"There is no wind to reach the ground, and when there is wind, it is still full of air. The edge canal is like snow, and it is not close to the hair. Zhang Yongming, deputy chief physician of the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine of China-Japan Friendship Hospital, used the five-word sentence created by Yongyuzhi of the Tang Dynasty to talk about allergies caused by spring willow and other factors.
Everything recovers in spring, but many people are plagued by a variety of allergic diseases, rhinitis, itchy eyes, asthma, urticaria and other symptoms, allergies are easy to repeat, difficult to cure, what to do? How to make spring allergies "go", in terms of social concern, ask relevant experts to support.
Is allergy genetic
In recent years, the incidence of allergies in children has increased. In this regard, Hui Qin, deputy chief physician of pediatrics at China-Japan Friendship Hospital, said that the survey showed that about 10% of children had allergic rhinitis, 3.02% of children had asthma, 12.9% of children had eczema and atopic dermatitis, and 2.5% of children had food allergies.
When many children have allergy symptoms, relatives and friends will trace whether there is an allergy precedent in the family of both parents, but in fact, many times parents and even grandparents are not troubled by allergies.
So, is there a relationship between allergies and genetics? "Relatedly, genetically speaking, children born to parents with no history of allergies are at much higher risk of allergic diseases than parents with no history of allergies." But Hui Qin also said that parents without a history of allergies may also give birth to children with allergy symptoms.
Hui Qin emphasized that heredity is only one of the factors that lead to allergic diseases, and there is another important aspect, which is related to the impact of various acquired factors on the immune system.
In the opinion of experts, the occurrence of allergies has a process - the baby's digestive tract is not very mature, the intestinal epithelium is like a sieve, the sieve hole is relatively large, so the milk, breast milk, and some allergic proteins in the addition of complementary foods will enter the blood system through the sieve hole, stimulate the immune system, and cause an allergic state. The child may not have symptoms, but sensitization has occurred. When he is exposed to the same allergen stimulus again, corresponding symptoms may occur.
"Parents without allergic diseases need to ask a doctor to rule out whether it is caused by allergies if their children have symptoms of allergies." Hui Qin reminded.
What are the triggers of allergies
Everything has a cause and effect, so what is the trigger for allergies? Liu Yang, deputy director of the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of China-Japan Friendship Hospital, said that at present, there are two main types of causes that are most likely to cause human allergies, one is mites, mold, dander and other inhaled allergens; The other category is ingestion allergens such as milk, egg white, and fish.
"There are also two types of allergens, although not as common as the above two types, but also cause problems for some people. One type is contact allergens, such as someone who is allergic to metal objects on the belt, which is more common in summer, the most common is the allergy caused by the metal buckle of the belt directly contacting the skin around the umbilicus; The other category is injectable allergens, and it is more common for allergic reactions to occur after drug injection. Sheng Yujun, deputy chief physician of the Department of Dermatology of China-Japan Friendship Hospital, said.
Zhao Tong, deputy director of the ophthalmology department of China-Japan Friendship Hospital, pointed out that for seasonal allergies, the most common is pollen allergy. Just into spring, the flower that causes allergies is often the wind-borne flower, which has a high concentration in the air; In spring, it is mainly the flowers of tall trees such as pine and cypress, and in autumn, it is often weeds such as artemisia. Common brightly colored ornamental flowers are less likely to cause allergies.
Experts point out that allergies can involve a range of symptoms. Patients with allergic constitution may have rhinitis, asthma, and allergic conjunctivitis at the same time, and their specific constitution is prone to allergies to the external environment.
Many people will be concerned, "Am I allergic to the body?" "You can draw a blood for a laboratory test to see the IgE value, IgE is an antibody protein that mediates the body's allergic reaction, called immunoglobulin E, if it is increased, it generally indicates that it is an allergic constitution, and it can be judged which allergen is allergic to." Sheng Yujun introduced.
