraqis, which was consistent with the ideology of the left-wing parties, of which Bakr Sidqi was one of their supporters.

As for the second, he called for Arab unity, and Yassin al-Hashemi supported him.

Al-Allaf comments, "From his position as the commander of the second division in the army, Bakr Sidqi, along with the commander of the first division, Abd al-Latif Nuri, led the forces towards the capital, Baghdad, from the Diyala Brigade, after cutting off the communication lines. Thousands of leaflets fought for al-Hashemi's dismissal.

Al-Allaf goes on recounting the facts of that day, noting that Hikmat Suleiman (took over the cabinet after Al-Hashemi) on the morning of the coup carried a letter to King Ghazi signed by Bakr Sidqi and Abd al-Latif Nuri and handed it to the head of the royal court, Rustum Haider, which included a threat to bomb Baghdad if the king did not agree to the coup Which does not target the royal family, but only the ministry.

As for Al-Wondawi, he adds that Bakr Sidqi's threat to the king and give him 3 hours to dismiss the ministry and the accompanying air force bombing of the headquarters of the Yassin al-Hashemi government in the Qishla district of Baghdad, prompted Al-Hashemi to submit his resignation to the king, who in turn did not hesitate to accept it, after realizing that Sidqi was determined to enter Baghdad at any cost, and after I executed the founder of the Iraqi army and Defense Minister Jaafar al-Askari.

Al-Allaf considered that the period of the thirties of the last century witnessed the emergence of two trends within the Iraqi army (Al-Jazeera Net)

The success of the coup is a

number of questions about the supporters of Bakr Sidqi and how his coup succeeded easily, which Al-Wendawi attributes to the fact that Sidqi received great support from Al-Hashemi's colleagues in the National Brotherhood Party, specifically Hikmat Suleiman, as he was one of the most indignant against Al-Hashemi for not assuming the position of Minister of Interior in the government Although he is from the same party, as well as taking advantage of Sidqi, the Army Chief of Staff, Taha Al-Hashemi (brother of the Prime Minister) traveled to Britain at the time.

As for the historian Ibrahim Al-Allaf, for his part, he believes that there are factors that helped the coup, including Lieutenant General Bakr Sidqi's military personality, and his success in suppressing revolutions and tribal movements in the Middle Euphrates region during the years 1933 and 1934.

Al-Allaf revealed an important incident that, according to his opinion, contributed to encouraging King Ghazi to support the coup. On June 6, 1936, Yassin Al-Hashemi issued Decree No. 75, which was known as the “Royal Family Decree” to control the behavior of the royal family and restrict its movements, after the princess fled Azza (the sister of King Ghazi) and married a Greek servant, indicating that King Ghazi was looking at the sky on the morning of the coup, waiting for something, so the warplanes were what awaited him.

Bakr Sidqi was killed

after the coup, Hikmat Suleiman took over the ministry, after which disputes arose between the allies of the coup, which Al-Wondawi attributes to the accusations leveled against him and Bakr Sidqi as well, due to their uniqueness in taking decisions and authority, after which the nationalist bloc in the army moved to assassinate Bakr Sidqi while he was passing the air base In Mosul on August 11, 1937;

At that time, Hikmat Suleiman submits his resignation from the government.

Since the coup of Bakr Sidqi, a series of bloody coups began in Iraq and the Arab countries, and their effects are still present today.