What is the explanation for the recurrence of the new Corona virus, which causes Covid-19 disease?

What is the relationship of disease severity with the antibodies produced by the body?

The answers are in this report along with a quick table to differentiate the symptoms of corona infection, influenza, and the common cold.

We start with an American being infected with Covid-19 twice, and the second was more severe than the first, which led scientists to say that there is a lot that we still have to know about immune responses, and that the second infection with the virus raises doubts about vaccines.

The 25-year-old man, from Reno (in Nevada), was confirmed infected in April after showing minor symptoms;

But he fell ill again in late May, and the symptoms were more severe, according to a case report published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, which was reported by Reuters.

According to the French Press Agency, which also quoted the study, the second injury was more dangerous than the first, and the scientists said that despite the apparent scarcity of the infection, and despite the recovery of the injured American man, cases similar to his condition are of concern, and single cases of recurrence were recorded in Around the world, including in Europe and Asia.

Simon Clark, an expert in microbiology at the University of Reading, Britain, said, "It is becoming increasingly clear that recurrence is possible, but we cannot yet determine how common it is."

He added, "If recurrence is easily possible, then this may have repercussions on vaccine production programs, and on our understanding of how and when the epidemic may end."

And the doctors of a Nevada patient said that in-depth examinations showed that the strain of Corona virus - whose scientific name is SARS-Cove 2 - associated with the second infection was genetically different from the first.

"These results reinforce the idea that we do not yet know enough about the immune response to this infection," said Paul Hunter, a professor of medicine at the University of East Anglia in Britain.

The fifth case in the world

Brendan Warren, professor of vaccines at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said that the Nevada patient is the fifth case of recurrence in the world.

"The possibility of a recurrence of SARS-Cove-2 infection may indicate that the Covid-19 vaccine may not provide complete protection ... However, in light of the infection of (more than) 40 million people in the world, examples of recurrence of infection are few, and should not be limited From vaccine development efforts. "

The most severe form of Covid-19 binds to our antibodies

During the first days of the outbreak of the emerging corona virus, many immunologists assumed that patients, who produced large amounts of antibodies sufficiently early in the course of infection with the Corona virus, were able to stop the development and severity of the infection.

In his article published in the French newspaper Nouvel Observateur, Matthew Woodruff, an immunologist at Emory University in Atlanta, explained the conditions that can cause severe forms of Covid-19 infection;

Stressing that after several months of studying this disease, he realized that the situation is actually more complicated than he had imagined.

Woodruff, in cooperation with his colleagues, published an article in the journal Nature Immunology that includes conclusions that support the idea that in some patients with the emerging coronavirus, preventing an immune defect is as important as fighting the virus itself.

He said that in patients with severe forms of Covid-19, it has already been proven that the inflammatory reaction, which aims to eliminate the virus, is responsible for the other collateral damage that occurs to the patient's body.

Some clinical studies revealed the occurrence of "cytokine storms" in some patients, through which the immune response produces a huge amount of inflammatory molecules and antibodies, which cause dangerous blood clots and inflammation of multiple organ systems.

This leads to vasculitis, a condition observed in 186 children who had recovered from the disease.

Woodruff added that these signs indicate that the immune response, which was supposed to be protective in these patients, has become devastating for them.

This is what prompted some doctors to use steroid, which is one of the drugs that suppress the immune response, to treat these patients upon entering the hospital, and this has contributed to saving many lives.

Produce the right antibodies at the right time

Antibodies are one of the body's powerful defense weapons, and antiviral antibody clumps trigger strong inflammatory reactions, which act as guiding signals to the rest of the immune system, allowing it to effectively target pathogens.

In some cases, antibodies can be fatal. They are so powerful that if they misidentify their target (that is, when B lymphocytes produce antibodies that attack the body's cells, which they are supposed to defend) they can do great damage to some organs in the body, creating A permanent cycle of "immune self-targeting", this permanent self-destruction is known as "autoimmune diseases."

Reducing the immune response related to COVID-19

Woodruff stated that coronavirus disease is not an autoimmune disease, and may reflect inflammatory responses of the autoimmune type, which is simply the "normal" response to a viral infection that has gone out of control.

Although this type of reaction is "normal";

However, this does not mean that it is not dangerous. Continuous extracollicular responses have been shown to contribute to severe autoimmune diseases.

Due to the production of antibodies that target specific tissues in the body as well as the inflammation they cause, it can damage organs such as the lungs and kidneys.

Corona, flu, or a cold?

We conclude with the differentiation between Corona virus, influenza and the common cold, as the above graph - published by Deutsche Welle - shows how common a group of symptoms is with each case, and the following can be observed:

1- Corona infection: the most prominent symptoms are dry cough, fever, and loss of sense of smell and taste.

To find out the detailed symptoms of Corona, click on this link.

2- Influenza: The main symptoms are dry cough, fever, headache, pain in limbs, and general weakness.

3- The common cold: mucous cough, runny nose, sore throat, sneezing and limb pain.

By comparing your symptoms with the table, you can estimate a specific disease. With the assurance that this schedule is for guidance only, and that it is not a substitute for consulting a doctor, and the only way to confirm whether you are infected with Coronavirus is to undergo a medical examination.