Sand prevention and control, dozens of spring and autumn deserts add green and yellow sand to generate gold
Ecological governance, what has China brought to the world
China has contained the desert!
The eight deserts and four sands are distributed in northwest China, north China, and west northeast, forming a 10,000-mile sand belt from the Tarim Basin in the west to the Songnen Plain in the east. In the last century, China's desertification and desertification lands expanded at one time, and even "wind and sand approached Beijing".
Fortunately, people in this land never give up. They have persisted for many years, controlling desertification in accordance with the law, technology, and engineering, so that miracles can happen--
China has achieved a historic transformation from "retreating from sand to people" to "retreating from sand to sand". The area of desertification and desertification is "double reduced"; the degree of desertification and desertification is "double reduced"; the vegetation status and carbon sequestration capacity in sandy areas are "double increased"; the regional wind erosion status and wind and sand weather are "double decreased".
On the remote sensing image map, people are pleased to see that the moving green in the yellow sand of northern China is being connected one by one in the past!
China's desertification and desertification land area "double reduction" for three consecutive monitoring periods
On the southern edge of the Mu Us Sandy Land, more than 30 kilometers northeast of Dingbian County, Yulin City, Shaanxi Province, there is a place called "Wolf Sand".
Shi Guangyin, a farmer in Dingbian County, grew up in the sand nest in this area and suffered from wind and sand. In the 1960s and 1970s, he began to try to reforest and control desertification. In 1984, after the government's policy of encouraging individuals to contract desertification was introduced, Shi Guangyin dared to take the lead, led his wife and children, moved his family to the desert area, and signed a contract with the township government for a contract of 3,000 acres of desertification.
"Desertification is my only business. As long as one day does not die, I will plant a tree and carry on the sand control!" Shi Guangyin said. After decades of hard work, Shi Guangyin and his companions have created a green ecological barrier on the southern edge of the Mu Us Sandy Land. Today's "Wolf Nest Sand" is full of greenery, and the ancient and rare Shi Guangyin has become a well-known "sand control hero".
The Maowusu Sandy Land is one of the four major sandlands in China, half of which is located in Yulin. Through the efforts of sand control people from generation to generation, the forest coverage rate of Yulin increased from 0.9% to 34.8%, and the desertification land management rate has reached 93.2%.
More than Mao Usu! On the territory of China, such gratifying changes are taking place in many parts of the sand area.
You see-a plant grows continuously, the green background is getting stronger and stronger.
Inner Mongolia Alxa Zuoqi Zongbeili Town Manglai Gacha, the Haloxylon forest stretches everywhere. Looking around, the end is Ulanbu and the southern edge of the desert. The Haloxylon forest is like a green barrier, blocking the front of the desert and guarding the Yellow River and Helan Mountain.
"In the past, it was all sandy land. After planting the shuttle, the sand was fixed and the sand dunes were getting lower and lower." Liu Hongyi, the head of the Alxa Left Banner Forestry Work Station, said.
"A quarter of the newly added green in the world comes from China!" An international study based on satellite data shows that about one quarter of the new green area in the world from 2000 to 2017 came from China, with the world's largest contribution rate. A considerable part of this comes from the greening of the land in the sand area.
You see-all the salons bow their heads, and the annoying sand is getting less and less.
Shangquan Village, Datan Town, Minqin County, Gansu Province, is only about 1 km away from the desert. Villager Yang Yuming is still impressed by the sandstorm 10 years ago: the sand was scraping over and hitting people’s faces, eyes could not be opened, the mulch in the ground was blown onto the trees, and the seeds were also blown away .
"After the wind and sand, a yard of sand can often be swept out of the yard. Now there is much less sand. After a strong wind, there is no dustpan that can be swept away." Yang Yuming said. Sand and dust weather in northern China has decreased significantly in recent years.
The monitoring data of the State Forestry and Grassland Bureau shows that since 2004, the area of desertified and desertified land in China has been shrinking for three consecutive monitoring periods: the area of desertified land has expanded from an average of 10,400 square kilometers per year at the end of the last century to the current annual average Reduced 2424 square kilometers; the area of desertified land has expanded from an average of 3436 square kilometers at the end of the last century to a current average reduction of 1980 square kilometers. The vegetation status and carbon sequestration capacity in sandy areas have increased, and the regional wind erosion status and wind and sand weather have also decreased.
China has initially stopped the expansion of desertification!
