Tap to listen
The ritual of Hajj, and its enormous meanings, has always been established in the minds of the passage of days, the habitat of the masses of Muslims from all over the world. Willingly and grace the same, in order to reach the House of God and see the houses of the Prophet Abraham - peace be upon him - and his family, and read the traces of the birth of the Prophet - peace be upon him - and start his call.
Therefore, the ritual of Hajj in the Islamic conception is an authentic pillar of its pillars, and a pillar of its pillars on which its spiritual, social and political architecture was built. In this sense, Ali Izetbegovic pointed out in his talk about the fifth pillar of Islam, where he argues that it can be understood only in the framework of a "composite model," according to Messiri, it is "a religious ritual and spiritual experience, but also a political gathering, and trade fair And a general conference of the nation. " (1)
In keeping with the overall meaning in which the religious and spiritual intersect, in the political and social sense referred to by Begovic above; this ritual or Islamic worship is unique as being inclusive of all Islamic worship, as the pilgrimage is the most comprehensive and deepest worship.
"We have been honored and honored by God with many and varied acts of worship, so that all people, regardless of their circumstances and abilities, will find their opportunity, their share and their power. And the fasting is another worship for his body and for himself, and zakat is a worship for his money and himself, and jihad is a worship for his body or for his money, and the male is a worship for his heart, mind and tongue. The pilgrim struggles and suffers with his body and enough He engages in his argument with his heart and soul, meets and recalls and calls with his heart and tongue, walks with his feet and throws with his hands. (2)
Pilgrimage in travel literature
The literature of the journey represents a kind of literary writing, and an art of its exquisite art, because of its enjoyment and sociability, and wit and beauty, reveals the natures of people, human conditions, the beauty of nature, and other benefits and meanings rarely meet elsewhere; This is due to the diversity of aspects that the literature of the journey is concerned with monitoring and codifying, starting with religious affairs, social conditions, political conflicts, economic crises and scientific conditions.
Dr. Ahmed Al-Assaf believes that "no matter how many trips are different, the greatest journey of a human being is the journey that prefigures his feelings in his prey, and his soul aspires to his previous body, and dominates his heart before embarking on them, and these qualities do not meet only those who visit the old house of Hajj and Umrah; Then Iephal opportunity near to visit the city of the Prophet and pray in the mosque, and what a journey of the tormented by the spirits, and the souls breath, and its beautiful memory remains stuck in the mind of its origin for a long time. (3)
Ritual of Hajj .. The tried antidote
The pilgrimage experience was, and still is, an effective antidote to those who are tired of searching for water in the desert of nothingness. To Malcolm X, from Mohammed Asad to Murad Hoffman, from Ali Shariati to Jalal Al Ahmed. Not only did the Muslims stop there, but the Bekaa received great attention from the Orientalists, some of whom were keen to visit them disguised in Arab names and costumes, pretending to be Islam, to see for themselves the secrets inherent in this desolate spot that is wrapped in the desert everywhere. (4)
It is in this sense that the importance of standing in the hands of unique personalities of Muslim thought, who deservedly bore the title of "pilgrim", the title of the eastern unparalleled title in the Arab nation, as Murad Hoffman says (5). It is true that "we affix to them a character made with 'Made in Mecca', because of the fertile faith experience they experienced in the pilgrimage, an experience that we do not exaggerate if we say: it brought about in their lives and behavior a change that has not left their former people except meat and blood, as if the pilgrimage is a wonderful machine in "Making mankind" comes out of the pilgrim as a day born by his mother. " (6) To illustrate this change, we present a glimpse of their lives in general, while standing at the pilgrimage stage to draw lessons and lessons.
Who is Murat Hoffman?
Murat Hoffmann, a prominent German Muslim diplomat and author, born in 1931 in Germany, belonged to Hitler's youth when he was nine years old, but also belonged to a banned anti-Nazi League. (7)
He began studying law after obtaining his baccalaureate degree in Munich, and then obtained his doctorate in law. He worked for many years as a critic of ballet art in specialized magazines. He has worked since the 1950s at the German Embassy in Algeria, which made him observe the Algerian revolution, which seems to have aroused great interest and prompted him to meditate. (7) Author of many books dealing with the future of Islam within the framework of Western civilization and Europe. Hoffman converted from Catholicism to Islam in 1980. (7)
|Murat Hoffman (German)|
He worked as a nuclear defense expert at the German Foreign Ministry, and his Islamism was controversial because of his high position in the German government. He served as Director of the NATO Information Section in Brussels from 1983 to 1987, then Ambassador to Germany from 1987 to 1990, and then Ambassador to Morocco from 1990 to 1994. (7)
Convert to Islam
By reading a number of Hoffman's works: A German Muslim Diary, Islam as an Alternative, Islam in 2000, Islam in the Third Millennium, Religion in the Rise, Emptiness of the Self and Colonial Brains, it turns out that his arrival in Islam was not the result of an emotional stance, or the satisfaction of spiritual imperfection, Although both were achieved, it was the result of a long accumulation of attitudes, experiences, reflection and careful study.
