The Mystery of the Western Zhou: A Key Step in Chinese Civilization
China Newsweek reporter/Ni Wei
Published in the 2023th issue of China Newsweek magazine on June 6, 12
In late May 1059 BC, people at the foot of Qishan looked up and saw the "arrival of the red wu". On that day, the five planets of water, metal, fire, wood and earth gathered in a small patch of sky in the northwest. It was a rare celestial phenomenon, and more than 5,3000 years later, astronomers tracked and confirmed the "vision" of that year, which only occurred once in 516 years.
The person who saw the vision was a member of the Zhou ethnic group, surnamed Ji, who lived in Qiyi under the Qi Mountain. A hundred years ago, their leader, Gu Gong Gongfu, led his people on a journey to settle here and establish a city-state of his own people. Their current leader is called Ji Chang, the grandson of Gu Gong's father.
After three generations of leaders, the Zhou people built Qiyi stronger and stronger, and the population steadily increased. The most powerful regime at that time was the Shang Dynasty, located in the present-day Yinxu of the Central Plains, while the Zhou people lived in the far west, blocked by mountains and rivers, and merchants called them Xiqi. The Zhou people submitted to the Shang Dynasty, and the oracle bones unearthed show that when the Zhou people sacrificed, they also paid homage to the merchant ancestors and the recently deceased Shang king. However, the king of the Shang Dynasty was very cruel and mediocre, indulged in the wine pond meat forest, ignored the imperial government, and the people did not have a good life.
This time the celestial phenomenon shocked Zhou Ren. They vaguely felt, is this the call of a mysterious force? Perhaps destiny has come?
Ji Chang immediately proclaimed himself king and declared his independence from the Shang Dynasty. Under the call of the "Mandate of Heaven", the Zhou people opened the road of conquest, and the area of their rule continued to expand. After King Wen's death, in 1046 BC, his son King Wu of Zhou led a confederation of Western Turk tribes to the East, arriving at the Yellow River in northern Luoyang in winter, crossing the Yellow River and attacking the Shang capital. In February 1046 BC, the Xiqi Expeditionary Force engaged the merchants in full-scale war at the Shang suburb Makiye. The battle was extremely fierce, lasting a day and a night, and at sunrise the next day, Zhou Ren won a complete victory. King Shang burned himself to death, and Western Zhou was established.
The inscription of King Wu's Zhengshang Gui (also known as Li Guan) unearthed in 1976 in Lintong, Shaanxi Province records the Battle of Muye: "King Wu Zhengshang, Weijiazi Dynasty, Years Ding, Kedu Shu Youshang, Xin Wei, Wang Zaishi, Bestowed (Right) Shi (Shi) Lijin, used as Tangong Baozun Yi". Only 4 lines and 33 words, thrilling. This guan exists in the same period as the story of the "Romance of the Gods", and the real body can be seen in the National Museum today.
Today, in the western part of the Guanzhong Plain, Baoji, Shaanxi, the place name of Qishan has not changed for thousands of years. As a place name, it can be found everywhere. Historically, the word "Qi" is closely related to the Zhou Dynasty, and the ruins of the Zhou Yuan here are scattered with a large number of relics of the Zhou people.
Compared to the Shang Dynasty, which was known for its brutality, the Zhou Dynasty seemed to have entered another dimension of civilization. Hundreds of years later, the era of Lile Changming and Zhengtongren, which Confucius of the Eastern Zhou Kingdom of Lu remembered, was the late Pre-Zhou period represented by King Wen and the Duke of Zhou, and the early and middle Western Zhou Dynasty. In later generations, the "weekly system" left a nostalgic model of government. The Zhou people used language and writing more skillfully, systematically wrote history and poetry, and the stories and poems they left behind are still not difficult to read. By the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, the philosophical ideas of the sons and daughters of the Hundred Schools were like lava eruptions, reaching puzzling heights. And all this is only one step away from the murderous and sacrificial, mysterious and barbaric Shang Dynasty.
The Western Zhou Dynasty was not an ordinary dynastic change in Chinese history, but a cultural leap. From business to zhou, politics, philosophy, culture and other levels have changed the world. As historian Xu Zhuoyun said, the establishment of the Zhou Dynasty was not only a common dynastic succession, but also a recombination of the entire cultural system and political order, which laid some basic characteristics of the Chinese cultural system. He concluded: "The Western Zhou Dynasty replaced Shang with a small state, rose to Weishang, opened an 800-year foundation, created a Chinese cultural ontology, and became the cornerstone of Chinese society." ”
How did the mysterious Shang Zhou upheaval happen?
