Information and biographies of leaders and leaders are of public interest and are closely related to the nature of regimes and their policies;
Today, we review a special color of this information and biographies, the main thing of which is the monitoring of the scientific dimension of many of the sultans who have known the march of rule throughout Islamic history, and that is an insight into patterns of details with a civilized role, and a follow-up to certain aspects of the historical image of our sultanistic regimes, and tourism in a rich and vast cultural heritage.
Through this article, we open a special angle from which we can envy the palaces of the caliphate and enter the fields of rule, to see how a number of Muslim caliphs, rulers and sultans gathered between the seat of the world and the throne of the Sultan, between the pen and the scepter, and between the turban of jurisprudence and the crown of the emirate.
This was a golden circle in the Islamic system of government, which is full of images of leaders who inherited their fatwas and the chain of narrations of hadiths, and led huge scientific and cultural projects that are the first of their kind, such as an initiative to record the Prophet’s hadith, jurisprudence and Arab literature, and projects to establish astronomical observatories and measure the circumference of the Earth, and to establish the largest university in centuries. Central.
And between my hands is the review of the path of power in the Islamic civilization in its part connected to the class of the ulema princes who represented a special category in the successive chains of sultans of Islam;
It is no secret that Islamic jurisprudence theorizing has continued - since early time - to make "the condition of knowledge" one of the determinants of eligibility for the mandate of government, which was summarized by Abdul Qaher Al-Baghdadi (d.429 AH / 1037 CE) - in his book 'The Difference Between Difference' - by saying that the scholars "Make it obligatory for him (= the caliph) to gain knowledge from the people of diligence in Islamic rulings."
However, we realize that scientific concern is a life path that requires dedication and attention from its family, just as judgment is a management practice that requires engaging in paths leading to mastery of governance affairs, and from here the gap between the two concerns in one personal endeavor may increase or converge in what constitutes a remarkable case, which is What we find in the "scholarly princes" category, which combined the two functions of knowledge and government, in what was sometimes creating competition - and even conflict - within the personality of the "world sultan", thus exposing him to a very difficult test in terms of the values of knowledge and the requirements of governance!
In this illumination, we do not proceed from the beginning of the history of Islam, as the scientific status of the successors of the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, is necessarily historically known, and we did not seek to comprehend because this unique phenomenon is difficult to enumerate and limit.
But we chose to select twenty examples expressed from the famous sultans of the civilization of Islam, five of them were the actual founders of its major central states in the first seven centuries of its history, and all of them represent par excellence - ethnically, sectarian, geographically and temporally - this great civilization, and that cultural phenomenon that raises many paradoxes to us. We recall the educational and cultural level of the majority of Muslim rulers today !!
An early conjunction
The fountain of knowledge in the countries of Islam exploded early, so the children of their societies devoted themselves to the fields of narration and knowledge of the content of the two revelations, mixed with that with the niche of Arab culture and its old poetry and literature. This resulted in a rich scientific movement and an epistemic reality that remained available for everyone to take a share from it, and in this atmosphere appeared The first pioneers - after the era of the Companions - of the sultans who achieved knowledge and won rule.
At the beginning of our wandering through the tiles of successive Islamic countries to the east and west;
We begin our circumambulation in the court of the Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marawan (d. 86 AH / 705 CE), who possessed a historical reputation that the levers of knowledge contributed to its construction and elevation of its level, as the books of translations and history agreed to mention his scholarly position which he attained from his discipleship among the leading scholars of the Companions.
Ibn Katheer (d. 774 AH / 1372 CE) - in “The Beginning and the End” - stated that “He narrated the hadith of [companions such as] ... Abi Saeed al-Khudri (d. 74 AH / 694 CE), Abu Huraira (d.59 AH / 680 CE), and Ibn Umar ( D. 73 AH / 693 CE) ... and a group narrated from him [it].
And if his term of office - for a period of 21 years - was marked by fierce armed revolutions, which took his attention to extinguish;
The cognitive distinction remained an important feature in his experience before and after taking office.
This dimension is evident in the image of Abd al-Malik among his fellow scholars.
They used to regard him as a strong competitor in all kinds of knowledge, including what Ibn Katheer narrated on the authority of Imam al-Sha'bi (d. 103 AH / 724 CE) when he said: “I did not sit down with anyone but I found the credit for him except Abd al-Malik ibn Marawan. Poetry but it increased me! "
According to Al-Hafiz Ibn Asaker (d. 571 AH / 1175 AD) in the History of Damascus;
Nafi Mawla Ibn Omar (d. 117 AH / 736 AD) testified against him, saying: “I have seen the city where there is a young man who is more sunken up and has no sense of perspective, and I do not read the Book of God from Abd al-Malik bin Marawan.” Al-Asma’i (d.216 AH / 831 CE) was quoted as praising by Al-Hasan Al-Basri (D. 110 AH / 728 AD) with a sermon given by Abd al-Malik, about which he said: “If words were written with gold water, this speech would have been!”
Perhaps one of the greatest indications of the supremacy of his jurisprudential stature is that Imam Malik bin Anas (d. 179 AH / 796 CE) included - in al-Muwatta - a number of his jurisprudential views alongside the fatwas of senior companions and followers.
Just as Abd al-Malik preserved the compatibility between scientific concern and governance affairs;
His nephew, Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz (d. 101 AH / 720 AD) remained one of the lords of knowledge, despite the path of positions he had followed since his appointment as governor of Madinah and Taif, then he worked as a minister and advisor in the caliph’s court, even if he reached the era of the caliphate, he combined knowledge with politics The fair gateway to the immortality of his name in the historical, as "the fifth of the Rightly Guided Caliphs" and "the teacher of scholars."
Al-Dhahabi (d. 748 AH / 1348 CE) - in “the biographies of the flags of the nobles” - called him “the scholar Al-Hafiz ... he was one of the imams of ijtihad ... he was a good politician keen on justice in every possible way, and a wealth of knowledge was the jurist of the soul .. and he was considered among the scholars among the caliphs. Working adults and scholars!
