How to solve
the dilemma of "captivity" between primary and secondary schools

Recently, "primary and secondary school students are almost out of time to go to the toilet" has been on the hot search, and the problem of disappearing in 10 minutes between classes has aroused social concern. There are many reasons why primary and secondary schools have become "captive" during recess, including the school's concern for the safety of students, and the teacher's delay after class. In fact, no one wants to see children at a lively and active age being "locked" in the classroom between classes, so how to solve this dilemma?

Question 1

The main reason why the school does not allow students to go downstairs or out of the classroom during recess is that they are afraid that students will cause accidental injuries due to trouble. Can schools find a way to solve this problem?

The "two-way rush" between home and school reproduces the beauty of recess

Mu Chengmei, principal of Beijing Chaoyang School of Huanggang Middle School

"In the past, the carriage was slow, and the recess was full of flights; Nowadays, the carriage is fast, and there is not enough toilet between classes. Recently, topics such as "quiet recess", "captivity between classes" and "disappearing 10 minutes" in primary and secondary schools have been on the hot search, causing heated discussions.

Analyzing the "action guide" of students between classes, we will find that in the compulsory education stage, especially in primary schools, although there are some objective reasons, the school is more out of safety considerations. As a result, some schools or classes will "agree": in addition to going to the toilet, try not to go out of the classroom, not to cross floors or not to go out of the teaching building. Gradually, recess was "disappeared". Indeed, because of the problem of student "bumps" caused by recess activities, although there is school liability insurance, but in the process of processing, many schools have encountered similar incidents caused by home-school conflicts, children are guilty, parents complain, school grievances...

It can be seen that for the 10-minute recess, parents have demands, children have expectations, but schools have concerns. In the face of this situation, I have recently conducted some interviews with parents in compulsory education, and also conducted some small surveys among students. Judging from the survey results, there are basically three consensuses on "what a normal recess should look like": first, children need to leave their seats to move their bodies during recess, and the school guarantees a physical education class every day and an hour of exercise every day, and it is not necessary to go to the playground during recess; Secondly, although the recess cannot be "captive", it still needs to be organized in an orderly manner by the teacher; In addition, it is necessary to have unfettered natural communication between friends.

As long as there is consensus, there will be an entry point to solve the problem. From the perspective of school governance, we really can't choke on food "in the name of safety", and the focus of the school cannot be "no accidents" and "convenient management", but we need to implement comprehensive policies and reasonable guidance, so that students and parents can become important members of ensuring the orderly and beneficial recess and promoting the healthy growth of students. Schools may wish to try to change the status quo in the following four ways:

First, guide your child to learn "10 minutes of socializing". In addition to solving the toilet problem, the 10 minutes between classes are actually the children's "social time". Therefore, teachers can teach children to communicate freely with each other on the premise of respecting others and observing public order.

Second, teach children games that are suitable for playing in classrooms and common areas of the building. Teachers can teach children to play some "nostalgic games" that are not very demanding on the environment, such as scratching crutches, rope flipping, hopscotch, etc., which can not only move their muscles and bones, but also distract students from relying on electronic products to a certain extent.

Third, recess activities need to be carried out under the guidance of the school in an orderly manner, and ensure that students are selective and avoid falling into another state of "being organized". During recess, instead of letting teachers guard each classroom, it is better to arrange for some teachers to bring a playgroup for each teacher, so that students can voluntarily choose their favorite projects and play games with the teacher; Or in crowded places such as the bends of the corridor and the entrance of the stairs, arrange teachers to guide and maintain order, and ensure the safety of students who are willing to relax by themselves as much as possible.

Fourth, strengthen communication and form consultation and co-governance. The school must conduct full research, communication, and consultation with the parent committee on the issue of "what a normal recess should look like", and even how to treat and deal with the "bumps and injuries" that occur during recess, reach a consensus, and pass it on to all parents through the parent committee, parents' meetings and other channels, so as to form a relatively positive atmosphere among parents. Once there is a problem, especially when there is a difference of opinion between parents and parents, in addition to home-school consultation, it is necessary to deal with it reasonably and compliantly through legal affairs, and you can also ask the parent committee to mediate.