This distant and ethereal history, thanks to the efforts of archaeologists, is not out of reach today.
From 2020 to 2021, northwest of Wangjiazui Village in Qishan County, Baoji, Shaanxi, the Zhou Yuan archaeological team discovered the site of a rammed earth building. The base site sits north facing south, covers an area of more than 2200,<> square meters, and is a two-entry courtyard-style building with a front hall and back room. After stratigraphic and artifact analysis, the archaeologists concluded that this may be the first large-scale rammed earth building site in the pre-Zhou period that can be confirmed at the Zhou Yuan site.
The first Zhou refers to the historical period before King Wu destroyed the merchants and established the Western Zhou Dynasty, and all belonged to the first Zhou from the ancient father's father to King Wen of Zhou. In other words, the first Zhou was the period of the Zhou people's traces, and the Zhou Yuan site is likely to be Qiyi.
For this "first of the week", archaeologists have been working for more than half a century.
Looking for Xian Zhou, which began in the 30s of the last century in the Baoji Fighting Platform, flourished in Zhou Yuan. In February 1976, when members of the production team in Fengyan Village in Qishan County were leveling the land, they found a large amount of hard red-boiled soil and wall skin. The archaeological team then initiated excavations and a large building site surfaced, numbered "Group A (Dzongmiao) Building Site". There are four cultural layers from top to bottom, and the lowest level is the Western Zhou Dynasty. The Phoenix Jia Group kicked off the large-scale archaeology of the Zhou Yuan.
The base site of Group A has a total of 1469 square meters, and the middle line is distributed in turn, with doorways, front halls and corridors, and gatehouses and wings on the east and west sides, like a set of standard courtyards. In addition to the grand building, there is another major discovery at the site of Group A: in the cellar of the second room of the west wing, more than 1,7 pieces (pieces) of oracle bones were unearthed, of which 282 were inscribed. This is the largest oracle bone discovery outside of the Yin ruins.
At that time, because of the name Qishan, the vicinity was always presumed to be the location of Guqiyi, but there was no evidence. Some archaeologists believe that the discovery of Fengyun Village basically confirms the central location of Qiyi. The site of Group A is a high-grade building, which makes people wonder: will it be the palace of the King of Zhou? It is still believed that it is King Wen's mansion, which can be called "King Wen's Mansion".
But archaeology is always cautious, and there is a piece of evidence that says nothing. According to archaeological analysis, the Phoenix Jia Formation cannot be confirmed as the Pre-Zhou period, while the Western Zhou characteristics are obvious. In reality, the cycle of material use often spans artificially defined eras, and it is possible that the building was used from the first Zhou to the Western Zhou, but archaeological work half a century ago does not leave us enough clues. Song Jiangning, an associate researcher at the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences who has been involved in Zhou Yuan archaeology for 10 years and served as the archaeology leader in 2016, told China Newsweek that unfortunately, under the conditions of archaeological work at that time, a lot of information was not collected, so that this problem cannot be solved now.
And Song Jiangning believes that the Phoenix Jia Group may not be King Wen's palace, its wings are many and small, and the characteristics of living seem to be more prominent. According to the increasing number of Zhou Yuan architectural remains, it is difficult to identify the palace of King Zhou at this stage, let alone confirm which building was where King Wen lived.
The Zhou Yuan was located in the central and western part of today's Shaanxi Province, and the Zhou Yuan defined by archaeologists was wide and narrow. Zhou Yuan in the narrow sense refers to the northern part of today's Fufeng and Qishan counties, which is about 6 kilometers wide from east to west and about 5 kilometers long from north to south. The broad Zhou principle refers to the narrow area west of the Guanzhong Plain, north of the Wei River and south of Qishan, stretching more than 70 kilometers from east to west and about 20 kilometers from north to south.
