The Federal Government has decided on the regulations for a CO2 price for fuel, heating oil and gas in the Climate Protection Program. The Cabinet approved a bill which, for the first time in Germany, provides for a levy on CO2 emissions in the transport and building sector.
In 2021, a levy of ten euros on the tonne of CO2 is to be levied. It should rise to 35 euros by 2025 and then be fully released as part of a nationwide trade in pollution rights up to 60 euros. As early as 2021, gasoline and diesel could be more expensive by three cents a liter. After the full release of the emissions trade, fuel could be about 20 cents more expensive.
So consumers will not pay the carbon price directly. It is already collected from the 4,000 refineries or gas suppliers, who then pass on the delivery at about the pump or when filling the fuel oil tank.
After a long struggle, the Federal Government had agreed on the way to levy a national tax and later convert it into an emissions trading scheme. The SPD had initially favored a tax, but the Union insisted on emissions trading after the model of industry. However, this will take effect only after 2025 with a minimum price of 30 euros and a maximum price of 60 euros. Because of this mixture of fixed price and free trade there are doubts among environmental law experts, whether the regulations are also legally secure.
Industrial companies and power plants already have to buy CO2 pollution rights under the European emissions trading scheme, which are being tightened every year. Those who produce particularly environmentally friendly can sell rights on the stock market to those who need additional. This is how a price is formed.
The planned national emissions trading in the transport and building sector will later be merged with this European system. So far, there is the eco-tax in Germany - a bundle of taxes, which is to set incentives for climate protection and energy saving since the 90rt years.
As early as mid-October, the Ministerial Round had already approved files from the Ministry of Finance with tax measures, especially in the transport and building sector. This includes that rail travel in long-distance transport should be cheaper in future and air travel more expensive.