So, what is the mechanism by which allergies occur? Experts pointed out that after the human body is exposed to allergens, it stimulates immune cells and produces a variety of inflammatory mediators, which in turn stimulate nerve endings and blood vessels, resulting in various symptoms.
How to prevent allergies
So how to prevent the occurrence of allergy symptoms? "The first thing to do is to understand which allergens are the cause of allergies, and the best way is to cut off this contact, that is, block the allergen, which is the best way to prevent it." Experts note.
"Some patients with allergic rhinitis can be treated effectively if they are not well controlled, and most of them can be treated effectively with drug treatment." Liu Yang introduced that if the effect of the drug is not very good, immunotherapy can be used, that is, desensitization therapy. If some patients are not relieved, or even accompanied by bronchial asthma, the sphenopalatine neurovascular bundle dissection technique can be used, and the operation is safe and effective.
For patients with eye allergies, Zhao Tong reminded that do not rub the eyes, the more you rub the blood vessels, the more congested, may release more inflammatory mediators, resulting in increased dry itching. Cold compresses can be made to narrow blood vessels and quickly relieve itching. At the same time, the rational use of eye drops is also very important, there are many special anti-allergic eye drops can be selected, in addition to some artificial tears can be used to assist treatment to relieve symptoms, more severe can use hormonal eye drops, rather than levofloxacin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol and other eye drugs, these antibiotics can kill bacteria but do not have much effect on allergies.
For common skin allergies, Sheng Yujun pointed out that the overall treatment principle is to avoid contact with allergens and treat them symptomatically. For particularly severe itching, some antihistamines, intravenous vitamin C, and calcium may be taken by mouth. If the symptoms are particularly severe and have an acute onset, hormones can be used for a short period of time; If you have repeated allergies for a long time, you can treat them with biological agents. At the same time, the importance of allergy prevention is far greater than treatment, and people with a history of skin allergies should pay more attention to life and do a good job of protection.
Zhang Yongming introduced that there are currently 4570.2 million asthma patients in China, of which 3/<> are allergic asthma. Asthma drugs are divided into emergency relief drugs and long-acting control drugs. Emergency relief drugs are like the quick-acting rescue pills for patients with coronary heart disease, can not be used as conventional treatment, otherwise the more used the more asthmatic, it is recommended to use long-term control drugs to control airway inflammation, improve lung function, prevent acute attacks. Another powerful tool for treating asthma is desensitization therapy. For example, if the patient is allergic to dust mites, use purified dust mite reagents to expose patients little by little, and finally develop tolerance and adaptation to dust mites. Current desensitization treatments include house dust mites, dust mites, and autumn pollen, mainly by subcutaneous injection and sublingual administration.
Common food allergies are generally common in children. In this regard, Zhang Jiali, deputy director of the nutrition department of China-Japan Friendship Hospital, reminded that some parents are very anxious with the test report sheet of food allergen antibodies, "How can children be allergic to so many foods?" What else can I eat? In fact, the diagnosis of food allergy requires a professional doctor to make a comprehensive judgment through medical history, physical examination, and auxiliary examination."
Zhang Jiali emphasized that the nutritional management of food allergies should first do nutritional assessment and consultation, and it is best to start before avoiding diet; Secondly, avoid allergens and dietary substitution should be scientific and reasonable; Third, parents should learn to read food labels and learn how to make safe food, so as to avoid the risk of accidental exposure; Finally, be sure to monitor your child's growth regularly.
In infancy, breastfeeding is promoted up to 6 months, and adding complementary foods too early or too late may increase the risk of developing allergic diseases. As the child ages, the gastrointestinal tract and immune system mature, the incidence of food allergies gradually decreases, and the symptoms of respiratory allergies become more and more obvious. If the child has cough after exercise, cough morning and evening, or inhale some allergens and suddenly appear chest tightness, wheezing and other symptoms, parents need to ask a doctor to help do a comprehensive assessment to check whether it is asthma, once diagnosed, it is recommended to carry out timely and effective treatment in childhood.
(Guangming Daily reporter Jin Zhenya)