Ibn Katheer reported on the authority of Al-Taba’i Mujahid bin Jabr (d. 104 AH / 723 CE) as saying: “We came to Umar to teach him, and we did not leave from him until we learned from him !!”
Imam Maymun bin Mahran (d. 117 AH / 735 CE) concluded that Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz was the "teacher of scholars";
According to Ibn Saad (d. 230 AH / 845 CE) in al-Tabaqat al-Kubra.
This evaluation coincides with his high academic standing, which results in Imam Malik's income for dozens of his districts and his fatwas in al-Muwatta.
A remarkable balance,
A remarkable balance,
history turns the pages of the Umayyad Caliphate with its scholarly successors, but their counterparts from the rulers interested in science continued to appear in the Abbasid state that overthrew them.
Here is its second successor, Al-Mansur (d. 136 AH / 775 AD), turning towards the fountains of knowledge of his time before assuming power. Ibn Katheer stated that Al-Mansur “in his youth sought knowledge from his attributes, hadith and jurisprudence, and he received from this a good aspect and a righteous side,” and Al-Soli mentions ( T. 335 AH / 946 AD) - in the “History of the Caliphs” - that Al-Mansur “was the most knowledgeable of the people of his time in hadith and genealogies”!
As for Al-Dhahabi - in Al-Sirah - he summarized for us precisely the characteristics of Al-Mansour, which indicate his combination of knowledge and emirate.
He said that he was “mixed with the pageant of the king with the attire of hermits ... and the darling of the Banu al-Abbas was prestige and courage, vision, firmness, cunning and tyranny, and he was a keen collector of money ... He was good at participating in jurisprudence, literature and science. He exterminated a group of adults until the king strengthened him and the nations came to him .. And he was the ruler of all the kingdoms of Islam except the island of Andalusia !!
The scientific image of the rulers formed a window of communication between the ruling authority and many groups and individuals within the state, and this communication left its impact on the public scene, official policies and the scientific field. Judge Ayyad (d. 544 AH / 1149 CE) tells us - in the order of perceptions - that “Abu Jaafar Al-Mansour He said to Malik [Bin Anas] Put a book for the people to carry them on, and Malik spoke to him about that, so (Al-Mansur) said: Put it down so no one is more knowledgeable than you!
That was - in one of the stories - the reason for writing the book Al-Muwatta.
It seems that Al-Mansour wanted to be balanced in his educational policies, so he took an interest in owning science books and collecting translations, and he commissioned them to transfer them to Arabic.
Thus, he was - as al-Dhahabi says in the History of Islam - “he was the first caliph for whom Syriac and foreign books were translated as“ Kalila and Dimna ”, Aristotles’s book (= Aristotle, the philosopher, 322 BC) in logic, Euclid (d.265 BC) and Greek books. People looked at it and clung to it, and when Muhammad bin Ishaq (the author of 'The Prophet’s Biography ”d. 151 AH / 768 CE) saw that, he compiled the stories and the biography.
Al-Suyuti (d. 911 AH / 1506 CE) also tells us - in the History of the Caliphs - that Al-Mansur was "the first caliph who brought astrologers closer and acted according to the rulings of the stars."
These translation efforts would not have continued with their great success without the creation of an institutional scientific framework to nurture them and provide them with the causes of growth and survival.
Here we met the first seed of the "House of Wisdom" project;
The bright civilizational radiation that is based on the collection of travels of knowledge and cultures.
The Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansur - by virtue of his scientific background - was interested in collecting the precious books and sheets of narrations, and he had among his personal possessions notebooks and newspapers in which he recorded the scientific benefits, Imam al-Tabari tells us about it by saying: “And he had a socket (= a bowl of reeds) in which his knowledge notebooks were. And it has a lock that no one is safe to open and its key !!
estrangement and coinciding with the scholarly and royal presence of Caliph Al-Mansour;
In Andalusia, there was his rival, the Umayyad Emir Abd al-Rahman al-Dakhil (d.172 AH / 788 CE), who provided an example among the list of educated princes who undertook the burdens of establishing great states in the history of Islam, such as his grandfather Abd al-Malik bin Marwan and al-Mansur al-Abbasi.
The descendant of the Umayyad Caliphate - a Westernized, toiling day - was not just an aristocrat in which circumstances fluctuated, and the days reflected the back of the mummified for his family that was leading the leadership of the Islamic world;
Rather, it was a literary exuberance mingled with the experience of alienation that he lived, which indicates his cultural affiliation, which he translated into a creative poetic form that is widespread in Arabic literature. Ibn Amira al-Dhaby al-Andalusi (d. 599 AH / 1203 CE) narrated - in 'with the aim of the petitioner' - that ' His poetry longs for his institutes in the Levant. “His saying:
O rider, the doormamer
is my land ** Confess
from me peace to one another,
that my body is as you know on earth ** and my heart and its inhabitants are on earth!
However, the most important testimony of the scholarly status of the incoming prince was included in the books of translations.
Al-Dhahabi said in Al-Seer: “Abd al-Rahman was one of the scholars,” while evoking his young age - when he was twenty-five - when he seized the reins of the rule of Andalusia as explained by his political rival, Mansour al-Abbasi, when he reached his ownership of it.
According to Al-Dhahabi, he said: “That is the hawk of Quraish! He entered Morocco and his people were killed, and he continued to hit Al-Adnaniyah with Al-Qahtaniyah until he became king !!”
And if it is noticeable that the phenomenon of scholarly rulers has sometimes kept the transition from kings to the guardians of their vows;
We found early examples of this in the first era of the Abbasid state, the first of which is the personality of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mahdi (d.169 AH / 786 AD), who Al-Dhahabi says that “when [his promises] strengthened his father [Al-Mansur] the kingdom of Tabaristan and he read knowledge, politeness and excellence!”