Perhaps the above suggestions cannot guarantee that children will be able to avoid "bumps" in their growth, nor can they prevent possible disagreements in dealing with problems, but returning 10 minutes between classes to students requires "two-way running" between home and school, only in this way can the school's concerns be alleviated, parents' demands can be met, children's expectations can be realized, and the beauty of 10 minutes between classes can be reproduced.

Question 2

The class dragged on for 5 minutes, the class was 2 minutes early, there was only a 3-minute break, and the time to stand up and stretch and drink saliva was in class again, and there was no time to go to the toilet... This is a true portrayal of some schools. Can the school ask the teacher not to delay the class and not start the class early?

Teachers need to be more efficient in their classrooms

Yang Liang, vice principal of Beijing Zhongguancun Middle School

In primary and secondary education, the curriculum is carefully designed to provide students with comprehensive and systematic learning content. In recent years, however, we have noticed a worrying phenomenon: the 10-minute recess is gradually disappearing. An important reason for this phenomenon is that teachers are late or early in class. Why is this happening? There are several reasons for this:

First, the teaching content is unreasonable. Some teachers do not achieve the unified coordination of "preparing textbooks" and "preparing students" when preparing lessons, that is, they do not fully consider the difficulty of the course content and the cognitive level of the students they teach, resulting in the progress of the class being too slow, so that they have to delay the class or start the class in advance.

Second, the teaching methods are not flexible enough. Some teachers rely on traditional teaching methods, do not make full use of modern educational technology, or rely excessively on network resources and multimedia teaching, resulting in low classroom teaching efficiency.

Third, classroom management is not in place. Some teachers are not strict enough in the management of students in the classroom, and the classroom discipline is lax, which leads to the lack of concentration of students and affects the progress of teaching.

The 10-minute recess is important for students. It is not only a time for students to relax and rejuvenate, but also an opportunity for students to interact with each other and with their teachers. If the 10 minutes between classes are allowed to occupy or even disappear, students will not be able to get enough rest and relaxation, which will cause fatigue to accumulate and reduce learning effectiveness. At the same time, students' emotional and mental health will also be affected, as long hours of study will cause students to feel fatigued, prone to physical discomfort, psychological stress and other problems. In addition, students may also lose opportunities to build friendships and collaborations with others, resulting in limited social development.

In response to the problem of some teachers delaying classes and starting classes early, schools can try the following solutions in a targeted manner:

First, improve the quality of lesson preparation. When preparing lessons, teachers should fully consider the difficulty of the course content and the cognitive level of students, reasonably arrange the teaching progress, pay attention to the learning needs and interests of students in advance, and improve the attractiveness and pertinence of classroom teaching.

Second, improve teaching methods. Teachers should flexibly use a variety of teaching methods according to the course content and the characteristics of students to improve the efficiency of classroom teaching, and also pay attention to cultivating students' self-directed learning, mutual assistance and cooperative learning ability, and encourage students to learn and explore outside the classroom.

Third, strengthen classroom management. Teachers shall strengthen student management in the classroom, ensure good classroom discipline, and pay attention to students' learning status at all times, and promptly adjust the pace of teaching.

In short, to solve the problem of teachers delaying classes and attending classes in advance, schools need to start from many aspects, which not only require teachers to coordinate the relationship between "preparing teaching materials", "preparing students" and "preparing teaching methods", further improve the quality of lesson preparation, improve teaching methods, but also require teachers to strengthen classroom management, improve the efficiency of each class, and ensure that each class can achieve the expected teaching objectives. Only in this way can we ensure that the 10 minutes between classes are effectively guaranteed and create a good campus learning and living environment for students.

Question 3

There are only 10 minutes between classes, and some students will not bother to go out of the classroom. How can schools find ways to attract students to the outdoors for physical activity?

Design special activities to increase student engagement

Li Chenhui, President of Fengtai Experimental School of the Chinese Academy of Education Sciences

The 10-minute recess is an important part of campus life, especially sports activities, which many students enjoy participating. Whenever I see the students kicking shuttlecock, skipping rope, and playing basketball during recess, I feel that this is what a school should be.

In my opinion, there are many benefits to students participating in recess sports activities in addition to being able to exercise.