Three basic experiences led him to this path: one of a human nature, the second of aesthetic art, and the third of philosophical thought. (7) As for the human nature, he found it in Algeria during his work at the German embassy there, and was under French occupation, and what he saw of the particular horrors, killing and blood, he saw alongside humanitarian attitudes to the Algerians that attracted his attention, and made him look for the motivator of these behaviors, despite Whatever happens.
"I realized their humanity in its most sincere form, when my wife had an abortion under the influence of the current events," he says of an experience that dug into the morals of the Algerian people. "She started bleeding at midnight, and the ambulance could not come to us before 6 o'clock. Am; because of the curfew, and because of the slogan "murder without warning" raised then.
After a long delay, we were on our way to the doctor's office, and my wife thought, in the meantime, that she would lose consciousness, so, in anticipation of the emergency, she started telling me that her blood type was negative O RH, and the Algerian driver heard her talk, offering to donate It has some of his blood that is of the same blood type. Here is a Muslim who donates his blood, in the midst of war, to save a foreigner from his religion. '' (8)
At the beginning, Hoffman was fond of static art and beauty, such as painting, sculpture, architecture and calligraphy, and soon drew his attention to the beauty of plastic art, which he felt became more sensible as the ability to suggest movement. (8) This interest evolved into his fascination with ballet performances, until he became a prominent critic in ballet in the columns of the newspapers of Germany, Britain and America. He taught the history and aesthetics of ballet at the Cologne Ballet Institute in 1971 and 1973. (8)
While in Algeria and other Muslim countries, a diplomat who drew his attention to Islamic architectural works such as mosques, schools and old buildings, Hoffman said: "Architectural works, such as the Alhambra in Granada and the Grand Mosque in Córdoba, Spain, inspired me to be certain that it was the creation of a high class civilization." . (8)
Hoffman was impressed with Islamic art until he lost a sense of other art: “Islamic art has become my aesthetic home, as was the classical ballet before. I see the art of the Greek and Gothic and Renaissance periods exciting and ancient but do not penetrate into me, nor move my emotions or feelings. I understand the power of attraction of this religion now better than before. " (8)
The idea of denying original sin was of utmost importance in Hoffman's thinking, because, in his view, Christian teachings emptied out several essential elements
As for the philosophical experience, Hoffman began to ask himself religious and philosophical questions, and then began looking for answers. These questions and answers led him to the certainty of the existence of God and wondered what communication between God and man was. That question led him to the need for revelation and religion, and the answer came through his repeated reading of the verse: "Do not visit other ministries and buttons" [Star / 38]. Hoffman explains his conception of this verse: "This verse expresses not only a moral principle, but also contains two religious concepts that form the basis and the essence of a religious thought: its denial of the idea of inheriting sin, the abolition of the possibility of individual interference between man and his Lord, and bearing the burden of it." It undermines the priests' status and deprives them of their influence, and denies the idea of mediation between man and his Lord. " (8)
The idea of denying original sin was of paramount importance to Hoffman's thinking, because, in his view, Christian teachings emptied out several essential elements such as the necessity of salvation, the incarnation, the Trinity, and death as a sacrifice. Christianity no longer seemed to be based on a variety of myths. His view of Islam has also become more rooted in the belief that Islam is the only true religion and alternative to Western societies. (9)
The journey of Hajj .. Feelings and rituals
Murad Hoffman recounts his spiritual experience on the journey of pilgrimage in his book Journey to Mecca, which comes in the form of tales and pictures of his memories of the pilgrimage, and his reflections on this corner, which he tried to question aesthetically reveal his philosophy and depth.
