Berlin (dpa) - The aging Bundeswehr's tornado fleet is to be replaced by up to 90 further Eurofighter jets and 45 F-18 fighter planes from the US manufacturer Boeing from 2025.
The US model is to be procured for electronic aerial combat and Germany's “nuclear participation” in US weapons. This is provided by internal plans by the Ministry of Defense, which according to dpa information have already been discussed at the political level and with industry representatives. Defense minister Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (CDU) has yet to approve the plan, it said in parliamentary space.
The Bundeswehr currently has a total of 234 combat aircraft, including 141 Eurofighters from the European manufacturer Airbus and 93 Tornado jets. The tornado, which was launched almost 40 years ago, is intended for the tasks of air attack, tactical aerial reconnaissance and electronic warfare - and for nuclear deterrence. 83 aircraft are in flight operation, and ten more aircraft are used for training on the ground and for technical defense tests. Germany is one of the last users of this type of aircraft. The company will soon face the cost of additional billions, if only because spare parts become manufacturing work.
There has been a long struggle for the successor decision, which involves a double-digit billion amount over the years. The plan now being negotiated is intended to reconcile security policy requirements with industrial policy, which among other things involves strong Bavarian interests. The Airbus armaments division has its headquarters in Bavaria, Eurofighters are finally assembled in Manching. Either way - a future federal government will only make the final decision on the timeline.
The project is also politically difficult because of the “special role” of the tornado: NATO's nuclear deterrent concept provides that allies have access to US nuclear weapons in the event of war and must therefore be able to carry the bombs to their destination. Officially never confirmed, but a kind of open secret: 20 thermonuclear B61 gravity bombs from the US armed forces are to be stored in Büchel in the Eifel, which can be latched on under German tornadoes.
The topic is central to the support obligations in the transatlantic alliance, but: You cannot score points in Germany with it, especially not as a SPD politician. The SPD has not shaken it since 1958. “Nuclear deterrence will remain an integral part of the European security architecture for the foreseeable future. Nuclear participation ensures Germany a greater influence on NATO's nuclear strategy, »SPD defense politician Fritz Felgentreu told dpa in October. And: "We shouldn't give it up lightly - especially not if we want to enforce arms control and disarmament."
When replacing the Tornado, military planners recently referred to the need to guarantee operational safety with two different machines. Strategies speak of a two-fleet concept.
A solution should now look like this:
Around 30 F-18s of the “Super Hornet” version are to be procured for nuclear participation. The US model is supported by the fact that certification by the USA appears to be easier than with the Eurofighter, after all, Washington can set the pace even here. For the electronic dogfight - disturbing, holding down and fighting enemy air defense positions - 15 F-18s in the "Growler" version are also procured.
The new Eurofighters take on the other tasks of the Tornado fleet: aerial reconnaissance, the use of conventional bombs and as a fighter plane. The relatively large number of at least 78 Eurofighters - but possibly more than 90 - comes about because machines are also to be bought as replacements for older Eurofighters in Tranche 1.
The plan is to protect the interests of the European defense industry. This also applies to the jointly operated project with France of a new air combat system (“FCAS”), which should be available from 2040. Politicians such as Bavaria's Prime Minister Markus Söder had warned that German industry was working at full capacity and jobs would be safeguarded. However, Airbus had also warned that plans to sell Eurofighters to Switzerland, Finland and Spain could be shaken if an F-18 was bought in Germany.
Before the plans became known, the IG Metall and works councils issued a fire letter warning against the purchase of American F-18s instead of the Eurofighter. 100,000 jobs in Europe are dependent on the Eurofighter, including 25,000 in Germany. "The purchase of the F-18 would not only allow billions of dollars in German tax money to flow into the United States, but would also jeopardize the future of military aerospace in Germany," said the letter to Kramp-Karrenbauer, Economics Minister Peter Altmaier and Chancellery Minister Helge Braun (all CDU).
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