More than 3000,<> years ago, the Zhou people living in the northern region of present-day Shaanxi were harassed by the ethnic minority Rong Di, and when Gu Gong's father led the tribe to migrate west, he walked to the bottom of the Qi Mountain and saw that the land was fertile and prosperous, and the bitter vegetables growing were all sweet. The Book of Poetry Daya Mian, considered to be the epic poem of the Zhou people, recorded this legend, "Zhou Yuan is a lian, pansy is like a glutton", they were very satisfied, so they "when the time comes, build a room in Yuzi", settle down and name Zhou Yuan.
The Zhou Yuan is an important area on the Chinese archaeological map and a fascinating incision in the interpretation of Chinese history. After 1976, the archaeological team returned to Zhouyuan several times in 1999 and 2014 to restart large-scale excavations and find Qiyi throughout the goal. The Zhou Yuan site is the site with the largest number of bronzes unearthed during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties in the country, with a number of thousands of pieces, exceeding the Yin Ruins, among which heavy artifacts such as the Great Bowl Ding, the Small Cup Ding, the Wall Plate, and the Mao Gong Ding are famous for their long inscriptions. More than 100,<> pieces of oracle bones unearthed in Zhou Yuan are second only to Yin Wu in number; At present, more than <> single rammed earth building remains have been discovered, which is the largest number of Western Zhou sites in China. However, this evidence is difficult to prove the location of Qiyi because of the lack of strong evidence of Xianyi.
In December 2003, while conducting field research at the site of Zhougongmiao in Qishan, 12 kilometers west of the Zhouyuan site, Xu Tianjin, an archaeologist at Peking University, came across a small bone fragment in an abandoned aqueduct. In the spring of the following year, archaeologists followed the vine and found a pit with densely packed oracle bones by the canal, and the first piece of Bujia dug up was "Duke of Zhou" at the beginning. A total of more than 30 characters are recognized on the oracle bone of the Zhou Gong Temple, and the name with the highest appearance rate is the Duke of Zhou. Later, in a forest of wild jujube trees, the archaeological team found 400 large tombs, of which 22 had 10 tomb roads, 4 had 4 tomb roads, and the tombs of the princes of the Western Zhou Dynasty had only one or two tomb roads. The owners of these higher-specification tombs can't help but speculate: Will it be the King of Zhou? But the general view among scholars is that the ruins of the Zhou Gong Temple should be the quarry of the Duke of Zhou—that is, the fields given to Qing Dafu Shilu by the monarch, and those tombs are not the tombs of Zhou Tianzi, but the tombs of the Zhou Gong family.
The search for Kieup continues. In 2004, archaeologists made a new discovery at the Shuigou site in Fengxiang County, 10 kilometers west of the site of Zhougongmiao, and found a wall with a circumference of more than 4000,<> meters, which is the largest city known to the Western Zhou Dynasty, and there are also large palace foundation sites in the city. Subsequently, with the Zhou Gong Temple as the center, they attacked everywhere, and found a military defensive Zhou city in the Jiang Family Temple, and found a copper casting workshop west of the Zhou Gong Temple...
So far, archaeologists have found four construction areas at the Zhouyuan site, including Fengyan Village and Wangjiazui Village. The confirmation of Wangjiazui's remains now provides a rare evidence for the confirmation of Qiyi. Xu Lianggao, a researcher at the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, told China Newsweek that the most important thing in archaeological work is to find the large settlements or political, economic and cultural centers of each era, "At present, through many discoveries, I think that the area around Wangjiazui should be the highest-level center in the Xianzhou cultural area at that time." If we think that the matter of Gugong's father moving to Qi is credible, this place (Wang Jiazui) should be the most likely. ”
King Wen of Zhou became queen in Qiyai, and within a decade appeared to have conquered most of the merchant tribes living in the Wei River valley, establishing regional hegemony of the Zhou people. They gradually advanced eastward and attacked some small states in southern Jin, not far from the capital of the Shang Dynasty. Shortly before King Wen's death, he established "Feng" as the new capital in the center of the Guanzhong Plain, quietly shifting his power east from the Zhou Plain in western Weishui.
After King Wen's death, his son Ji Fa inherited the great cause of Chui Shang and became King Wu, and after three years of mourning for his father, King Wu led the Western Lands to fight the Eastern Crusade and complete the final blow of destroying Shang. According to the "Records of History", King Shang gathered an army of 70,<> to face the battle, and King Wu's army was only <>,<> or <>,<>, but in the harsh winter season of Makiye, the merchants had no intention of fighting for the tyrannical King Shun and defected one after another, and the Shang dynasty was buried at the hands of the Zhou Expeditionary Army. In the later mythological novel "Romance of the Gods" related to this, Yang Jian, Nezha, Lei Zhenzi and other characters were all listed in the Western Turkish army.
