Every year, my country loses 70 billion catties of grain in storage, transportation and processing.
Reducing post-production loss of grain is equal to building invisible farmland
In recent years, through the comprehensive implementation of the grain security project, post-production service system construction, and active promotion of the application of grain post-production loss reduction technology, the loss of grain storage has been significantly reduced. However, the post-production loss of my country’s grain is still serious and the task of reduction is arduous.
Recently, food waste has become a hot spot of public concern. However, compared with the "waste on the tip of the tongue", the loss of my country's grain from the production to processing chain is little known, but it is equally shocking. Data from the State Bureau of Grain and Material Reserves shows that at present, my country’s grain loss in storage, transportation, and processing has reached 70 billion jin every year.
The loss of grain harvest is second only to consumption
"Reducing food post-production losses and waste is equal to building invisible fertile fields, and is an important measure to improve the level of food security. In recent years, through the comprehensive implementation of the grain security project (grain procurement and storage, supply security project) and the construction of post-production service systems, we have actively promoted post-production grain The application of loss reduction technology has significantly reduced the loss of grain storage, but the post-production loss of grain in China is still serious, and the task of reduction is arduous. Losses in grain harvesting, farmers' grain storage, grain and oil processing and consumption are relatively concentrated, and the loss rate of individual links is high." Said Wang Hong, director of the Department of Safe Warehousing and Technology of the Bureau of Material Reserves.
"Relevant research shows that the loss in the harvest link is second only to the consumption link in the postpartum loss." Professor Wu Laping of the School of Economics and Management of China Agricultural University said in an interview with a reporter from the Science and Technology Daily.
A special survey conducted by the Wulaping team in 28 provinces (cities, districts) across the country on the loss of grain harvesting in nearly 5,000 farmers showed that the loss rate of artificial harvest of wheat was 5.87%, which was higher than the loss rate of semi-mechanized harvesting (5.39). %) and the loss rate of combined mechanized harvesting (4.28%), the loss rate of artificial harvesting of rice (2.84%) is slightly lower than the loss rate of segmented semi-mechanized harvesting (3.28%) and the loss rate of combined mechanized harvesting (3.84%) .
Some of these food losses can actually be avoided.
"According to the guidance of the "Main Crops Fully Mechanized Production Mode", the loss rate of the rice full-feeding combine harvester should be less than or equal to 3%, the half-feeding combine harvester's loss rate should be less than or equal to 2.5%; the wheat combine harvester loss The rate should be less than or equal to 2% (the Huanghuaihai region is less than or equal to 3%). At present, the loss rate of the mechanized harvesting of rice and wheat is more than 3%. In addition, most growers do not pick up grain now. Our survey shows that Only 30.45% of farmers pick up." Wu Laping said.
Promoting agricultural machinery social services can reduce harvest losses
How to reduce harvest losses during harvest time? Socialized agricultural machinery service is an important way.
According to information released by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the national winter wheat harvest rate is 97%, but due to the small size of the land, the popularization of large and high-efficiency harvesting machinery is not enough, and the loss rate of small and medium harvesting machinery is relatively large. The mechanical yield of rice and corn has been continuously improved in recent years. In 2019, the comprehensive mechanization rate of corn and rice cultivation and harvest has exceeded 80%, basically achieving mechanization.
"However, for most farmers, the cost of purchasing and maintaining the combine harvester required for combined harvesting is relatively high, and the farmer’s operating skills are relatively low. Therefore, purchasing professional social services has become a cost reduction and an increase in harvest. Effective way of efficiency and quality of operations." Wu Laping said.
In recent years, a series of policy documents such as the "Opinions of the Ministry of Agriculture on the Promotion of Full-process Mechanization of Major Crops Production" and "Guiding Opinions of the State Council on Accelerating the Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization and the Transformation and Upgrading of Agricultural Machinery Equipment Industry" have been issued, which has effectively promoted the socialization of agricultural machinery services. development of.
In order to further improve the efficiency of socialized agricultural machinery services and reduce harvest losses, Wu Laping suggested that the degree of land fragmentation should be reduced first, and the scale of planting should be appropriately expanded. The larger the planting scale, the more conducive to the operation of the combine harvester, which improves the use efficiency and reduces the harvest loss rate.
"Secondly, promote the transformation and upgrading of agricultural machinery, promote the integration of agricultural machinery and agronomy, actively promote the integration of crop varieties, cultivation techniques and mechanical equipment, accelerate joint mechanization research and development, and improve the intelligent level of agricultural machinery and equipment; in addition, strengthen professional skills training and improve the level of agricultural machinery service. Starting from the main grain producing province, regular training will be provided to the owners, operators and drivers of agricultural machinery service organizations, including vocational skills training and professional ethics training, such as the height of the cutting platform in rice harvesting and the harvester in wheat harvesting. Training on the size of the throttle," said Wu Laping.