First of all, it is good for mental health. Physical activity is invaluable to students' mental health. In physical activity, students can release stress and tension in their studies, in life, thereby reducing anxiety and depression. The joy and sense of success in sports can also boost your child's self-esteem and self-confidence, helping them better face life's challenges. In addition, through team, class and grade level sports, children can learn the principles of cooperation, competition and fair play, which is extremely beneficial for the development of their interpersonal and social skills later in life.

Secondly, it can promote the improvement of students' learning ability. Many studies have shown that physical activity can improve students' ability to learn. Exercise increases blood flow in the brain and promotes connections between nerve cells, which improves concentration and memory. In addition, regular physical activity can also help children manage their time and tasks better, developing their organizational skills and sense of responsibility.

Third, it is conducive to improving students' social skills. Sports activities are an excellent place to socialize. During recess, recess, and after-school service activities, students can meet new people, learn to work with others, and develop team spirit. Not only will this enhance their interpersonal skills, but it will also help them build healthy relationships and learn to deal with conflicts and problems in their relationships.

Fourth, it helps to cultivate students' interest in sports and good habits. Through school recess sports activities and physical education, students can find the sports they love and lay the foundation for their future sports careers. Regular exercise allows students to develop good exercise habits, which can lay a solid foundation for their future.

With the implementation of the "double reduction" policy, the concept of health and physical exercise should be paid attention to by all schools. In order to get students out of the classroom, our school has regulated sports activities during recess, large recess, and after-school services, and has introduced a number of initiatives:

First, it is necessary to raise the awareness of cadres and teachers, return recess time to students, and clearly prohibit teachers from dragging the classroom in school teaching routines, so as to protect students' rights and interests in resting. Our school constitution clearly stipulates that the right of students to reasonable rest shall be legally protected. At the same time, cadres and teachers were carried out to do a one-day student experience activity to strengthen the feelings and understanding of cadres and teachers on students' campus life.

Second, establish a health-first mindset and let students get out of the classroom, play and relax. The school has arranged student supervisors to check whether the windows of each classroom are open for ventilation during recess, and will also urge students to go out of the classroom and participate in various activities to relieve visual fatigue and reduce the incidence of myopia.

Thirdly, the large recess, after-school services and the 10-minute recess are used and designed as a whole, among which the 10 minutes between classes are completely at the discretion of students, who can play ball, play games, bask in the sun and relax. Large recess and after-school service hours are organized and designed physical exercise time, including exercises, running, skipping rope, playing ball, and holding various small competitions, carnivals and other activities.

Fourth, the establishment of a school-level cadre as the leader of the management office, divided into sections, grade management, physical education and other teachers with special skills in sub-project guidance, class teachers in charge, subject teachers assisted, students all participated, implementation at all levels, grasp the joint management.

Fifth, according to the characteristics of age, physical activities should be combined with moral education, health and development to form a unique "Sunshine Hour" campus cultural activities. For example, the primary school has set up game activities such as rope skipping, hopscotch, sandbag throwing, hoop pushing, and bamboo shaking. Artistic activities are arranged in junior and senior high schools, including Ansai waist drum in the first year of junior high school, flag gymnastics in the second year of junior high school, military physical boxing and rhythmic gymnastics in the first year of junior high school. In addition, middle and high schools also offer skill programs, such as football, baseball and softball, tug-of-war, basketball, badminton, etc.

Facts have proved that students' active participation in diverse, lively, healthy and progressive sports activities is conducive to improving the overall physical quality and promoting all-round development and healthy growth.

Analysis and countermeasures

Clearly defining the boundaries of recess safety responsibilities is key

Chu Zhaohui, researcher at the Chinese Academy of Education Sciences

There are many reasons why primary and secondary school students disappear in 10 minutes between classes, such as the school is too large, the school building design is not scientific, and the space for each class is not reserved for nearby activities, but the main and fundamental reason is that the safety management of students is unreasonable. Due to the unclear boundaries between the responsibility, management and punishment rights of students in school safety accidents, in many cases, the management power of front-line teachers is not enough to bear the responsibilities they need to bear, and the responsibilities and powers are inconsistent, and there is no other way than strict management. As a result, there is such a situation: the teacher is afraid of accidents, the school is afraid of finding trouble, more is better than less, less is better than nothing, and it is the easiest to lock children in the classroom, and finally restrict students' activities and squeeze students' recess activities.