Among the results of al-Mahdi's literary distinction is what was narrated by the Sheikh of historians al-Tabari (d. 310 AH / 922 CE) about the imam of al-Adab al-Mufaddal al-Dhubi (d.
That the Caliph Al-Mahdi told him: "Collect proverbs for me from what you heard from the Bedouins and what is true for you. He said: So I wrote proverbs and Arab wars for him."
This is in addition to the relationship between his book 'The Preferences' and the Mahdi, which illuminates the literary dimension in the formation of this caliph, and highlights the relationship of some cultural figures and circles of government.
One of the titles of the cultural and scientific influence of the scholars caliphs was the precedence over the field of writing books to respond to the violators, and it was also recorded by the Abbasid Mahdi.
As Suyuti reported that “the first to order the classification of books in response to the violators [is] the Mahdi,” and with this procedure this Abbasid caliph opened - in front of the authors - a broad path that is difficult to be devoid of apostates at the same time!
Caliph Harun al -
Rashid (T reached 193 AH / 799 AD) to power, after it
became important to
science and described as
Ibn al -
At 'Almentzm'- saying that good governance
"received much note";
The cultural sector in the country witnessed further advancement, embodied in the well-known scientific project: "The House of Wisdom", whose first seed dates back to the days of his grandfather Al-Mansour, as we have seen.
However, when Al-Rasheed took over the reins of power, the level of interest in books increased, and they were collected in a treasury, and the project was placed on the runways, starting to horizons that continued to expand continuously until the reign of Caliph Al-Mutawakkil (d.247 AH / 861 AD).
According to Al-Nadim (d. 384 AH / 973 CE) - in 'Al-Fihrist' - it is understood that the “House of Wisdom” did not exist before Al-Rasheed, when he said in his mention of the news of Allan al-Shu’oubi al-Warraq (d. After 218 AH / 833 CE) that he was “cut off to Baramkeh and copied in The House of Wisdom for Al-Rasheed and Al-Mamun (d.218 AH / 833 AD) and Al-Baramkeh.
Therefore, Muhammad Kurd Ali (d. 1373 AH / 1953 CE) - in 'Plans of Levant' - says that “it was not known before the era of Rashid and al-Ma'mun that books were collected in a cupboard and was called the House of Wisdom or the House of Knowledge, and that house was like a university” that included among its flanks an avanine of arts and fruits Knowledge.
Al-Rasheed narrated the hadith on the authority of Malik bin Anas.
Rather, Al-Suyuti says that he “left his two sons, the trustworthy (d. 198 AH / 813 CE) and al-Ma'mun to hear the Muwatta 'Ali Malik .., and the origin of the Muwatta was by Sama al-Rasheed in the treasury of the Egyptians (= the Fatimid library)" in Cairo.
And he used to narrate hadiths in his sermons by virtue of their chain of transmission to the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, and the characteristic of the Caliph’s competition for scholars in knowledge and literature also continued during his reign.
Al-Tabari reports that Abu Saeed bin Muslim (d. 200 AH / 815 CE) said, “The understanding of the rational was above the understanding of scholars” !!
He was particularly well-established in the field of literature and poetry.
Al-Isfahani (d. 356 AH / 967 CE) - in his book “Al-Aghani” - narrated that Al-Rasheed “memorized the poetry of Dhul-Ramah (d. 117 AH / 735 AD), preserved youth (= firmly memorized), admires and influences it.”
Among the manifestations related to the role of the scientific component of the Sultans, in the rise of some scientific names, and their taking a prominent role in the state;
What happened to Judge Abu Yusuf (d. 182 AH / 798 CE) with Al-Rasheed, when we read in it the testimony of al-Dhahabi regarding his knowledge and his position with him: “I said: Abu Yusuf from the leadership of knowledge reached no more than him, and Al-Rasheed exaggerated his reverence!”
Therefore, he made him the first to assume the position of chief judge in the history of Islam.
Abu Yusuf tells us - in his book “Al-Kharaj” - about the context of his authorship to become the pioneer of this art book, which deals with a vital topic in the conduct of government, which is the state's public finance rules, resources and expenditures.
He says: "The Commander of the Faithful [Harun] ... asked me to write a comprehensive book for him to work on in collecting the tax, tithes, alms, and the traveling (= tax tax)."
These were not the first projects closely related to the scientific conscience of this class of sultans. The beginning of this approach - marked by a reflection of the scientific background of the Sultan in the field of policies and institutions - dates back to an earlier time when the first project appeared to record the hadith of the Prophet, so he was “the first to write the hadith [the Tabi Imam] Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (d. 124 AH / 743 CE) at the top of a hundred (= 100 AH / 719 CE) under the order of Umar bin Abdul Aziz, then there was a lot of codification and classification.
According to Al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar (d. 852 AH / 1448 CE) in Fath al-Bari.
Al-Rasheed, then, represented the knowledge, and gave him permission in his policies when he assumed the leadership with support and attention, and among the manifestations of that is what Ibn Qutaybah al-Dainawari (d. 276 AH / 898 CE) had said about al-Rashid “wrote to all regions and to the princes of the soldiers: As for now, see who committed the call to prayer with you, write it In a thousand [dinars] of giving (= salary), and whoever collects the Qur’an and accepts to seek knowledge, the age of the councils of knowledge and the purposes of literature, then write it in two thousand dinars of giving, and whoever collects the Qur’an and narrates the hadith and understands it in knowledge and considers it so write it in four thousand dinars (= today 700 thousand Almost dollars) from the bid. "
In the midst of the data that clearly reveal the scientific formation of the learned caliphs, the discussion of the mechanism behind their cognitive stardom is a matter of the heart of the context, and here the discussion about those known as the 'disciplinarian' category occupies the bulk of the space, especially if it is related to the princes who grew up in the palaces in the enclaves of Their fathers were caliphs, where the linguists - such as the imams of the language: Kasai (d. 189 AH / 805 CE), al-Mufaddal al-Dhaby, Qotrib (d.206 AH / 821 CE), and al-Fara (d. 207 AH / 823 CE) - had the largest role in making and supplementing the scientific side of a number of caliphs and sultans.