Driven by major ecological projects, sand control and poverty control are mutually promoted
Behind this historic change from "sand advances to people retreat" to "green advancement to sand retreat" is the Chinese's unremitting efforts to contain "sand evil".
Over the past few decades, China has successively implemented key ecological projects such as returning farmland to forests and grasslands, the construction of the Three North Shelterbelt Forest System, Beijing-Tianjin Wind and Sand Source Management, and comprehensive management of rocky desertification. . Sign the "United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification", promulgate and implement the "Land Control Law" to build a green barrier at the legal level. At the same time, a large number of leading enterprises and sand control models actively participated, and the general public took active actions to make green extension and dunes stop.
——Major projects, laying a solid foundation for preventing and controlling desertification.
In the Sanbei Project Area, the average annual area of desertified land has shrunk by 1183 square kilometers. In the Beijing-Tianjin Wind and Sand Source Project Area, six ecological shelter belts and forest belts have been built in Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Hebei, and Beijing...
"Since 1978, China has implemented a series of major ecological projects with a cumulative investment of more than 1 trillion yuan, which has greatly improved the national ecological situation." The relevant person in charge of the State Forestry and Grassland Bureau said that the planning period of these projects is long and covers The wide scope and great investment intensity are very rare in all countries in the world.
-Continue to struggle and create one green miracle after another.
In Saihanba, Hebei, the forest farm builders worked hard and dedication on the desert sands where "the yellow sand covers the sky and the birds do not inhabit the trees", creating a human miracle in which the wilderness turns into a forest. Ningxia Lingwu, former director of Baijitan National Nature Reserve Administration Wang Youde, led the staff to create a wind-resistant and sand-fixing forest of 600,000 mu and controlled nearly 1 million mu of quicksand. In Jingbian, Shaanxi, Niu Yuqin, a "national model worker", planted grass and trees with his own hands and his family's hands, so that the local 110,000 mu of desert sand was covered with green clothes...
"In our country's long-term practice of sand prevention and control, a large number of heroes of sand control, such as Shi Guangyin, Wang Youde, and'Eight Steps and Six Old Men', have emerged, as well as Hebei Saihanba, Shanxi Youyu, Inner Mongolia Kubuqi, Xinjiang A batch of sand control models including Ke Keya and others." Sun Guoji, director of the Desertification Control Department of the State Forestry and Grassland Bureau, said, "The tenacity, perseverance, sand damage cannot be eliminated, and the sand control can't stop." Take responsibility, overcome difficulties and fight tenaciously.
——Participate in enterprises, explore advanced technologies and models to suppress sand trouble
In the Kubuqi Desert, a few decades ago, there was still a sand sea that could not be seen at a glance. Nowadays, the dunes are covered with green clothes, and the sand becomes good fields. Four-wheel drive of “political leadership of party committees and governments, industrial investment of enterprises, market participation of farmers and herdsmen, and sustainable innovation of science and technology”, more than 80 companies have participated in Kubuqi’s sand control and sand industry development, pursuing “green rich and prosperous ".
With sand returning to the green and ecological improvement, the "Golden Mountain and Silver Mountain" followed. "Returning farmland to forests allows barren hills to be covered with green clothes, and hilly and wild peach trees have become baby eggs. Peach kernels have been made into handicrafts, and visitors are very welcome." said Gao Jianzhong, a farmer returning from Nancheng Village, Huangduobao Town, Yuanzhou District, Guyuan City, Ningxia.
Sand control and poverty control mutually promote each other, forming a virtuous circle. "Scientific development and utilization of light, heat, wind and other resources in the sandy areas, and development of green and rich people's industries such as special cultivation and processing and desert tourism according to local conditions have increased employment opportunities for farmers and herdsmen, expanded income-increasing channels, and accelerated the pace of poverty alleviation." Sun Guoji said.
According to statistics, the economic forests in the northern sand area entering the fruiting period produce 48 million tons of dry and fresh fruits annually, accounting for about one-third of the country's total output, with an annual output value of 120 billion yuan. the above. In the past three years, the poverty population in the 12 sand provinces in the north has decreased by more than 10 million.
Sand control is not to "eliminate the desert", the emphasis is on scientific management
One person inserted the slender water pipe into the sand, the water pressure suddenly burst out a hole, and the other inserted the sand willow, filling it with sand. It takes about 10 seconds to plant the next plant.
"This method is called "Minimally Invasive Airflow Tree Planting Method", which reduces soil disturbance and improves the survival rate to more than 80%." Yili Group sand control experts introduced.
