Transfiguration with the administration, security now December 12 17:25
Defense expenses are at a record high.
Established a security-related law that was said to be a major shift in post-war policy,
The use of collective self-defense is also permitted
The Abe administration has a sign of “positive pacifism”.
How has the country's security transformed under the longest administration in history?
(Department of Politics, Yamagata, Soyo Chikuma)
The law of war or the law of peace
The Diet was rough.
That year, the House of Councilors Main Hall, dawning September 19, 2015.
Security-related laws were enacted as the opposition party voiced “Violation of the Constitution!”
He accepted the use of collective self-defense rights that have not been recognized by successive LDP administrations, and was also said to be a “major shift in post-war security policy”.
Opposition parties also criticize that it is “war law”. It was established not only in the parliament but also in the opposition from people gathered around the Diet.
On the other hand, Prime Minister Abe talked about the significance of the law.
“It is a legal system necessary to protect the lives and peaceful lives of the people and to prevent wars. The legal foundation necessary to deliver peaceful Japan to children has been established.”
The following month, a poll conducted by NHK said that “it does not evaluate at all” or “does not evaluate it very much” over 50% regarding whether to evaluate the establishment of laws related to security.
Amid strong public criticism, the Abe administration has largely steered its security policy.
That law changed my relationship with the United States
What the law has changed is its relationship with the United States.
Security-related laws have allowed the Self-Defense Forces to guard US troops working for Japanese defense, including joint training and surveillance of ballistic missiles.
For the first time in May, the Maritime Self-Defense Force escorted the largest escort ship "Izumo" from the Boso Peninsula to the offshore of Shikoku. Ototoshi, including this, has two guards.
However, last year, the number rapidly increased to 16 for ships, 6 for ships and 10 for aircraft. New protection was also provided for vessels carrying out information and surveillance activities, including warning of ballistic missiles.
Furthermore, in addition to land, sea, and air, joint training and other events are being carried out one after another in new fields such as space and cyber, and the movement of US-Japan integration is accelerating.
President Toshi Morimoto of Takushoku University, who served as the first Minister of Defense from the private sector in the Democratic Party administration. He points out that one of the achievements of the Abe administration is the strengthening of the Japan-US alliance through the development of security legislation.
“We have created a system that can always cooperate with the United States, and politically indicated“ the degree of preparedness ”in the form of a legal system. As a result, the alliance relationship between Japan and the United States has advanced significantly for the pursuit of Japan's national interests. It has a very big meaning. ''
Defense expenses continue to increase, and ...
The Abe administration intends to strengthen Japan's security system through alliances with the United States. That attitude is also reflected in budget planning.
“Japan has been reducing its defense spending over the last 10 years for fiscal consolidation, and the fact that it was reduced by the first Abe administration should be reconsidered.”
Prime Minister Abe said that in the first party discussion after the start of the second Abe administration, defense costs were declining not only during the Democratic Party administration but also during the Liberal Democratic Party administration, including the first administration. He expressed his remorse and appealed for the need for an increase.
That is the trend of defense expenses.
While fiscal consolidation has become an important issue, defense costs have been on a downward trend since FY1998.
However, it has increased every year since the second Abe administration. In recent years, it continues to update the highest ever.
The Ministry of Defense's budget for the next fiscal year 2020 is also expected to reach a record high.
Opposition parties are increasingly calling for spending on social security.
An increasing defense budget. The content has also changed due to the strengthening of cooperation with the United States.
The key is the transaction using the FMS = external military support system, where the US government directly sells defense equipment. It is characterized by the ability to trade high-military equipment, but it has also been pointed out that the price is likely to become the “quoting price” of the US side.
Looking at FMS procurement results, it was about 62 billion yen in 2009, 10 years ago, but it gradually expanded to about 407.8 billion yen in 2018.
Although it is influenced by “bulk buying”, it is expanding rapidly.
Looking at the procurement so far, the state-of-the-art stealth fighter "F35" and unmanned reconnaissance aircraft "Global Hawk".
There are many equipment that can only be procured from the United States.
The Ministry of Defense says that state-of-the-art defense equipment that cannot be produced domestically is necessary in order to respond to North Korea, which repeatedly launches ballistic missiles, and China, which is expanding into the ocean.
However, the ratio of FMS procurement in the total amount of contracts has exceeded 20% since FY2015, and there is an opinion that “the pressure on domestic equipment is contributing to weakening defense-related industries”. .
Mr. Morimoto points out that while FMS is necessary, further bold reform is needed to strengthen the domestic industrial base.
“If you give up FMS and make it domestic, it will cost a lot of development, and if you buy it from outside of the United States, you will not be able to defend effectively, so the number of FMS with the United States will eventually increase.”
“However, the problem that“ the defense industry in Japan will become increasingly exhausted as FMS grows ”needs to be improved. The defense business in Japan is less than 10% of revenue. No. To really put a scalpel, we have to restructure the defense industry. "
Flag of “positive pacifism”
In 2013, the Abe administration formulated the first “National Security Strategy” as a basic policy for diplomacy and defense.
