Renewed US President Donald Trump's failure to pledge a peaceful transfer of power if the upcoming presidential election loses reactions from both rival parties;

Republican and Democrat.

Historically, the world has known a phenomenon that American citizens remain in front of screens waiting for the news of the winning candidate receiving a phone call from the losing candidate, congratulating him on his victory, and wishing him and America all the best and progress.

Trump does not seem to believe in the necessity of following established American traditions, as he did not pledge to accept the election results and congratulate the Democratic candidate, Joe Biden, in the event of his loss, as has been the practice throughout American history.

For the first time, a president doubts the authority about the results of future elections, which leads to undermining American democracy and causing a crisis of confidence in its political system and procedures, which led to questions about the army's position on the crisis if it occurs.

Trump expressed his desire to quickly nominate a new conservative judge to succeed the late liberal judge Ruth Ginsburg, in anticipation of the presidential election crisis reaching the Supreme Court, as happened in 2000.

Al-Jazeera Net presents in the form of a question and answer the scenarios for the transfer of power in the United States, and any role that the Congress or the American courts can play in the event that the elections end with a procedural crisis that hindered knowing the winning candidate.

Has America known crises related to elections before?

Yes, America has known procedural problems throughout its history regarding elections, as some people were prevented from reaching the ballot boxes, questioning the legitimacy of results, legal challenges were raised, and voters were forced to stand in long lines.

But none of them caused a crisis in the true sense except in the 2000 elections, when the Supreme Constitutional Court settled the results of the Florida elections and recounted the votes;

Which led to the victory of the Republican candidate George Bush the presidency.

What are the reasons for rising fears of a looming crisis over the upcoming election results?

Trump is reiterating his doubts about the postal voting process, which is expected to be widely used in the upcoming elections, and also reiterates fears of electoral results being rigged if voting is expanded by mail.

The spread of the new Corona virus has prompted many states to rely on postal voting, fearing the repercussions of in-person voting on the transmission of the virus and the rise in infections.

Trump is refusing to pledge to admit defeat and accept any possible outcome in the presidential elections scheduled for November 3.

What is Trump's position on the peaceful transfer of power?

During the second presidential debate that brought together Trump and Hillary Clinton in the 2016 election, Trump refused to pledge to accept the election results and to bless his opponent's victory if he lost the race.

In response to a question from veteran broadcaster Chris Wallace if he was prepared to accept defeat in the event of his loss, Trump said, "We will see what he can do at this moment, I cannot confirm to you now to respond."

The 2016 elections did not witness widespread mail-in voting, and there were no concerns about the results of electoral fraud.

Trump repeated the same position weeks ago in an interview with the same Fox News broadcaster Chris Wallace, in which he admitted that he did not like defeat, and said, "I am not a good loser, I do not like to suffer defeats, I do not lose much and I do not like to lose," stressing that he will not accept the results in advance. .

What about Joe Biden's reaction to Trump's position?

Biden was quick to comment on Trump's comments, saying, "Where do we live?"

"He says the most irrational things. I don't know what to say," he added.

Biden had previously warned about the possibility of Trump stealing the presidential election, and added that Trump's opposition to voting by mail amid the outbreak of the Coronavirus is part of his efforts to deny citizens the right to vote.

Why Trump attacks the vote by mail?

Trump tweeted weeks ago and said, "Expanding the postal vote would be bad for the Republican Party." Trump realizes that the mail vote will benefit his Democratic rival, Joe Biden, so he attacks the idea.

Traditionally, the poor and minorities do not participate significantly in voting in the traditional personal manner, compared to the high percentages of the white majority.

And these marginalized groups voted in greater proportions for the Democrats, and this is the essence of the objection of Trump and the Republicans, as the postal vote will mainly serve the Democratic Party, through the expansion of the numbers of minority and poor voters.

What is the position of the framers of the Constitution on the political role of the US armed forces in the process of political transition of power?

The founders of the American state feared the army would interfere in political life, and the constitution limited any possibility of unelected military officers controlling the government.

The constitution specifies precisely the responsibilities of the elected president, the head of which is that he is commander in chief of the armed forces.

On the other hand, Americans are confident that their army is not motivated by internal political or party whims.

What is the role of the US military in the transition process?

There is no role for the army.

And the law specified referring to US courts and up to the Supreme Constitutional Court to resolve any dispute over the identity of the winning candidate in the event of a crisis in the counting or counting of votes, or if a candidate does not admit defeat.

The constitution did not give the army any role in the political transition process. Rather, the constitution specified the defense minister that he should be a civilian person. It also stripped the chief of staff of any political powers and made the position weak with which the president could dismiss him by tweet or phone call.

What are the laws governing the transfer of authority from one department to a new administration?

There is a series of federal laws that regulate that process, the most important of which are the Presidential Transition Laws of 1963 No. (88-277), the Effectiveness of Presidential Transitions of 1998 No. (100-398), the Presidential Transition of 2000 (106-293), as well as the Presidential Transition Law before Elections for 2010 (111-283) and 2015 presidential transitions improvements (114-136).

These laws provided formal mechanisms to facilitate presidential transitions, including providing $ 5 million to support the transitional team, providing training and mentoring for new government employees, and other measures to ensure an orderly transition.

Biden (right) said, "Where do we live?"

In response to Trump when he refused to admit defeat in the upcoming (European) elections

What is the position of the leaders of the Republican Party on Trump's statements?

Republican party leaders known to be close to President Trump rejected his calls for skeptical election results in advance.

House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy said, "We should go ahead with our elections ... We should never, ever, have elections on the day that we set."

While the leader of the Republican majority in the Senate, Mish McConnell, stressed that "we have to trust the system and procedures of the presidential elections, and that there is no reason to question their results."

Republican Senator Mitt Romney went further, saying that expressing any hesitation about implementing what is guaranteed in the constitution "is unreasonable and unacceptable."

"Peaceful transfer of power is essential to democracy, without that we would be like Belarus," he wrote in a tweet.

What is the constitution’s position on the president’s refusal to leave office?

The constitution deals with ways to deal with a president who refuses to leave office through Amendment 20 to the constitution, which stipulates that "the term of office of the president and vice president ends at noon on the twentieth day of January."

The clear instructions in US law dictate the alternative line. If a new president is not elected, power goes to the speaker of the House of Representatives temporarily until new elections are held.

What if there is a crisis in the counting and counting of the votes that did not know the identity of the winning candidate?

This is a possible scenario, with some commentators questioning the efficiency of the US Postal Service to handle millions of ballot papers in a short period of time.

In the event that this scenario occurs, Donald Trump's presidency ends at midday on the 20th of next January, and Nancy Pelosi, as Speaker of the House of Representatives, will assume the US presidency on a temporary basis until new elections are agreed.