In the Shang Dynasty, Zhou was just an ethnic minority settlement in the western borderlands, and it was not comparable to the central royal power in political, economic, cultural, military and other aspects. It is curious why such a small country has the ideal of destroying business, and how to achieve the great cause of business. This is an important proposition in the study of the history of the Western Zhou Dynasty. Historian Xu Zhuoyun is an expert in the history of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the author of The History of the Western Zhou Dynasty, whose research focuses on how the Western Zhou Dynasty developed from a small tribe into a state and constructed a feudal order that transcended the state.
And it is this order that inadvertently forged the cornerstone of Chinese society.
这说明，周王权的存在感远不如商，王权留下的遗存也就稀少了，这些现象支撑了周王作为天下“共主”的说法。徐良高认为，这种商周政治体制的差异，可能就是后来中国历史上常常争论不已的 “周制 ”与 “秦制 ”两种不同政治理念与体制的历史根源。东周时期周王权衰落，诸侯并争、诸雄争霸的历史原因，也可以追溯到此。
The Zhou people were very reflective, for example, they believed that alcohol addiction was an important cause of the decline of the Shang Dynasty, and issued a ban on alcohol. Bronze Yao, Jue, and Cane wine vessels occupied a central position in the Shang Dynasty ritual system, while the Zhou Dynasty replaced them with food vessels such as ding and guan, and the archaeological evidence is completely consistent with the documentary records. Yin Jian was not far away, and the Zhou people warned themselves everywhere with the lesson of merchants losing their country.
When they traced the vision of the "arrival of the red wu" in 1059 BC, they believed that it was a sign of being ordained by heaven, and that King Wen established the kingdom and King Wu felled the road for heaven. Later generations of scholars generally regarded the concept of "Mandate of Heaven" as a major invention of the Zhou people, in opposition to the "God" of merchants. Merchants do not respect the sky, they revere "emperor", "emperor" is the protective deity of the Shang tribe, derived from the ancestor worship of the Shang tribe. "As the 'heaven' of the god who endows humanity - the ultimate power of the universe, this seems to be undoubtedly a discovery of Zhou Ren." Li Feng said.
Li Feng believes that the extermination of commerce by the Zhou people is not only a military war, but also an ideological and even psychological war. Because King Shang was named a ruthless and cruel tyrant, the officials of the Shang Dynasty were also alcoholic, indulgent and incompetent, and as the Zhou people who were destined by heaven, they felt that they had an unshirkable responsibility to carry out the punishment imposed by heaven on Shang. As the Book of Poetry says: "Although the Zhou is an old state, its life is new."
Zhou Ren believes that he represents a new set of morality and opens a new era.
"The Zhou people were very weak at that time, and seeing that the Shang Dynasty was so powerful and so cruel, it was necessary to supplement virtue in addition to force, so that it was possible to unite more forces and establish a strong alliance, and it was possible to overcome Shang." Song Jiangning said. The most direct archaeological evidence of the "Yin Zhou Change" is that there have never been human martyrs or human sacrifices in the Zhou people's ruins. The small state of Xiqi, which was at the same time as the Shang Dynasty, had a completely different way of ruling and belief structure. "Mr. Wang Guowei never saw such evidence at that time, which is the contribution that our archaeology can do today." Song Jiangning said.
Wang Zhenzhong, a distinguished professor at the University of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, once concluded that the thinking of the Shang and Zhou dynasties of etiquette was to pay attention to the "etiquette of human-god relationship" and "interpersonal relationship etiquette", respectively, and from the beginning of the Zhou Dynasty, the Zhou people—especially the Zhou Gong—incorporated the devotion to heaven into the framework of the etiquette system, put forward the concept of respecting heaven and protecting the people, and transformed the "ritual of man and god" into "interpersonal etiquette". Wang Zhenzhong believes that the most important way to achieve this transformation is to introduce the concept and norms of "virtue" and form a dialectical unity of the combination of the Mandate of Heaven and the rule of virtue, and the Mandate of Heaven and the will of the people. Compared with the theocratic politics of the Shang Dynasty, this is obviously a leap forward.
