Omar Ibn Al-Khattab is one of the great companions, the advisor of the Messenger of God - may God bless him and grant him peace - and the successor of Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq. He converted to Islam after 40 men.

He emigrated from Mecca to Medina and participated in all the invasions and battles with the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, and he did not lag behind any of them, and he was most of the rituals of God who feared his limits. .

His name and lineage

He is Umar ibn al-Khattab ibn Nufail ibn Abd al-Uzza ibn Rayah ibn Abdullah ibn Qart ibn Razzah ibn Uday ibn Ka'b ibn Lu'ay ibn Ghalib ibn Fahr ibn Malik ibn al-Nadr (who is Quraish) ibn Kinana ibn Khuzaymah ibn Mudraka ibn Ilyas ibn Mudar ibn Nizar ibn Maad Bin Adnan, Al-Adawi Al-Qurashi.

And his mother is Hantama bint Hashim bin Al-Mughirah bin Abdullah bin Omar bin Makhzoum, and Hashem is the one with the two spears.

He was called al-Farooq because God differentiated between truth and falsehood through him.

His father, Al-Khattab, was one of the senior men of the Quraysh, and his grandfather, Neville, had a great position.

As the tribe used to judge him.

his wives

  • Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal Al-Khuzaia, and he has Ubaid Allah and Zaid Al-Asghar.

  • And the relative of the daughter of Abi Umayyah Al-Makhzoumiyyah.

Umar bin Al-Khattab married them in the pre-Islamic period and divorced them in the year of Al-Hudaybiyah, as polytheists, when the verse “And do not hold fast to the infidel’s infidels” was revealed.

  • Zainab bint Maz'un bin Habib bin Wahb bin Hudhafa bin Jamah, the Quraysh tribe, the sister of Uthman bin Maz'un.

    It was said that she accompanied him on his migration to Medina, and it was said that she died in Mecca before the migration.

    His sons, including Abdullah and Abdul Rahman, and the mother of the believers Hafsa.

Omar Ibn Al-Khattab is one of the great companions, the advisor of the Messenger of God and the successor of Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq (communication media)

  • Jamila bint Thabit bin Abi Al-Aqlah Al-Ansariyyah and he has Asim from her. She is the sister of Asim, the emir of the Al-Rajee’ clan. Omar married her in the seventh year of migration, then divorced her, so she married Zaid bin Haritha.

  • The daughter of Hafs ibn al-Mughira, Omar married her and divorced her because she was barren.

  • Atika, the daughter of Zaid bin Amr bin Nufail bin Uday, converted to Islam and emigrated, and she was the husband of Abdullah bin Abi Bakr Al-Siddiq, and he gave her a portion of his money on the condition that she not marry after him. her ex-husband until she became lawful for him, so she did so and he married her, and she bore him Ayadh and Zainab.

  • Umm Hakim, daughter of Al-Harith bin Hisham Al-Makhzoumiya, and she was married to Khalid bin Saeed bin Al-Aas, and when he was martyred in the battle of Marj Al-Safar, Omar bin Al-Khattab married her, that is, after the 13th year of migration.

    Fatima gave birth to him.

    It was said that he divorced her.

  • Umm Kulthum bint Ali bin Abi Talib, the granddaughter of the Messenger of God from his daughter Fatima, was born before the death of the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, and Omar married her in the 17th year of migration and he had Zaid the eldest and Ruqayyah from her, and she and her son Zaid died at the same time.

  • Fatima bint Al-Walid bin Al-Mughira, and she was married to Al-Harith bin Hisham, but he died in the plague of Emmaus in the year 18 AH. Omar bin Al-Khattab married her and worked to raise her son, Abd Al-Rahman.

  • "Lahiya Umm Walad", and he has Abd al-Rahman al-Awsat, Abd al-Rahman al-Asghar and Aisha.

  • Fakiha Saida, daughter of Rafi bin Ubaid bin Amr Al-Ansariyya, and Abdullah Al-Asghar from her.

It was said that Lahia and Fakiha were two mothers.

Omar did not marry more than 4 women at the same time.

Omar Ibn Al-Khattab Mosque in Palestine (Al-Jazeera Documentary)

his upbringing

The accounts of historians differed in the date of his birth, so it was said that he was born 13 years after the year of the elephant, and it was said that he was born 4 years before the Fajar War, or 4 years after it, and his birth was in the house of his father, Al-Khattab.