In order to revitalize recess in primary and secondary schools, it is necessary to correct the practice of simply restricting students' necessary recess and activities on the grounds of "ensuring student safety" on the basis of a clear definition of responsibilities and rights. First of all, it is necessary to clearly delineate the boundaries of responsibilities and powers between the government and the school, and the government is not responsible for the school. The government does not overstep its authority to issue directives to ensure that schools are limited liability subjects with consistent responsibilities and powers; Secondly, it is necessary to clearly demarcate the boundaries of the responsibilities and powers of the school and the teachers serving in it, and teachers cannot be required to bear responsibilities beyond the scope of their powers, and they cannot simply let front-line teachers "take the blame" when they are held accountable; In addition, it is necessary to clarify the boundaries of responsibilities and rights between teachers, students, and parents, and in the event of a specific incident, it is necessary to determine what responsibility each party needs to bear and how much responsibility it bears based on an objective and impartial investigation, and a punishment decision cannot be made without an in-depth, comprehensive, and fair investigation.

The school is the main responsible party for student safety, but it should not be the "unlimited responsibility", the school's responsibility boundary is clear, and the safety disputes will be reduced, so it is urgent to clarify the boundaries of relevant laws and regulations, establish a mandatory system to protect the rights and interests of students in 10-minute activities between classes, and have specific and detailed operational rules.

To ensure student activity during recess, I would like to make a few suggestions:

The first is to draw out the scope of exemption for minor injuries. Students are playful by nature, and it is difficult to guarantee the absolute safety of their children at school, and emphasizing 10% protection will inevitably give birth to a management model of "no accidents", which will be externalized into a <>-minute disappearance between classes. The delineation of the scope of exemption for minor injuries is in fact to enhance students' own awareness of their own responsibility for their own safety, and also to increase the space for independent activities.

The second is to strictly restrict the emergence of giant schools. Schools and classes that go beyond the right size are the main reasons for the increased security risks and the significant reduction in the number of nearby event venues. Imbalance is the root cause of the emergence of giant schools, and the root cause of overly strict management is the imbalance in education, and only moderately sized schools can allow students to have sufficient safe space for nearby activities, so it is necessary to implement balance from the source and limit all schools to a moderate scale.

The third is to improve the safety standards of school planning and construction. When the school is planned and designed, it is necessary to reserve the nearest activity space for each classroom, the junior students do not go upstairs, the playground in the campus can not be too far from the classroom, the school's site facilities are regularly normalized to eliminate potential safety hazards, the corridor and stairs are wide enough, the corners are sleek, the protective facilities are increased, the safety inspection is strengthened, the dangerous behavior is stopped, and the safety of railings, doors and windows is ensured.

Fourth, strengthen safety education for students. Safety education can benefit students for life, through safety education, increase students' safety knowledge, improve students' awareness and ability to avoid danger, reduce safety risks, and greatly reduce the probability of danger in 10 minutes between classes.

Fifth, establish and improve the safety and rescue system. In addition to accountability, emergency treatment mechanisms need to be further improved, and safeguards such as medical care, ambulance, insurance, and social compensation need to be further improved, so that the pressure on schools and teachers will be reduced. A commercial insurance mechanism can be implemented to prevent and reduce the safety risks that the school may bear, so that the injured students and families can get help as soon as possible.

Sixth, strengthen the coordination and cooperation between schools and families on student safety. To ensure that children enjoy 10 minutes between classes and change the phenomenon of "captivity" between classes, relevant departments and parents need to understand each other, supervise each other, and work together. Parents should be more understanding and tolerant of their children's inevitable bumps in the process of sports, trust the school and teachers, actively communicate with each other when problems arise, and protect their rights in accordance with the law.

Seventh, we can develop some forms and projects suitable for recess activities. Schools that do not have the conditions to ensure that students go to the playground to exercise during recess can set up puzzle games such as maze walking in the corridor, or let students water and loosen the soil for the small plants they plant, equipped with freehand toy boxes, graffiti walls, chess or handicraft activity spaces, and set up sports facilities such as climbing frames, sand pits, sit-ups, and jumping grids.

If you only start from the management standard, you will see risks; From the perspective of student development, it is necessary to see that 10 minutes between classes is an important part of children's development, and then try to solve various problems.