The Zhou people implemented the idea of respecting heaven and protecting the people in their rule, such as "prudent punishment with wisdom", "knowing the difficulties of crops", "knowing the dependence (pain) of small people", etc., compared with the Shang Dynasty's tradition of human sacrifice, the Zhou people took an important step in respecting life and caring for the people. Xu Zhuoyun believes that the concept of "Mandate of Heaven" put forward by the Zhou people can be extended to two points: first, the ruler's governance must meet certain moral standards; Second, the power of transcendence, that is, heaven, has the power to supervise and judge the order of the world. These views are unprecedented breakthroughs in Chinese history, freeing themselves from the limitations of sect gods and tribal gods and transforming them into transcendent forces of universal significance. When the ruler bears the Mandate of Heaven, he must assume the moral responsibility entrusted by the Mandate of Heaven.
"This is a superb ideal that is difficult to fully realize in real life, but it is precisely because of this ideal that the realm of human order is enhanced." In the History of Western Zhou, Xu Zhuoyun praised, "The Zhou people hanging this ideal can be described as an epoch-making event in Chinese culture, unlike other cultures where divine will and anger are the standard, it took a long time to evolve to get to this point." This new set of philosophies stabilized the political order of the time, guided the political behavior of the Zhou generation, and opened the political tradition of Chinese spirit and moralism.
Laying the foundation for Chinese civilization
Back to the site of the Group A building discovered in Phoenix Village in 1976, the most mysterious part of the building is the cave that served as the oracle bone pit.
Located in the second room of the west wing, this rectangular cave is 1.55 meters long, 1 meter wide and 1.9 meters deep, with 1.3 meters of rammed earth on the upper four walls, belonging to the rammed earth foundation of the house, and 0.6 meters of raw soil in the lower section. This structure indicates that the cellar broke the foundation of the house, which should be later than the age of the foundation of the house. There is also a transverse chamber about 1 meter deep on the east and west sides of the cellar, and a small niche on the north side.
When it comes to oracle bones, people think of almost only Yin Wu, in fact, the Zhou people also have the custom of using oracle bones. Its material characteristics and font style are very different from Anyang oracle bone. Many of the inscriptions are as small as corn and as thin as a hair, the smallest of which is only 1 millimeter square, comparable to a miniature carving, and can only be seen with a magnifying glass. The straight pen knife technique is strong and powerful, and the round pen is used freely and has a unique pen style.
The Zhou people used these oracle bones for sacrifice and divination, for example, one of them was inscribed with "Fa Shu" and the other was inscribed with "Zheng Chao", which should be the divination done in advance for the conquest of Shu and Chao. The Bu Zhi recorded a lot of first-hand information about the Zhou people, such as the Zhou people would sacrifice the deceased Shang kings, indicating that they were subordinate to the status of merchants; And the expression "Chu Zi came to sue" seems to be the tone of a hegemon, indicating that the strength of the Zhou people is rising. The Zhou Yuan archaeological team in charge of the excavation deduced that many of these records were pre-Zhou histories before King Wu's felling.
These oracle bones reflect the level of language and writing, similar to the Yinxu oracle bone script. However, in the Western Zhou Dynasty, the inscriptions cast on bronze objects showed a huge leap in the language and writing ability of the Zhou people. At least hundreds of bronze inscriptions of the Western Zhou Dynasty exist that are quite long and complete. Fortunately, these oracle bone and bronze inscriptions, which seem crooked today, have allowed future generations to return to the real historical scene due to the ancients' devotion and belief in writing. When compared with the ancient texts handed down, the distinction between legend and faith history is revealed.
If Li Guo's account of King Wu's destruction of merchants is still concise, other bronze inscriptions are rich and vivid in detail. Many of the bronzes cast in the Zhou Dynasty are used in religious scenes to worship ancestors, but the content is usually not related to the sacrifice itself, but records some real historical events, and the themes are quite wide, covering various aspects such as Zhou king's orders, military merits, officials, marriages, genealogy, economic transactions, diplomatic and legal treaties. "The improvement in the quality of written evidence compared to the Shang Dynasty will give us a better and more continuous understanding of the political and ceremonial systems and social conditions of the Western Zhou Dynasty." Li Feng said.