In the basic philosophy, he stated, "From the standpoint of 'active pacifism' based on international cooperation, we will contribute more to the peace, stability and prosperity of the international community than ever before."
“A positive pacifism based on international cooperation is a flag that will lead Japan's future. Japan is more determined to fulfill its responsibilities than ever for peace and stability in the world.”
In a speech given at the US Congress in April 2015, Prime Minister Abe stressed:
PKO is "Dangling"
Proactive pacifism is one of the pillars of the Abe administration, but Professor Hideo Shinoda of Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, who specializes in international politics, points out that the content has changed over the past seven years.
“In the early days of the second administration, we had a strong stance of launching“ proactive pacifism ”and“ contributing to international contributions a lot ”, but it has shrunk a little.”
Professor Shinoda points out the trend of participation in UN peacekeeping operations.
In 1992, the PKO Cooperation Law was enacted to allow the Self-Defense Forces to participate in UN PKO = peacekeeping operations.
Japan has dispatched more than 12,000 people to Cambodia, Golan Heights, East Timor, etc. for over 25 years. (The following materials are from the Secretariat of PKO Headquarters)
However, in May 2017, the Abe administration withdrew the facility unit for South Sudan PKO, which was the only PKO activity at that time, saying that it was able to make a certain break.
Currently, the only PKO activities that Japan is participating in are four South Korean Sudanese PKO headquarters personnel.
The secretariat of the PKO headquarters of the government considers that PKO leaders are changing mainly to Asian and African countries, and for Japan, the operation of heavy machinery necessary for infrastructure development and medical capabilities for these countries. It is said that they are focusing on capacity building support such as
Nevertheless, Professor Shinoda points out that the Abe administration is becoming reluctant in the field of international peace cooperation.
“As a result of a very cold policy decision, there is no new unit dispatch to PKO.”
“In the security policy of the Abe administration, the traditional policy of strengthening the defense power centered on the Self-Defense Forces and maintaining the Japan-US alliance was strengthened. The position of how it is connected to general security is weak, and it became dangling. ''
Defense cooperation expanding with memorandum
While PKO activities are changing, defense ties with countries are rapidly strengthening under active pacifism.
The guideline is the “Memorandum of Understanding” signature, which is one opportunity to deepen the security relationship.
In general, such cooperation begins with “defense exchange” such as exchange of foreign students and mutual visits, and deepens into “memorandum” between governments, “defense cooperation” such as joint training and capacity building support.
The government has signed joint documents, including a memorandum on security, with 35 countries, including the United States and Canada, which have announced a high level joint security declaration between leaders. Memorandums with 20 countries, including Indonesia and Malaysia, nearly 60% of the total, were exchanged under the second and subsequent Abe administrations.
New agreements, which are the basis for deeper collaboration than “Memorandum of Understanding,” are also at a high pace.
Under the second and subsequent Abe administrations, GSOMIA and other four countries and organizations, such as Korea and India, have signed information protection agreements that share and protect information related to security. .
ACSA, which provides water, fuel, ammunition, etc. to each other, is a three-way agreement among five countries.
Defense equipment and technology transfer agreements are linked to eight countries, including India and the Philippines, among nine countries, and the relationship is being maintained and strengthened.
Looking at the countries that have signed the “Memorandum of Understanding” and have signed an “agreement”, the intention to strengthen the relationship with the countries that are closely related to the “free and open Indo-Pacific” advocated by the Abe administration.
Where is security going?
Regarding this direction, Mr. Morimoto said, “By promoting multilateral cooperation, Japan will receive less serious threats. In other words, international cooperation can reduce the defense efforts that Japan should make. It ’s a kind of insurance. ”
Prof. Shinoda said, “Japan has no option to expand its activities with regional organizations such as EU and ASEAN, but the Abe administration has no choice but to expand its network. “We made a direction,” he said.
“It is not only the United Nations that is working towards peace. PKO and piracy are both working with a variety of organizations with a solid view of positioning as a major international peace cooperation. You have to take the way. ''
However, looking around, North Korea has launched more than 20 ballistic missiles in the past year, and there are concerns about the movement towards resuming the launch of ICBM = intercontinental ballistic missiles.
China continues to expand into the ocean and continues to increase its uncertain military power.
Furthermore, the deterioration of relations with South Korea has also cast a shadow on security cooperation with Japan, such as problems related to GSOMIA.
In Japan, the debate over the overseas dispatch of the Self-Defense Forces is in full swing, and the criticism and distrust of the local community rises with the deployment of the new interceptor missile system “Aegis Ashore” and the relocation of the US Army Futenma base to Henoko, Nago City. .
Challenges to face are increasing in weight.
The security that the long-term administration changed amidst criticism. We must keep an eye on the way we are directly related to Japan.