Berlin (dpa) - The number of classified as a "threat" Islamists has fallen in the past few months for the first time in years again. The deportation of German IS supporters, they could easily rise again.
This increases the workload of the security authorities, which currently also have to pay more attention to violent right-wing extremists. The most important questions and answers:
How many IS returnees are coming now?
That's not clear yet. Turkey wants to deport at least eleven people to Germany in the coming days. However, not all of them were in the terrorist militia Islamic State. Corresponding findings are only available to four women, two of whom are to be deported to Germany this Friday. They used the Turkish offensive in northern Syria to flee from the Kurdish-guarded Ain Issa prison camp. The German-Iraqi family from Hildesheim, who had emigrated to Turkey last January, is indeed attributed to the Salafist spectrum. However, nothing is known about a possible stay of the family in the militarily almost defeated pseudo-caliphate of the IS.
In the past three years, quite a few IS supporters have returned to Germany on their own - especially women with children. Some are already in court.
Why are there no deportations from Syria or Iraq?
Most German IS supporters who have been in Iraq have either been killed or they later went to Syria. Those who remained were tried by the Iraqis. Iraq has been negotiating for a while with Germany and other European countries on the establishment of a special tribunal for foreign fighters on Iraqi soil. However, this has so far nothing, among other things because the Iraqi government demands a lot of money and certain assurances - such as no death penalty - will not give.
The Kurdish groups in Syria have unsuccessfully asked Germany to withdraw German nationals from the detention centers they control. But only one state can deport.
How dangerous are the returnees?
That is hard to say. Battle-tested men are not yet on the list of Germans to be sent back from Turkey. But for women, according to experts: Not every wordily formulated rejection of the IS ideology is credible.
Are the returnees arrested?
Against 26 of the 95 Germans who are currently in Syria in captivity, there is dpa information in this country before a warrant. This is not true for many of the IS women. But that does not mean they do not have to be afraid of prosecution, as the case of the German-Tunisian Omaima A. shows. The widow of IS terrorist Denis Cuspert was arrested this September - three years after her return to Germany.
Could Germany refuse admission?
No, not with German citizens.
What about dual nationals?
The Bundestag passed a law in June which allows the withdrawal of German nationality from terrorists with a double passport. However, the law does not apply retroactively.
How many "perpetrators" does the police already have in view?
In the Islamist spectrum, on the 25th of September, 688 people were classified as "endangered" nationwide. This is less than in July 2018. At that time the police counted 774 Islamist "perils". Reasons for the decline are occasionally known deaths in conflict areas or a distancing of groups and ideology that propagate violence against people of other faiths.
In 108 of the Islamists currently classified as "perilous" there is evidence of a return from the Syrian-Iraqi conflict area. The security authorities assume that of the 1,050 Islamists they opened in Germany from Germany in 2013, around one third are now back in Germany. There are indications to more than 220 of the departed that they were killed in Syria or Iraq. In the field of politically motivated crime, people who are believed to be responsible for serious acts of violence or even terrorist attacks are called "endangers".
What long-term consequences does the government have?
Traveling to the IS area was initially not difficult for sympathizers of the terrorist militia living in Germany. Officially, while no one has said so, but at least some opposition politicians at times gave the impression that the security authorities are happy about any violent Salafist who leaves the country. That changed later. Potential jihadists had to hand in their travel documents. Perhaps also because of concerns about a possible return of combat-driven IS supporters.
You can not do more?
The leader of the Bundestag's interior committee, Andrea Lindholz, argues in view of the relatively high proportion of people with a migration background among the German IS supporters that "we have to look very closely to whom we give access to German citizenship". That would only be effective in some cases. First of all, there are non-immigrant immigrants among the German IS supporters, such as Jennifer W., who was said to have stood by and watched her husband tie a girl to a window and let her thirst for dehydration. Secondly, children of Muslim immigrants whose naturalized parents are not Islamists can also radicalize.