Mustafa al-Rafi'i (d.1356 AH / 1937 CE) - in the “History of Arab Manners” - stated that the Temple of Ibn Khalid al-Juhani (d. 80 AH / 699 CE) and Imam al-Sha'bi were teaching the children of Abd al-Malik ibn Marawan, and he added: “They are the oldest teachers of what we have stood.”
As for their primacy in the Islamic West;
Al-Fayrouzabadi (d. 817 AH / 1416 CE) - in his book “Al Bulghah” - tells us that “Judi bin Othman al-Nahawi (al-Abbasi d. 198 AH / 814 CE) .. [is] the first to write the children of the princes of Andalusia."
And we remain in the second century AH / eighth century AD;
Let us find that in parallel with the efforts of the Umayyad interior to consolidate the authority of his kingdom in Andalusia;
The region of the Islamic West - on the southern bank - was witnessing the throes of the emergence of the first state based on Ibadhi political jurisprudence, which makes scientific qualification a condition for candidates to lead the state.
This was achieved by the young prince Abd al-Rahman bin Rusum al-Farsi (d. 171 AH / 888 CE), the actual founder of the Rustamiyya state in the year 141 AH / 759 CE.
The Ibadi historian Abu al-Abbas al-Shammakhi al-Yafrani (d. 928 AH / 1522 CE) - in the 'Biographical Book' - tells us about this by saying: “Their opinion (= the heads of the Ibadi) agreed on Abd al-Rahman for his merit and being a bearer of knowledge."
Pioneering projects and
in the third / ninth century AD;
The preoccupation with knowledge and the scientific concern of rulers barely equaled its track in Islamic civilization until it collided with ideological and intellectual pitfalls during the reign of the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun, and this was exemplified by the ordeal associated with the issue of “saying the creation of the Qur’an” which was in its appearance - related to our subject - a reflection of a pattern of thought And culture, this caliph was preoccupied with it, imbibed it and wanted to impose it on his subjects;
This resulted in an issue that occupied a great position in the Islamic mentality and was known historically as the "Mihna".
The official preoccupation with philosophy and its access to the scientific and cultural field reflected the characteristic of the encyclopedic scientific state of al-Ma'mun, who mentioned Ibn Katheer as “memorizing the Holy Qur’an” and “narrating hadith” about scholars. Al-Dhahabi intensifies his description of his epistemological formation by saying that he “read science, literature, news, mentalities and sciences The first (= Philosophies), and he ordered the Arabization of their books and an adult ..., and he ... revered the people of speech and debated in his council. "
With this latest tendency, the "ordeal" crisis exploded.
However, the negative aspects of this incident should not obscure from us the importance of Al-Ma'mun's pioneering role in developing the library of the "House of Wisdom" library of natural sciences and engineering works, and its founding projects for astronomical observations and measurement of the circumference of the Earth.
The astronomer historian Ibn al-Dawadari (died after 736 AH / 1335 CE) - in 'Treasures of Gharar' - reported that in the year 214 AH / 229 CE “Al-Ma'mun ordered [the astronomers] to take over the observation in the city of Shamasiyah from the country of Damascus, and they stood on the time of the observational year of the sun and the amount of its inclination, And the exit of its center and the subject of its climax, and they knew, however, some of the conditions of the planets from the car and the stationary .. so they restricted what they ended up and called it 'safe observation'; so their observations were the first ... in the Kingdom of Islam !!
And in Andalusia in the middle of the fourth / tenth century AD;
The experience of her successor, Hakim al-Andalus, included what could be a model of the positive aspects of the experience of al-Ma'mun al-Abbasi in the East that combines depth of knowledge and the merit of management, as the Umayyad Caliph Al-Mustansir Billah Al-Hakam bin Abdul Rahman Al-Nasir (d. 366 AH / 975 CE) was one of those who deservedly joined the science and administered The helm of judgment ably.
The historian of Andalusian culture Al-Maqqari (d.1041 AH / 1632 AD) - in 'Nafh al-Tayyib' - introduces us to the lofty scholarly position of the Caliph Al-Mustansir at the moment when he seized the levers of power in Andalusia;
He said that he "expanded his knowledge, sharpened his gaze, and gathered his benefits."
And it was accepted centuries ago.
Ibn Al-Abbar Al-Qudai (d. 658 AH / 1206 AD) - in 'Al-Tikmilah' - spoke about the enormity of Al-Mustansir’s library, which was a cognitive aid for Andalusians. In his translation of “Taleed al-Fata” al-Saqlabi (d. After 400 AH / 1010 CE), he said: Scientific, Abu Muhammad Ibn Hazm (d. 456 AH / 1065 CE) said: The young boy told me .. and he was in the treasury of science in the Banu Marwan Palace (= the Umayyads) that several indexes - in which the names of books are named - are forty-four, in each index there are twenty papers, not Where only the mention of the collections (= the books) only !! "
Al-Qudai listed the names of about ten of my paperworkers and copyists of this library, then praised the capacity of al-Mustansir's knowledge, saying that “we hardly find a book for him or our books from his treasury (= his library) except that he has reading and consideration in it, from whatever art he used to read and write in his handwriting - either at its beginning or At the end of it or in its doubling - the author attributed his birth, birth and death, and introduces him to it, and mentions the genealogies of the narrators to him, and from that comes with oddities that are hardly present except with him because of his frequent reading and attention in this regard!
A generalization of education,
A generalization of education,
then presenting Al-Qudai’s case for Al-Mustansir’s scientific credibility with the scholars of Andalusia.
