Intake of foods high in energy, saturated fat, protein and fiber increases the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis; A higher intake of vegetables and fruits, olive oil and fish reduces the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In addition, adequate intake of micronutrients is associated with a reduced risk and reduced symptoms of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis.

Itchy eyes, tears, sneezing, runny nose, coughing, wheezing, itchy skin... Around us, many people have had various allergic symptoms. Severe allergic diseases, even life-threatening.

Over the past 30 years, the global incidence of allergic diseases has increased significantly, and the global prevalence now exceeds 22%. Therefore, allergic diseases are also listed by the World Health Organization as one of the three major diseases to be prioritized in the 21st century.

In recent years, a large number of clinical studies and animal experiments have shown that diet and nutrition are closely related to the occurrence of allergic diseases and the severity of symptoms. Recently, researcher Zhang Ping of the Biodiversity Research Group of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, systematically sorted out and reviewed relevant literature on this topic, and the relevant results were published in the international nutrition journal "Nutrients".

Allergic diseases are closely related to a variety of factors

Allergic diseases, also known as allergic diseases, are long-term inflammatory diseases of mucosal tissues caused by the body's excessive immune response to allergens. "Studies have found that allergic diseases, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, have a high incidence in developed countries; In developing countries, the dramatic increase in the incidence of allergic diseases may be influenced by the westernization of lifestyles. Zhang Ping introduced.

In addition to lifestyle and other factors, foreign scholars have found that the gut microbiota is also significantly associated with allergic diseases. Food components play a key role in shaping the gut microbiota and are essential for maintaining the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier and intestinal immune homeostasis.

In recent decades, the prevalence of obesity and allergic diseases has been increasing globally, and the link between obesity and individual allergic diseases has attracted great interest. A large number of studies confirm that obesity is one of the factors that cause asthma and has a negative impact on prognosis. A recent analytical study suggests that obesity may increase the risk of allergic rhinitis in children. In addition, obesity can worsen the inflammation of severe persistent allergic rhinitis.

In addition, there is a close link between nutritional metabolism and allergic diseases. Nutrients and their endogenous or bacterial metabolites can regulate allergic inflammation of distant organs outside the intestine through the gut-lung and gut-skin axes.

Controlling calorie and animal food intake can help improve allergy symptoms

Different diets have different nutrient profiles and different amounts of specific nutrients, and can have different effects on allergic reactions – either to promote sensitization and exacerbate disease levels, or to prevent allergic diseases and slow disease progression.

Studies by foreign scholars have shown that the intake of high-energy, high-saturated fat, high-protein and low-fiber foods increases the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis; In contrast, a Mediterranean-style diet, such as a higher intake of vegetables and fruits, olive oil and fish, reduces the risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In addition, adequate intake of micronutrients is associated with a reduced risk and reduced symptoms of atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis.

"There is growing evidence that nutrients and dietary components such as vitamins, the minerals zinc, elemental iron, dietary fiber, fatty acids and phytochemicals, through metabolites derived from the host and gut microbiota, play a key role in the prevention or treatment of allergic diseases." Zhang Ping said.

In addition, although results are limited, there are studies that have shown that weight loss is associated with improvement in symptoms of atopic dermatitis. In one case report, weight loss by combining diet control and exercise therapy improved skin lesions in obese patients who did not respond to standard cyclosporine therapy; Another randomized controlled study showed that weight loss in obese patients with atopic dermatitis was associated with significant improvement in atopic dermatitis symptoms, as measured by eczema area and severity index scores and the use of cyclosporine doses.

"Through comprehensive analysis, we found that a large number of studies have shown that controlling calorie and animal food intake, and increasing the intake of vegetables, fruits, dietary fiber, and trace elements can greatly help alleviate allergy symptoms." Zhang Ping emphasized that excessive caloric intake, excessive intake of protein and saturated fatty acids, or deficiencies in dietary fiber and micronutrients can trigger the immune system's defense mechanisms and trigger allergic reactions. Therefore, calorie restriction, coupled with adequate dietary fiber and adequate macronutrient intake, is essential to maintain immune tolerance to allergens. (Source: Science and Technology Daily)