Since May 5, Henan has experienced widespread continuous rainy weather, which has seriously affected the normal ripening and harvest of wheat. This rainfall process has the characteristics of long duration, wide impact and large rainfall, and it is the most serious "bad rain" weather in more than 25 years. The weather has caused water accumulation in wheat fields in some parts of Henan, wheat spots lodging and moldy, and grain germination and ear germination in some areas. How does bad weather affect local wheat yield and quality? How is the local harvest rush in the three summers progressing?
Receivables are fast
Near noon on May 5, in a courtyard in Yuangang Community, Gulin Town, Dengzhou City, Nanyang, with the roar of the drying tower's machinery, golden wheat grains sloped down the conveyor belt and slowly piled up into a "hill". "These wheat have a water content of more than 30%, and it is not a problem to leave it for two weeks. When you have time, you can continue drying. Holding the wheat grain in his hand, Shen Xingxin told reporters that the wheat dried just now was harvested before the rain yesterday afternoon, and the water content was more than 20%. Segmented drying can ensure that the wheat should be harvested and the granules returned to the warehouse.
Shen Xingxin is the chairman of Henan Shouyi Agricultural Development Co., Ltd., which has led 5500,1700 smallholder farmers, 3800,<> farmers with full-process trusteeship services, and <>,<> farmers with multi-link trusteeship services. At present, the company is arranging machinery according to the seasonal crop sowing sequence and work task needs, and carries out cross-regional operation services nationwide from south to north.
In the face of bad weather, relevant departments and enterprises in Henan actively responded, starting from May 5 to organize mature areas in southern Henan to rush to harvest, a total of 23.178 million mu of wheat was harvested before the rain, and the mature wheat was basically harvested, and this round of rain to the 30th organized a rush to harvest 208.3 million mu, a total of 386.3 million mu, accounting for 4.52% of the province's wheat planting area.
On May 5, Henan Province held a special video scheduling meeting for the province's "three summers" work, analyzed and judged the meteorological trend, and arranged the deployment of summer harvest work. Lou Yangsheng, secretary of the Henan Provincial CPC Committee, pointed out that at present, in the crucial period of wheat harvest, all localities should grasp the "three summers" work, especially the summer harvest, as the most important task at present; the main leaders should take the lead in command, strengthen overall planning and meticulous organization, do everything possible to overcome difficulties, ensure that all due harvests are collected and collected quickly, resolutely fight and win the battle of summer harvest work, and minimize the losses of the peasant masses.
How is the impact
What is the impact of this round of rainy weather on Henan wheat? Guo Tiancai, consultant of the Wheat Expert Guidance Group of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and professor of Henan Agricultural University, said that before the rain came, his judgment of Henan wheat had "three good", that is, the overall sowing foundation was good, the growth of seedlings continued to improve, and the effect of one spray and three prevention was good.
"Wheat is afraid of frost in March, wind in April, rain in May, and rain at the end of May is the most likely to form 'rotten rain'." Guo Tiancai believes that this round of rainy weather has affected the harvesting progress of wheat in southern Henan, and that the unripe wheat in northern Yubei and central Yu will lead to insufficient grain filling, affecting grain weight, yield and quality. "In history, 1956, 1987, 2009, 2013, 2016 and 2018 were all years when spike germination was more serious, and this year some plots in southern Henan did have ear germination phenomenon, which should be paid great attention to." Guo Tiancai said.
Lei Zhensheng, chief expert of the wheat industry technology system in Henan Province and director of the Wheat Research Institute of the Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said that the continuous rainy weather has had a certain impact on wheat production, especially the wheat harvest in southern Henan. At present, some plots in some counties in the southern region of Zhumadian, Nanyang and Xinyang have seen the phenomenon of "spike germination". "In some areas, if the wheat is ripe, the moisture is not too high, or there are storage conditions and drying equipment, it is necessary to take advantage of the rainless weather and try to harvest as early as possible. If there are no drying conditions, no storage facilities, and high moisture in the wheat, it is better to let the wheat dry in the field. Otherwise, it is easy to cover the wheat after harvesting. Lei Zhensheng said.