He says that "he was trusted and safe on him [until] everything that he wrote became a hijra with the Andalusian sheikhs and imams, transferring it from his handwriting and presenting it to him .. Part of what was found in al-Hakam came to me, and I found that it includes many benefits in various types !!"
And according to your knowledge of this authority that Imam Ibn Hazm attributes to him and relies on him, and he says in several places in his book, Al-Jamhirah: “I wrote it from the line of al-Hakam al-Mustansir”!
This scientific preoccupation was reflected in the educational policies of Al-Mustansir, and he sought to provide free education to the poor classes.
Ibn Athari al-Marrakchi (d. After 712 AH / 1312 CE) states - in the Western statement “- that“ one of the good deeds and good deeds of his deeds is that he takes the disciplinaries to teach the children of the weak and the needy the Qur’an around the mosque and every level (= one side) from the lands of Cordoba; To them in diligence and advice, seeking the face of God Almighty. The number of these offices is twenty-seven, of which about the mosque is three.
And in Fatimid Egypt;
The other side of the Mediterranean was not devoid of manifestations that bear witness to the scientific impact of some of the leaders of their countries who combined governance and science, as thinking about the daily spending of government was not all that preoccupied them, but rather the scientific concern was also present, resulting in important efforts, some of which made a head start in their field, such as The idea of the "pen storing ink" that the Fatimid Sultan al-Muizz reached to the Religion of God (d. 365 AH / 975 AH), and thus won the first "ink pen" before our modern era knew this invention by about a thousand years !!
And informs us about the story of the invention of the Fatimid “pen of al-Muizz”, its judge, Abu Hanifa al-Nu'man al-Tamimi (d. 363 AH / 974 CE), in his book “Majalis and Al-Masirat”;
He says that the goats mentioned the pen one day, so he said: “We want to do a seldom with which it is written without drawing from a tool, and its outflow will be from within it: When a person wants it he writes with it and supplies it and writes with it what he wants, and whenever he wants to leave it, the ink rises and the pen is dry from it, the writer makes it in his sleeve. Or wherever he wants, it does not affect it, and nothing from the flow is filtered from it, and that is only when it is desired and intended to write with it, so it becomes a wonderful instrument that we did not know that I was preceded by, and evidence of great wisdom for those who contemplated it and knew the meaning of it !!
Al-Nu`man adds, recording his astonishment at this strange ambition: “So I said: And this will be, O our Lord ...? He said, It will be, God willing! What went by only a few days after that until the maker - who described the craft to him - came with it made of gold, and he deposited it with the ink and wrote with it. So he wrote .., I saw a wonderful workmanship that I did not think I would see like it !!
Al-Muizz would not have been attached to such a suggestion if it were not for the fact that working in knowledge and belonging to it was a given at the heart of his life.
That is why Ibn al-Atheer (d. 630 AH / 1233 CE) described him - in 'al-Kamil' - and said: “Al-Muizz was a virtuous scientist.” Then he recorded his fondness for astronomy and mentioned that he was “seduced by the stars and works with the sayings of astrologers.”
And a symbiosis between the political and the scientific concerns;
Some critical situations called Al-Muizz Al-Fatimiyyah to learn a number of languages, and he mastered them according to an interesting narration that Al-Maqrizi (d.845 AH / 1441 CE) tells us in 'Homilies and Consideration', where he says that al-Mu’izz heard one of his employees of European origins uttering the word Saqlabiyya (= relative to the Saqalibiya language) The peoples of Eastern Europe) became a stray from them .., and his soul stopped asking about its meaning, so he began to memorize the languages [to know its meaning for himself]. So he began to learn the Berber language until he mastered it, then he learned Romanian and Sudanese until he mastered them, then he began to learn the Nelspian word, so I passed by that word. An ugly curse!
He ordered the killing of that employee because of her !!
The modernized king
The modernized king
The geographical circles of the Islamic region remained intertwined at the level of the emergence of embodied models of those with rule and knowledge, and a region like Sijistan - which is now included in the territory of the state of Iran - was not immune to this remarkable phenomenon.
The levers of power in it were acquired by the modern imam Khalaf bin Ahmad al-Sijistani (d. 399 AH / 1009 CE) who cites Imam al-Samani (d. 562 AH / 1167 CE) - in his book “The Genealogy” - a dense sentence expressing an indication of his high scientific and political standing.
He declared that he "was among the people of virtue, knowledge, politics, and the king, and he had heard the hadith and it happened, and he heard about Khurasan .. and Iraq .. and the Hijaz .. and happened in Iraq and Khurasan !!"
Al-Dhahabi defines him as "the modernized king .. the jurist, from the majesty of kings, who has much preference over the scholars."
Al-Sijistani was not satisfied that he was among those who read to him the great hadith imams, such as al-Darqutni (d. 385 AH / 996 CE) and al-Hakim al-Nisaburi (d. 405 AH / 1015 CE).
Rather, he undertook the first known attempt at our collective and encyclopedic compositions in the Arab-Islamic culture, when he wanted to classify the broadest interpretation of the Noble Qur’an. “He gathered several imams to compose a great interpretation that encompasses the sayings of the commentators, readers, grammarians, and hadiths ... In a week they received twenty thousand dinars (= today almost 3.3 million dollars) ";
According to al-Dhahabi, who said that a copy of this encyclopedia was seen, "Bnisapur takes [its writing] the lifetime of the copyist" to be so big !!
Yaqut al-Hamwi (d. 626 AH / 1229 CE) - in the 'Dictionary of Writers' - estimates the size of this encyclopedia at about "one hundred and twenty volumes" !!
And once again there is the dilemma of overlapping the sectarian bias of the ruler with the requirements of the supposed neutrality of the authority towards its subjects and the opinions they espouse.