The Chinese have realized in practice that the desert is part of the earth’s ecosystem, and sand control is not to “destroyer the desert”, but to control man-made desertified land on the basis of respecting science and observing the laws of nature.
Relying on scientific and technological innovation and respecting the laws of nature, desertification control in China's national defense has gone from extensive to refined, and the "drug prescriptions" for desertification control are becoming more and more diverse, and the effect is becoming more and more obvious.
——Manually manage by hand. Carry out a pilot project for precise sand control, measure water, set green by water, and balance forest and water.
In 2018, the State Forestry and Grassland Bureau selected 30 representative counties (flags and districts) in the Sanbei Engineering Forest District to carry out a pilot project for precise sand control.
Accurate sand control, the core is to measure water, set green with water, and balance forest water.
In the past two years, nearly 2 million mu of precision sand control experiments have been carried out, and the regional ecological environment has been effectively protected and improved. "During the construction of the Three North Phase VI project, the scope of precision sand control will be further expanded from "big flood irrigation" to "precision drip irrigation." Sun Guoji said.
——Natural restoration with one hand. Fully implement the red line for desert ecological protection and protect the natural desert vegetation.
In 2013, China launched a pilot project on subsidies for the protection of desertified land. Up to now, there are 104 protected areas on desertified land, and the protected area covers 1.74 million hectares. Enclosure and protection have eliminated the impact of human activities such as grazing and reclamation, and allowed vegetation in the sandy areas to gradually recover naturally.
Reporters saw in many areas in the Sha District that the natural restoration effect of the banned protected areas is "retreat, sand retreat and green advance".
Provide the "Chinese experience" for the international community to combat desertification
The "China Answer" for desertification prevention has attracted worldwide attention.
UN Secretary General Guterres commented: China has taken the lead in achieving "zero growth" in land degradation worldwide, and "double reduction" in the area of desertified land and desertified land, which has made tremendous contributions to the global realization of the United Nations goal of zero growth in land degradation by 2030. The secretariat of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification praised: "China's governance of the desert has become a global model."
The combination of government leadership and public participation, the combination of natural restoration and artificial governance, the combination of legal constraints and policy incentives, the combination of key breakthroughs and general promotion, the combination of science and hard work, the combination of ecological governance and improvement of people's livelihood- China has embarked on a path of desertification prevention with Chinese characteristics, and has formed a replicable, scalable, and sustainable sand control model, which has given the world a cure for "Earth Cancer" and developed a "Chinese prescription."
"A series of major projects implemented by the state have played a leading role, and at the same time supported a large number of enterprises and the public to participate and form a strong joint force to promote desertification prevention and control." Yang Wenbin, chief expert of desert prevention and control of the Chinese Academy of Forestry, said, China's experience in preventing and controlling desertification has extensive reference significance to the world.
At present, more than 2 billion people in 167 countries and regions are threatened by desertification. In recent years, the exchanges and cooperation on desertification control in countries and regions along the “Belt and Road” have been continuously strengthened, and advanced technologies and governance models for desertification control in China have been promoted. Chinese experience is going abroad and sharing with the world!
The Chinese people's efforts to control desertification will not stop.
The whole country is still short of forests and greenery, and its ecology is fragile. Desertified land amounts to 2.61 million square kilometers, accounting for 1/4 of the country's land area; desertified land reaches 1.72 million square kilometers, accounting for nearly 1/5 of the country's land area.
"Remediation has been basically completed in places with better site conditions. Construction conditions in most of the remaining places are poor, the environment is relatively harsh, the climate is dry and there is little rain, and the difficulty and cost of governance are getting higher and higher. Stage." Sun Guoji said.
Sun Guoji said that during the "Fourteenth Five-Year Plan" period, the prevention and control of desertification will follow the principles of prevention first, scientific management, and rational use, and follow the laws of nature and economy. Focus on the ecologically important frontier areas, main sand and dust source areas and river basins. On the basis of comprehensive protection of desert vegetation, measures such as engineering sand fixation, artificial afforestation and grass planting, sand sealing and silviculture and grass breeding are planned to complete the management tasks 8.5 million hectares.
"Ecological governance, roads are long and obstacles, the line is coming." Following the strategy of harmonious coexistence between man and nature, toward the goal of building a beautiful China, China will continue to promote sand prevention and control, and naturally seek harmony and beauty for the people. Well-being!
Kou Jiangze Liu Yi