At the same time, he suggested that the content of the social service contract should be perfected, and the highest loss of field harvest should be included in the service sample contract clauses, so as to enhance the awareness of agricultural machinery service providers to love and save food, and to reduce losses in the harvest link.
"It is recommended to organize a certain labor force to pick up food in the village. The loss of food also means the waste of arable land and water resources. Local governments should adopt corresponding subsidies or support measures to encourage the vast rural areas (especially the main food production areas) to Village collectives or cooperatives organize the relevant labor force for the main body to pick up food to minimize food loss." Wu Laping said.
Reducing food post-production losses needs to start from the whole chain
The chain of grain from field to table includes farmers' harvest, storage, grain purchase, storage and transportation, processing, consumption and other links. Therefore, it is not enough to only rely on the promotion of socialized agricultural machinery services to reduce harvest losses. So, how can other links be used to reduce post-production losses?
“In the process of farmer’s grain storage, build farmer’s scientific granary to reduce the loss of farmers’ grain storage; in the process of grain purchase, build a post-production service system to upgrade files; in the process of grain storage and transportation, develop and promote safe grain storage technology; in the process of grain processing, Actively promote moderate processing technology to reduce losses; in the grain consumption link, strengthen the promotion of food saving and loss reduction, and create an atmosphere of loving food and saving food." Wang Hong said.
He suggested to strengthen the improvement of food saving and reduce losses in three aspects.
First, improve policies and measures. Incorporate food savings and losses into the proposed "Food Security Guarantee Law", strengthen supervision, take effective measures, establish a long-term mechanism, and vigorously promote the establishment of a government-led, demand-driven, public participation, and social coordinated system. Actively explore and formulate guidance on post-harvest food loss reduction work, coordinate various related entities, establish a model for scientific and technological commissioners to support the grassroots level, and guide grain harvesting, storage, and investment in terms of technology R&D and application, publicity and education, standard planning, management mechanisms, and investment guidance. Mitigation work in various links such as transportation, processing, and consumption. Build a post-harvest loss assessment and monitoring system, a food saving and loss reduction publicity and education system, a technology research and development system, and an achievement promotion system, cultivate a professional food loss reduction technology innovation research and development team, and strengthen the training of highly skilled personnel.
Second, improve the level of facilities. Promote the improvement of technology and performance of grain harvesting machinery, and provide supporting services for agricultural machinery. Support the grain post-production service center to improve the ability and level of serving farmers, and do a good job of scientifically storing grain for farmers. Strengthen the construction of warehousing and logistics system, build high-level transit warehouse capacity at key logistics nodes, and implement the transformation and upgrading of old granaries.
Third, strengthen technical research. Research and develop new grain harvesting machinery, develop green and high-quality grain and oil products, and promote high-quality grain projects. Continue to develop new technologies for grain saving and loss reduction, increase the output rate of finished grains, the processing conversion rate and the utilization rate of by-products, and serve the construction of the grain "production, purchase, storage, and sales" system. Carry out basic research on grain and oil taste, precision and nutritional quality, and healthy food, and further improve the technical standard system of grain and oil processing industry.
8% of grain is lost during storage
According to the statistics of the grain department, the grain loss of farmers due to poor storage facilities, insufficient drying capacity, and lack of technical guidance has reached about 8%. Media investigations found that after the grain is harvested, some farmers tend to store grain in their own courtyards and farm fields for three to four months, and wait until the price is right before selling them. This storage method can easily lead to mildew, rot and rodent damage to the grain, causing a lot of losses. In addition to farmers, the grain storage facilities of some small and medium-sized grain purchasing companies and grain brokers are also very simple, causing serious food losses.
For this reason, Xu Yuewen, deputy director of the Agricultural and Rural Bureau of Yueyang County, Hunan Province, and others suggested that the departments of science and technology and grain in various regions should strengthen publicity and technical guidance, improve farmers’ awareness of safe grain storage, guide farmers in safe grain storage, and teach farmers science, advanced, and Reasonable household food storage technology.
Many grass-roots cadres said that it is recommended to continue to increase the promotion of scientific granary storage, and the central and provincial finances should provide matching funds to minimize the purchase cost of farmers, and through the targeted supervision of the grain department, ensure that "special warehouses are dedicated."
Liu Fangjiu, the person in charge of Heilongjiang Zhongliang Storage Technology Engineering Co., Ltd., suggested that according to the specific conditions of different regions and various types of grains, we should develop simple and safe grain storage technologies and granaries that meet the needs of farmers as soon as possible. The size of the silo should be based on the local average grain. Based on output, avoid the problem of inapplicability of granary size.
Our reporter Ma Aiping