The emirate of Khalaf al-Sijistani - whom the literary historian Abu Mansour al-Tha'alabi (d.429 AH / 1038 CE) calls “Sheikh of the Kings”! - knew a strong state of dependence on his fluctuating intellectual mood, wherever he chose to choose, the state tended to flow with blood.
That is because - according to al-Hamwi - “he was at the beginning of his command according to the doctrine of the people of opinion, and the people of his doctrine were luring him to kill those who violated his doctrine, so he killed many thousands according to that opinion .. Then he returned from the doctrine of the people of opinion to the doctrine of the people of hadith and killed many people” of their opponents People of opinion !!
The phenomenon of scholarly power houses contributed to the preservation of the scientific affiliation of a number of rulers in the Islamic West and Andalusia, just as the first generation of Abbasids had previously observed.
So the judge of Seville, Abu al-Qasim Muhammad bin Ismail bin Ubad al-Lakhmi (d. 433 AH / 1042 CE), who excelled the judge of the judges, historian Ibn Khallakan (d.681 AH / 1282 CE) - in 'Deaths of dignitaries' - a depiction that combined the two functions of knowledge and authority.
He said, "He was a scholar and man, with full knowledge of state management, and he was still an independent king until he died."
And the Andalusian historian Ibn Bashkawal (d. 578 AH / 1182 CE) stated that this Ibn Abbad “was one of the most important to take care of knowledge,” as al-Dhahabi translated for him - in his “biography” - and said that he “excelled in knowledge .. and took over the district of Seville.”
One of the strengths of the scientific queen of this prince was that he grew up in the care of his father, about whom Judge Ayyad said in the 'Arrangement of Perceptions': “He was a man in the West of Andalusia at his time, and good knowledge was cut off from great knowledge, and he was fit to consider jurisprudence, a scholar, who wrote, polite, and polite.”
Literary tiles and
Literary tiles and
when the Umayyad dynasty system fell in Andalusia at the beginning of the fifth / eleventh century AD;
The region of Seville was first subjected to the rule of the Alawite Banu Hammoud, then the speech of its notables met in 414 AH / 1024 AD on the assumption of its judge, Ibn Abbad. This is the rule of this region, “the country’s corruption and praise [his ruling] .., and the parish came to him,” because of his beautiful policy;
As golden says.
Thus, that was the actual beginning of the establishment of the state of Bani Abd al-Lakhmiyyin, which later extended until it included the capital, Cordoba. Abbad (d. 488 AH / 1059 AD), who established their state for about two decades, "He was a courageous knight, a scholar, clever, poet, philanthropist, a praiseworthy horse, of great importance .., and his writers were eighteen" !!
According to the golden.
And in Ifriqiya / Tunisia;
Prince poet Tamim bin Al-Muizz bin Badis Al-Senhaji (d. 501 AH / 1008 AD) embodied one of these models with distinction;
He was - as al-Dhahabi tells us - “one of the children of kings,” and he ruled Tunisia in the year 454 AH / 1063 CE, remaining for 47 years in which he was known as a “brave, majestic, wielding hero, a scholar who poet and a praiseworthy horse”.
Among the various paths of knowledge:
Literature was his most famous gateway to the cultural world, as al-Tayyib in Makhrama al-Hajrani (d. 947 AH / 1541 CE) described him - in “The Necklace of Sacrifice” - as a "skillful poet"!
And since the celebration of scholars has remained a common denominator that distinguishes the models of those with knowledge and governance;
This prince Al-Senhaji did not forget his fortune in that, as Ibn Khallakan tells us by saying about him: “The king of Ifriqiya and her guardian, he was ... a lover of scholars, most of the masters of virtues !!”
“Emir Tamim” is famous among historians for what his municipality praised, the poet Ibn Rashiq al-Qayrawani (d. 456 AH / 1065 CE), who said in “Hadith Maan Maan,” generously: the
most correct and loudest of what we heard in the dew ** of the narrated news since ancient times:
hadiths narrated by torrents * On the sea, on the cessation of Emir Tamim !!
In Egypt and the Levant, the Ayyubids;
Judgment and science had a special convergence for a figure with a prominent presence in the Islamic memory, namely, Sultan Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi (d.589 AH 1193 CE), who was classified by his translators among the compilers of hadith, so that al-Dhahabi says - in the “biography” - that he had students in it, as It was narrated by Yunus al-Farqi (d. 628 AH / 1231 CE) and Judge General [al-Isfahani] al-Katib (d.597 AH / 1200 CE).
Thus, Saladin records among a few of the modernists of his time who included in the narration of the Prophet’s hadith preserving literature and chanting poetry, for he “used to preserve the 'enthusiasm' (= a book of poetry) and thought that every jurist preserved it !!"
With his demonstrated scientific interest in diversity;
Because on the political and military level, his reputation "flew away in the world and the kings feared him" !!
The Council of Saladin had the character of councils of scholars and jurists and was not without scholarly participation made in its discussed scientific issues.
Al-Dhahabi explains this by saying: “Al-Muwaffaq Abd Al-Latif (Al-Baghdadi d. 629 AH / 1232 CE) said: I found his council a party of scholars who are studying, and he is good at listening and participating.” And his writer, General Al-Asfahani, said: “His majlis are qualified by virtue, listening to the hadiths influences.”
Encouragement rewards, in addition
Encouragement rewards, in addition
to the Hadith sciences, which had a number of schools at that time in the Ayyubid state;
The fortunes of the jurisprudence schools in this country - which were divided into several emirates after the death of Saladin - continued between ending one doctrine and empowering another.
Thus, the Ayyubid family knew the arrival of one of its sons, the jurists, to power in the Emirate of Damascus, the great Sultan Issa Ibn al-Adil (d.624 AH / 1227 CE), but he preferred not to take the same doctrinal version that the sons of his Ayyubid family belonged to, but rather chose to be a Hanafi scholar with a scholarly doctrine. Until qualified to fatwa "in it;
According to Al Dhahabi.
