Background and background of the establishment of the "Hong Kong bill" Is it also affecting trade negotiations between the United States and China?

The "Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act", which was enacted by President Trump, is a revised version of the "Hong Kong Policy Act" that was enacted in 1992 prior to the return of Hong Kong and added new provisions.

The conventional Hong Kong policy law allows Hong Kong to give preferential treatments different from those in mainland China, such as tariffs and visas, but if the US President finds Hong Kong's self-government is insufficient, these measures can be stopped. It was prescribed.

In addition to this, the law now requires the US government to verify that the high degree of autonomy in Hong Kong based on one country and two systems has not been damaged by the Chinese government and to report to the parliament every year.

As a result, if the US government determines that one country or two systems have become corporatized, it may lead to suspension of preferential treatment for Hong Kong.

The law also requires the US government to report on the human rights situation in Hong Kong every year, and there is a new provision that allows sanctions if human rights suppression is granted.

Specifically, in the event of repression, such as transferring Hong Kong citizens to mainland China and arbitrarily restraining them, sanctions such as visa cancellation and asset freezing will be given to Chinese officials involved. I am going to give you.

In addition to this "Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act", President Trump has also signed a law that prohibits US companies from exporting tear gas and other equipment to Hong Kong.

Equipment forbidden to export includes tear gas and tear spray, rubber bullets, water guns, handcuffs, stun guns, etc., used to control protests. It is forbidden.

Background and background of the legislation

In June, a large-scale demonstration of the ordinance amendment occurred in Hong Kong, and US republican and democratic parliamentarians in China helped respect human rights and establish democracy in Hong Kong. The bill was submitted to both Houses.

As the United States and China were in a fierce conflict in security and trade negotiations, the American Parliament had a strict view of China's human rights situation.

In September, democratic members who continued to protest in Hong Kong attended a parliamentary hearing, saying, “When the historians look back, the American Parliament is credited with protecting Hong Kong and human rights and democracy. "I want you to be," he appealed to pass the bill.

And on November 19, the Senate passed the bill unanimously, and the House of Representatives passed 417 in favor and 1 against the next day, and sent to the White House for President Trump's signature necessary for the passage of the law. It was.

In addition, the Senate and the House both unanimously banned the export of tear gas, rubber bullets, etc. used for the demonstrators to the Hong Kong police in the wake of a fierce clash between the demonstrators and the police in Hong Kong. It has been passed.

In response, the Chinese government reacted strongly and appealed to the United States not to enact the law by showing its readiness to take retaliation.

Amid the United States and China's trade negotiations marks the final stage towards the agreement of the agreement of the first stage, Trump President 22 days, "but must support the Hong Kong, it is a friend Xi Jinping Jintao also supports" I did not declare the signature, but several media in the United States were telling the prospect of taking the signature.

The impact on US-China trade negotiations

The signing of this bill by President Trump has given the view that the future of trade negotiations with China will also be affected.

The United States and China have shown a compromise toward the first-stage agreement at a ministerial-level discussion last month, so there is an expectation that trade friction between the United States and China, which has shaken the global economy, will be eased. It spread to markets.

However, in the talks, while there are still some gaps over the elimination of some of the tariffs that have been added to each other's imports, this time, President Trump has repelled China's argument over the Hong Kong issue, and this has affected the whereabouts of trade negotiations There is a view that it may come out.

The future focus will be on the launch of a new tariff on imported goods from China, scheduled for 15th of next month, which the US government plans to postpone if it reaches the first stage agreement.

If this measure is activated, the target items will extend to $ 160 billion, including smartphones and personal computers produced in China, and high tariffs will be added to almost all imported goods from China.

If this happens, both the Chinese and the American economy, where these products are widely used, may be hit, and the two will be watched as the launch period is approaching two weeks.