"Places with a lot of rainfall, especially low-lying terrain and stagnant water, should drain and reduce stains in time to create conditions and gain time for mechanical harvest after sunny days." After the weather is good, it is necessary to strengthen the dispatch of agricultural machinery and organize the harvest rush, especially in the low-lying and waterlogged places in the southern Henan region, and use crawler harvesters to rush the harvest to minimize losses. Guo Tiancai said that the wheat is ripe for a while, the dragon's mouth grabs the grain, and the wheat harvest window is very short, so it is necessary to minimize the loss of wheat caused by this round of continuous rain. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to the inspection of seed breeding fields, give priority to ensuring the harvesting and drying of seed fields, and ensure the safety of seeds for the next season.
Do a good job of guaranteeing
In order to do a good job in rushing to harvest, Henan has coordinated and dispatched to the greatest extent, made good use of the cross-provincial cooperation mechanism, played the role of professional cooperatives, done a good job in grain procurement services, grasped both drying and drying equipment, and managed more than 400 million mu of seed fields. Nanyang organized 724 crawler harvesters and 496 dryers to face the wheat harvest; Zhumadian pre-installed more than 9,2 large, medium, and small drainage equipment, organized emergency teams to carry out drainage operations for farmland where waterlogging occurred, and set up 52 emergency machine harvesting teams, equipped with 3,4 wheat harvesters, including 1,4 crawler harvesters, in an effort to ensure the summer grain harvest.
"For low-lying waterlogged plots, we are organizing manpower and machinery to dredge drainage ditches in a timely manner to create conditions for agricultural machinery to enter the land as soon as possible to rush to harvest. Mobilized 17,3 wheeled harvesters and more than 6,15 crawler harvesters to speed up the wheat harvest after rain. Give full play to the advantages of large drying equipment and strong capacity of grain storage and grain systems, supply and marketing systems, increase the purchase of wet grain, carry out drying and storage in a timely manner, and give financial subsidies to grain drying. Make full use of cultural squares, school playgrounds, vacant factory buildings, front and back of houses in various places, flat roofs, etc. to carry out drying, guide farmers to lay tarps in the fields for drying, and dig out drying space as much as possible. Sun Weifeng, director of the Agricultural Office of the Henan Provincial Party Committee and director of the Provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that the whole province of Henan is ensuring the summer grain harvest to the greatest extent, and the wheat harvest is expected to basically end around June <>.
According to data from the meteorological department, the rainfall basically ended on May 5, and in addition to local sporadic rainfall before June 29, the main wheat areas in Henan Province were mainly cloudy and cloudy, which was conducive to large-scale machine harvesting operations.
"We have started with seven key measures to seize the opportunity and organize the harvest by rushing to drain stagnant water in the field, strengthening the dispatch of agricultural machinery, stepping up drying and drying, strengthening service guarantee, doing a good job in difficult assistance, strengthening dispatch guidance, and doing a good job in wheat harvesting and storage." Wen Xuhua, chief economist of the Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of Henan Province, introduced.
On May 5, after the special study decision of the Henan Provincial Government, Henan Province urgently allocated 30 million yuan for wheat drying to ensure the quality of wheat. In order to protect farmers' income, in addition to allocating special funds for wheat drying, the relevant departments of Henan Province have notified all agricultural insurance underwriting institutions to make every effort to make wheat insurance claims.
In addition, 476 "special passages" have been set up at 952 toll stations opened on expressways in Henan Province. According to the actual situation of traffic flow, each toll station reasonably channelizes lanes, sets up convenient service consultation desks, increases the allocation of field personnel, strengthens vehicle grooming and ensures the rapid and convenient passage of cross-district battle vehicles. The reporter learned from the Provincial Department of Transport that the province's highway service area has set up a reception service station and a special parking area for cross-district machine-collected vehicles, and provides "three free" (free laundry, free bathing, free water inflating), "three priorities" (priority refueling, priority rest, priority maintenance), and "one discount" (8% discount for dining) for cross-district machine-collected vehicles.
(Economic Daily reporter Xia Xianqing Yang Zipei)