He was also loyal to his doctrine to the point of "fanaticism" and allocating financial rewards to those who memorize the mothers of his jurisprudence books.
Al-Dhahabi says that the magnificent Sultan “was intolerant of his [Hanafi] doctrine, and he made for those who offered (= memorized) .. 'The Great Mosque' [by Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaibani (d.189 AH / 805 CE)] two hundred dinars” as a reward.
Then he mentions a variety of the most important compilations of knowledge that al-Mu’ammar studied among his elders, and even memorized some of them.
These include “Kitab Sibawayh” and “Kitab al-Hujjah” in the readings, and “al-enthusiasm” [in literature] ... and Musnad Ahmad. ”
Ibn al-Atheer summarizes for us the prominent scholarly position of this sultan - whom al-Dhahabi described as "cunning and firmness" - and said that he "was a scholar of several sciences ... [distinguished] in them, including: Jurisprudence on the doctrine of Abu Hanifa (d.150 AH / 767 AD) .., including The science of grammar, he also worked with it in excess .., as well as language and other things .., and (= Raj) knowledge was spent in its market, and the scholars intended it from the horizons, so he honored them and performed ample punishments (= salaries) on them, and he brought them close (and he) sat and benefited from them and benefited them, and it was Due to the knowledge and patience! "
The great Ayyubid is renewed with the idea of a tendency to compose scientific encyclopedias, which we have seen an example of in the "modernized king", successor to al-Sijistani;
Ibn al-Atheer tells us that al-Muzzam “ordered that a book in the language be compiled for him by a large collector: in it is the book“ al-Sahih ”by al-Jawhari (d. 393 AH / 1004 CE), and what al-Sahhah has missed about [issues of language in other dictionaries] ... and also a matter of That 'the Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal' is arranged on the chapters, and every hadith is returned to the section that its meaning requires ... so it becomes a comprehensive book!
It seems that allocating prizes for keeping science books was an educational policy followed by this Sultan.
Ibn Khallakan informs us that it is “a condition for everyone who memorizes al-Mussafshal for al-Zamakhshari (d.539 AH / 1144 CE) a hundred dinars (= today approximately 18 thousand US dollars) and a khulaa (= precious clothing), so for this reason a group of jurists preserved it!
While Ibn Qutlubugha (d. 879 AH / 1474 CE) - in 'Taj al-Tarajum' - attributes to him that “for those who memorize [the book] 'al-clarification') in the grammar of Abu Ali al-Farsi d. 377 AH / 988 CE] thirty dinars, except for al-Khula '.
The Ayyubids were keen on the scientific upbringing of those affiliated with their tree to the point of deepening the knowledge, which preserved the assumption of sultans who represent distinctive models of simplicity in science and governance.
Among these, the name of the king of Hama, Abi al-Fida 'al-Ayyubi (d.732 AH / 1331 CE), who provided the Islamic library with authorizations in which applied sciences such as medicine and astronomy were present in it, shines clearly as Ibn Katheer said about him: “He has many virtues in various sciences of jurisprudence and the authority (= astronomy). And medicine, and so on, and he has many compilations, including a rich history in two large volumes, and he has organized 'Al-Hawi' [in jurisprudence] ... and he loved scholars and shared with them many arts. "
Ibn Shakir Al-Ketbi (d. 764 AH / 1363 AD) - which he describes in “Fawat al-Wawiyat” as “the honorable, scholarly imam, Sultan al-Malik” - defines for us the field of specialization in which al-Muayyad emerged:
He says, "The science of the Authority was the best he knew because he had perfected it, even though he had participated in all other sciences well."
Among his books printed today are: his 'Brief History of the News of Humans', 'Al-Kanash in the Arts of Grammar and Morphology', and 'Country Calendar' in the Field of Country Geography.
The Turkmen Apostolic state was also part of the phenomenon of families that combined knowledge and rule, in which we encounter a model among its sultans that embodied a different situation in the pattern of scientific interest that was not restricted to him in the field of Sharia sciences only, and the matter is related to the victorious Sultan Yusuf bin Omar the Messenger (d.694 AH / 1295 CE) ) Who was known historically as the greatest ruler of the Apostolic State, which ruled for 47 years.
Ibn Whas al-Khazraji al-Zubaidi (d.812 AH / 1415 CE) said of him - in “the pearly contracts” - that “he had a long hand in medicine, and when he inaugurated the city of Dhofar ... he mentioned in his book to al-Malik al-Zahir Baybars (d. 676 AH / 1279 AD). The owner of Egypt - that he needs a doctor for the city of Dhofar because it is an environment, and he said: He does not think that I want a doctor for ourselves, for we know, with the grace of God, medicine that no one else knows, and we have worked in it from the days of the youth a lot, and we were born Omar al-Ashraf (d.696 AH / 1296 CE) ) From the scholars of medicine, and he has [in it] the book 'Al-Jaami', no one is like him! '
Al-Muzaffar has a printed book on medicine entitled 'The Approved in Single Medicines'.
As for the victorious position in other sciences:
Al-Khazraji also explains it by saying that the books of hadith were “all set in his handwriting, so that whoever saw them say he had no work for his entire life [except copying], with his extensive work in science in various arts,” and despite his also preoccupation with the affairs of power in a country that often plagued him Conflicts of thrones and armies!
And after the departure of the Apostolic state;
We find that the fingerprints and traces of those with authority and knowledge continued in Yemen during the later ages, and to see a part of that, we travel to the Zaydi Imam al-Mutawakkil Yahya Sharaf al-Din al-Alawi (d.965 AH / 1558 CE), the sultan who formed the trinity of jurisprudence, poetry and authority the main elements in the building of his life and his career. It is no wonder if we recall that most of the Zaydi sultans - especially Yemen - were scholars because their Imami doctrine and political thought required the quality of knowledge in the one who would rule.