|Book a trip to Mecca Hoffman (Links)|
In the beginning, Hoffman points to the need for "spiritual preparation" for this trip, explaining that the most important thing in this regard is "the study of miscellaneous verses of the Koran on Hajj in the Suras of Al-Baqarah and Hajj, as well as memorizing the many ahaadeeth of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that deal with Hajj." (10) Hoffman asserts that the rituals of Hajj are apparently and internally linked, both materially and spiritually, and that this connection is not alien to Muslims; "Islamic faith is a synthesis of the soul and matter together, so the approach to God in Islam is not confined only to the soul, or the body only; The Muslim in his prayers, in his fasting, in his sacrifice for the sacrifice, and in his pilgrimage, is not only present in his spirit, mind and heart, but also in his flesh and blood; he is either present or not at all; this is the result of monotheism as a universal principle from an Islamic perspective. '' (10)
According to Hoffman, patience, self-discipline and discipline are among the most important values instilled in the same pilgrimage. "The pilgrim must be patient, avoid entering into a dispute or even attempting it," he said. "It is also forbidden for him to injure someone or something or to uproot a plant." Or even kills a mosquito. " (10) He states that "when luxury taxis carrying some pilgrims try to penetrate Muslim crowds, they do not hear an angry word, do not send an ugly signal, and no one hits the car with hatred on their owners. Discipline and commitment to this behavior by this crowd remains." "Muslims are surprising, even given the pilgrims' commitment to human, animal and plant safety. Before this experiment, I did not think that religious teachings could abolish certain social laws and rules for some time." (10)
For Ihram clothes, Hoffman points out that "the most important thing is that all pilgrims wear the same clothes, equal to their rich and poor, strong and weak, smart and simple, large and small. Since Ihram clothes are free of inscriptions or seamstresses, no one can The clothes of ihraam not only symbolize the equality of men before God, but also the Day of Resurrection, as we cut the airport terminal back and forth, it looked like someone who rose from death and still wears his shroud. Of the pilgrims keep the clothes of ihram to be enough for them. " (10)
Hoffman draws a symbolic meaning from the way the Ka'bah was built, which is related to the clarity and simplicity of the Islamic faith and the complexity of other faiths and creeds. He says: "The Ka'bah is a completely empty cube, built with huge stones. The House of God is in its simplest form, far from the complexity that appears in Gothic and Rococo art. " (10)
As for the Black Stone, Hoffman says: "It is the only remaining remnant of the pre-Islamic period, which is briefly the oldest parts of the Kaaba, not to mention that Muhammad - peace be upon him - personally put it where it is today" (10), referring to mediation The Prophet to resolve the dispute that erupted between the Quraysh on who returns the stone to his place. "The ritual between Safa and Marwa is to represent - and speak here to Hoffman - a commemoration of Mrs. Hajar's quest between the two mountains in search of water for her young child Ismail in the desolate valley of Mecca." (10)
He adds: "There are no rituals of pilgrimage despite the physical energy required, and the effort and hardship they cause .. Not without glimpses of aesthetic self-captivating, and go away pain and fatigue, as well as what represents the spiritual increase and faith." (10) Here, Hoffman stops in front of the tawaf scene to observe that it is a very beautiful scene; the Kaaba seems to be a fixed center that does not move to a cylinder that rotates slowly and in complete silence in a counter-clockwise direction. This scene only changes when praying; the Kaaba becomes the center of many united circles. Center, made up of thousands of whiter objects for people who desire one thing, are looking for one thing, and do one thing; (10)
The day of Arafa, the cornerstone of the great pilgrimage, describes his beauty to say: "It was a wonderful long day, it was a day of meditation and peace, a day of prayer and valuable conversations. Since I was practicing Jesuit exercises - a Christian religious group - in the young years had experienced such a full orientation This is the meaning of standing in the hands of God with Arafat; millions of people are shrouded in shrouds and leaving everything behind their backs on this day. Dedicated to God alone, expecting their death, praying and praying in humility and certainty did not happen Before, and mostly won't happen yet. " (10)
Hoffman then goes on to record his journey to tell us about the stoning of the devil and the symbol of the struggle of the devil, and says: "Our bus arrived at two o'clock in the morning to Mona, near the place where the stoning, which is a symbol of man's categorical rejection of evil inside himself. I approached the pillar to ensure that he was hit with only two fingers, while keeping a distance to protect me from a hail of pilgrims from the back. Big shoes and umbrellas. " (10)
Hajj .. World Conference
Hoffman recalls that a warm feeling of welcome and a sense of complete security was inundated among his brothers in the pilgrimages of the House of God, and that he realized from that the meaning of greeting "peace be upon you" and seemed vibrant, embodied dignity, beauty, faith and internationalism, "We felt like atoms In a great cosmic unity, the differences between races disappeared in Mecca; and during my kneeling only in prayer, I realized from different colors that all races and continents were represented here. " (10)
Hoffman points out the different nature of the Islamic and Christian view to other religions, saying: "The rituals of pilgrimage binds the Muslim to the father of the prophets Abraham - peace be upon him - it is God who ordered the lifting of rules from home, and this confirms the unity of the heavenly messages, and the interdependence between the prophets Contrary to their canons and methods "(10), contrary to the ecclesiastical perspective. "Christian churches do not readily recognize the Jewish and pagan rituals of their rituals," says Hoffman. "But Islam has no embarrassment in recognizing the ancient origins of its rituals. Muhammad never claimed to have come with a new religion. His message is to renew and complete the religion of the One God, ie submission and submission, ie Islam from eternity. " (10)
The end of Hoffman's trip was a visit to the city where the tomb of the Prophet peace be upon him, where pilgrims are familiar after the rituals go to Medina, Hoffman describes his feelings: "The presence where the Prophet lived - and where he planned In this place, which is fraught with history, the experience shook from the depths of some of the pilgrims who accompanied me. (10)