The debates promise to be long and intense. The examination of the pension reform bill begins Monday in the National Assembly, after a strike movement of an unprecedented length which paralyzed transport during the months of December and January. While a new "dead day" is scheduled for transport on Monday, Europe 1 takes stock of the main points of the reform planned by the government.
A "universal" pension system
The future system will cover "all people working in France, without exception": employees in the private and special schemes, civil servants, magistrates, soldiers, farmers, self-employed workers. All active workers born from 1975 will contribute to a new "National Universal Pension Fund" which will oversee the 42 existing schemes - before, perhaps, absorbing them.
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In committee, the deputies symbolically noted the future increase in teachers' salaries, by isolating in a specific article of the bill this "guarantee", an amendment which will however have to be re-voted in session. To respond in particular to the discontent of the lawyers, they also voted in favor of a reduction in the contributions of the independent professions, a provision which will also have to be confirmed in the Chamber. They also provided that supplementary pension plans could draw on their financial reserves to help the transition to the universal plan under conditions set by ordinance. As for employers of special plans, they may take charge during the transition period of the differences in the salary contributions of the employees concerned.
The deputies also registered "hard" one of the ordinances on the "right to information" of the pensioners, the oppositions criticizing in a recurring way the thirty ordinances programmed. For the sake of "exemplarity", the deputies also planned that the reform will apply from 2022 for parliamentarians taking office.
And by points
The amount of the retirement will depend on the number of points accumulated "throughout the professional career" and no longer on the contribution period (in quarters) and the reference salary (25 best years in the private sector, last 6 months in the public). Fundamental unit of account of the future system, the point will have an "acquisition value" (during the career) and a "service value" (for the calculation of the pension), which cannot decrease or increase more slowly than inflation. This rule on the evolution of the point value, which was already in the ordinary bill, was added by the deputies to the organic bill.
The value of the point will be calculated using a "new indicator" from INSEE on "the evolution of average activity income per capita", the left criticizing "guilty amateurism" by basing a model on " an indicator that does not exist "to date. Another sensitive subject is the consideration of the arduous nature of certain professions, on which discussions with the social partners have not yet resulted.
Balance age and bonus-malus system
The legal retirement age will remain at 62 (or less for certain professions), but it will be necessary to "work a little longer" to receive a full pension. An "age of equilibrium", combined with a "bonus-penalty mechanism" of 5% per year, will thus aim to "encourage the French to leave later with a better pension".
Initially, the government envisaged its entry into force in 2022, to gradually increase it to 64 years in 2027. Faced with union opposition, this "short-term measure" was withdrawn from the bill, a " conference of funders "to propose by the end of April other means" of achieving financial balance ".
Some early departures retained
Civil servants exercising certain "royal functions" (police, customs, prison guards, air traffic controllers) can always retire at 57, even 52 years of age. Ditto for the military, who will keep the right to receive a pension after 17 or 27 years of "effective service".
For other civil servants in the "active categories" and employees of special schemes, the legal age will be gradually raised to 62, but the extension of the "arduous work" account and of retirement for permanent incapacity already in force in the private sector will allow some to stop working at 60.
Extended progressive retirement
Phased retirement, which makes it possible to receive part of his pension while continuing to work part-time, will be extended to employees on day packages, special schemes and farmers. The rules for combining employment and retirement will be modified so that those receiving a full pension can earn additional points when they resume an activity.
Future retirees "having completed a full career" will receive if necessary "additional points" so that their pension reaches 1,000 euros net in 2022, then 83% of the Smic net in 2023, 84% in 2024 and 85% in 2025.
Family and marital rights
Each child will be entitled to "a 5% increase in points", allocated by default to the mother but which both parents will have "the possibility of sharing". An additional bonus of 2% will be granted for the third child and shared equally between the father and the mother, unless they decide otherwise.
The survivor's pension will guarantee to the surviving spouse, from 55 years and after at least two years of marriage, "70% of the retirement points acquired by the couple". These rules will however only apply "from 2037", for people who have joined the universal system. The rights of divorced spouses will be specified later by ordinance.