And between knowledge, learning and al-Mutawakil al-Zaidi, this ancient lineage is explained by Imam al-Shawkani (d. 1250 AH / 1834 CE) - in “Al-Badr Al-Tala'a” - and he says: “He read to his father Shams al-Din [book] al-Dhahriya” and explained it to Ibn Hutle (An-Najri d. 'Al-Kafiyyah' and its explanation and the first half of 'Al-Mussafal', then he left for Sana'a and he completed the reading of 'Al-Mussafal'!
He talked about his reading of central works in grammatical studies, adding that he "read in many arts and excelled in mental and translational sciences."
Moreover, al-Mutawakkil was not satisfied with the collection until he associated it with the authorship, which he did not distract from the experience of political problems.
He - like his predecessors who ruled in some Islamic regions after the fifth century AH - was abundant in scientific production, and among the classifications with which he supplied the Arab library: “The Book of 'Fruits'” [in which] the 'flowers' were abbreviated, and the 'Rulings in the Fundamentals of the Doctrine' Zaidi .
And unlike the position of the general Islamic caliphate;
The thrones of the country states - with the limited societal nature of their principalities - provided a valuable opportunity for the emergence of the phenomenon of apprenticeship to scholarly princes.
Therefore, it was stated in 'Tabaqat al-Zaydiyyah al-Kubra' by Ibn al-Qasim al-Shahari (d. 1152 AH / 1740 CE) that al-Mutawakkil “took knowledge from several students”, and that he was sitting to teach;
This reminds us of the model of al-Sultan al-Mudaris that we saw in the two personalities of Khalaf al-Sijistani and Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi.
Legislative leadership, and
Legislative leadership, and
if we left the happy Yemen and turned to the east towards the Islamic countries of India, the days of the sultans of the Great Mughals;
We will be in sight of another experience of a great ruler with a well-known scientific background, which is Sultan Alamir Aurangzev (d. 1118 AH / 1707 CE) who ruled India for 50 years, during which he was described by Abu al-Fadl al-Muradi (d.1206 AH / 1791 CE) in ‘Silik al-Durar’: “The World The Allama, the Sufi Who Knows God, the King in Support of Religion.
Then Al-Mouradi adds, indicating to us how this scholarly sultan managed his time in conflict between matters of government and the arts of science: “And he was a distribution of his times: a time for worship, a time for teaching, a time for the interests of the military, a time for charity, and a time for reading books and news reported to him every day and night from his kingdom, no Confuse something with something! "
With regard to the effects resulting from the scientific component on the personalities of the rulers;
The Sultan Alamvir undertook a pioneering scholarly and jurisprudential project that was the first nucleus of contemporary "codification of jurisprudence" codes, starting with the "Journal of Judicial Rulings" of the Ottoman state in the year 1293 AH / 1876 AD, as if he was comparing with him the idea of collective authorship that had previously been applied by his counterpart in the Hanafi school of jurisprudence: Al-Malik Khalaf Al-Sijistani And the glorified Sultan, the Ayyubid, blew its ashes, and it returned glowing with his sponsorship of codifying Islamic jurisprudence rulings.
Al-Mouradi explained that by saying that Alamir: “He ordered the scholars of his Hanafi country to compile fatwas in his name that gather the bulk of their doctrine, which is needed from the legal rulings. They were collected in volumes and called them 'world fatwas', and it became famous in the Hijaz, Egyptian, Levantine and Roman countries (= Turkish). And the benefit of it and became a reference for muftis "in these countries.
From the west of the Islamic world, we conclude this historical procession that we started from its east.
In the Al-Aqsa Maghreb, the star of a prince versed in Islamic knowledge and sciences is Sultan Sidi Muhammad bin Abdullah Al-Alawi (d.1204 AH / 1790 CE), and the role of scholarly mothers this time was present in leaving an imprint on the march of the phenomenon of the "scholarly princes", as he is the grandson of the scholar Chenguetian hermaphroditism. Bint Bakkar Al-Mughafria (d. 1155 AH / 1142 AD), who was caring for him and teaching him sciences while he was soft on the oud, for she was "a scholarly jurist."
According to its translation by Al-Nasiri Al-Salawi (d. 1315 AH / 1898 AD) in his book Al-Istiqsa.
Al-Salawi also quoted the historian of the Alawite state in Morocco, Allamah Acansos (d. 1296 AH / 1877 AD), describing to the grandmother of this prince as “the mother of the sultans, and she was Salih Abidah, a scholar who acquired sciences,” he said. Hajar Al-Asqalani.
Thus, we realize the distinction of the atmosphere of educational attainment by the Sultan, the jurist Sidi Muhammad, about which Ibn al-Tayyib al-Qadri (d. Scholars without him!
In 'Silwat al-Nafas' by al-Kattani (d.
And we see a bit of the information indicating this, as the Sultan mentioned about himself in the conclusion of his book 'Al-Jami' Al-Sahih Al-Sahih Al-Isnaad extracted from Six Musanids.
As it was stated: “One of the greatest blessings of God upon me and His blessings of mine is that he has enabled me to work in knowledge, search for it, and study for his family, and after I delved into linguistics for a period of time, and memorized the words and poems of the Arabs a good sentence that helps to understand the Sunnah and the Qur’an, I worked with the sciences of hadith.”
What distinguished this prince from the rest of the sultans of the Islamic West - after the era of the monotheist state - was that he used to describe himself in his books as "the Commander of the Faithful ... Al-Maliki, of the Hanbali school of thought."
And it seems that this Hanbali nodal choice - in an environment that has long been decided by its doctrinal choice in favor of the Ash'ari school - was behind some of this Sultan's decisions related to the field of education.
He was - according to Al-Selawi- “forbids reading the books of monotheism that are based on the verbal rules liberated on the Ash'ari doctrine” !!