The diffusion of literacy culture was not limited to geography, but also extended to various social spheres in the Western Zhou Dynasty. Unlike the Shang Dynasty, which mainly used words for divination, the government administration, official appointments and other activities of the Western Zhou Dynasty would be put into writing, and the Western Zhou Dynasty unearthed more than 100 inscriptions, which were the appointment documents at that time. According to bronze inscriptions, writing on materials such as bamboo and wood at that time had been used in folk commodity trading, land deeds, etc., and although these words had long been turned into clay with perishable materials, they were once widely present in the daily life of the Zhou people.
Because of the wide application of writing in society, it can be assumed that literacy skills were more widely popularized in the Western Zhou Dynasty, which laid the foundation for the development of culture. Parts of the I Ching, Shang Shu and Shi Jing were written by the people of the Western Zhou Dynasty, and the true Chinese tradition of writing began. The migration of the Zhou aristocracy from the Wei River plain to remote areas, possibly with the well-educated Shang dynasty remnants, spread the writing and culture to a wider area, making the Western Zhou a key period in the development of Chinese and even East Asian writing.
"The culture of the Western Zhou Dynasty had a great influence on later generations. For example, the culture of Lile, we later thought that the difference between Huaxia and Rong Di is the difference between Lile culture, what is Huaxia? Lile culture is the core of Chinese culture. Another example is the influence of politics, the Zhou system and the Qin system as two political models that shaped later generations. Not to mention the hundreds of schools, the core and foundation of Chinese culture lie in this, and Confucianism is based on the Duke of Zhou as the founder. Not to mention the Book of Poetry, which laid the foundation for literature. So we often say that the Zhou culture has laid the core of Chinese culture in a sense. Xu Lianggao, a researcher at the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said.
The distinctive feature of Shang culture is elimination and replacement, while Zhou culture is characterized by alliance and compatibility. "The general feeling is that the spread of business culture is like a KFC fast food chain, a global standard. The spread of Zhou culture is like China's Sichuan cuisine, which has changed in different places to adapt to the traditional taste preferences of people everywhere. Xu Lianggao said.
From an archaeological point of view, the formation of the Western Zhou state can be seen as a process of implanting elements of the elite culture of the Zhou people in various regions with strong local traditions outside the Wei River Valley. Since the middle of the Western Zhou Dynasty, the eventual fusion of Zhou cultural traditions and different local traditions has laid the foundation for the flourishing local culture of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.
In 1963, in Jia Village, Chen Cang District, Baoji City, not far from the Zhou Yuan site, archaeologists excavated a Western Zhou bronze statue from the ground, named He Zun. He Zun is 38.8 cm tall and 28.8 cm in diameter, with a flamboyant and sophisticated appearance. Cast with a 122-character long inscription at the bottom of the Zun Zheng, this important document tells about the move of the capital of King Zhou Cheng to Luoyang Chengzhou, and the most striking thing is the four characters that appear in the inscription - Zhaizi China.
The meaning of these four words is that after King Wu conquered the merchants, he announced to heaven that he would build a capital in the world and govern the people. "Zhai Zi China" symbolizes the attainment of the Mandate of Heaven and the possession of the world. The so-called "China" does not refer to the country, but to the region in the world. However, because of its literal meaning, it has been given an irreplaceable meaning: it is the earliest word "China" in all existing scripts.
Judging from the literature, the Chinese appellation began precisely in the Western Zhou Dynasty. Of course, China at that time and China today are two completely different concepts. However, looking back at history, that distant and vast, mysterious and magnificent ancient era is still inextricably linked with us in our bones. It unites its allies with the tenets of virtue and equality, creates a magnificent counterattack myth, and merges foreign countries with a gesture of acceptance and tolerance, embarking on the path of incredible cultural leaps. All this is still enlightening for the world 3,000 years later.
References: Li Feng, The Political System of the Western Zhou Dynasty, Early China: Social and Cultural History; Xu Zhuoyun "History of the Western Zhou" and "Wangu Rivers"; Xu Lianggao, "The Similarities and Differences of the Shang and Zhou Political Systems from Archaeological Discoveries"; Han Maoli "Earth China" and so on
China Newsweek, Issue 2023, 21
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