Omar grew up in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, and there he grew up and grew up among the sons of his clan of Bani Uday bin Ka’b and other young men of Quraysh, and he lived in his childhood in hardship and tasted extreme poverty, so he worked with his brother by herding camels in exchange for dirhams that they took, and when he grew up he worked in trade and became the owner of great wealth with I left him.

his qualities

Omar was a tall man, huge body, bald head with two edges, beautiful facial features, in his eyes a poplar, a thick beard, broad shoulders, thick feet and palms, strong build, tending to tanness, left-handed, if he walked as if he was riding, loud voice, if he spoke I listen, and when he walks he speeds up, and when he hits he hurts, and when he feeds he is satisfied, and if he gets angry he twists his mustache and blows.

He was known for his asceticism in the world and what is in it, his patience, his prestige and his severity in religion, his zeal for the prohibitions of God, his performance of duties and his keenness to implement the limits of God, and his extreme caution in religion and leaving suspicions.

He was keen on the truth, explaining it and returning to it, not insisting on error and fanaticism for opinion, adjudicating the truth and what is right, soft-hearted, humble with many tears, loved remembrance and listening to sermons, quick to weep out of fear of God, hated praise and praise, and was humble, soft-sided, generous and abundant in spending in God's way, brave and fearless.

His life in ignorance and his position on Islam

Omar was known for his position in the Quraysh as his father and grandfather, because of his moral qualities, strength, strength, courage and toughness.

However, like his people, he adhered to the religion of paganism and idolatry, rejecting Islam and monotheism, so he resisted the spread of religion, harmed those who embraced Islam with the Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace, and tortured the weak and some of the slave girls who believed.

His conversion to Islam

Omar’s conversion to Islam was preceded by situations that made the religion of God fall into his heart, including what was narrated about him that he said, “I went out to confront the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, before I converted to Islam, and I found him had preceded me to the mosque, so I stood behind him, so he opened Surat Al-Haaqqa, so I became astonished by the composition of the Qur’an. I said: By God, this is a poet, as Quraysh said. By the right hand, then We would have cut off the two knots from it, so there is no one among you who would prevent it} to the end of the surah, so Islam fell into my heart every site.

And Omar mentions about himself that he was the owner of wine and had his sitters, so he went out one time wanting to sit with them and drink wine, but he did not find them, so he went to the Kaaba to circumambulate the House, and he found the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, standing there praying, so Omar sat listening to the Qur’an, and he fell in his heart and was affected by it and cried.

An expressive image from a TV series about Omar Ibn Al-Khattab (social networking sites)

As for his conversion to Islam, it is narrated on the authority of Anas bin Malik that he said, “Umar went out wielding a sword, and a man from Bani Zuhrah met him and said: Where did you baptize, O Omar? He said: I want to kill Muhammad. I do not see you except that you have become immoral and have left your religion, which you are upon. He said: Shall I not tell you of the wonder, O Omar? Your circumcision and your sister have defiled and left your religion, which you are upon.

So Umar walked in a grumbling state until he came to them, and a man from the emigrants called Khabab was with them. When Khabab heard Umar's sense, he hid himself in the house, so he entered upon them and said: What is this hum that I heard with you?

And they used to recite (Taha), so they said: Except for a conversation we spoke between us.

He said: Perhaps you have become deaf, and his circumcision said to him: Have you seen, O Omar, if the truth is in a religion other than yours?

Then Umar rebuked him for having intercourse severely, so his sister came and pushed him away from her husband, so he gave her a whiff of his hand, and her face bled.

Do you bear witness that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God?

When Omar despaired, he said: Give me this book that you have, so I can read it.

He said: Omar used to read books.

His sister said: You are an abomination and only the purified can touch it. Get up and wash or perform ablution. Omar got up and then took the book and recited (Taha) until he finished saying: {Indeed, I am God, there is no god but me, so worship me and pray for my remembrance}.

He said: Guide me to Muhammad.

When Khabab heard Omar’s words, he left the house and said: “Rejoice, O Omar, for I hope that the call of the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, on Thursday night will be: “O God, strengthen Islam with Umar ibn al-Khattab or with Amr ibn Hisham.” He said: And the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, is in the house. which is at the origin of Safa.

An image symbolizing an Arab caravan (social networking sites)

So Omar set out until he came to the house, and at its door were Hamzah and Talhah, and some of the companions of the Messenger of God, may God bless him and grant him peace. That would be easy for us to kill him, and the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, is inside, beckoning to him.

So the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, came out when he came to Umar, and he took hold of his clothes and the handles of his sword and said: “O Omar, you are finished until God sends down on you the disgrace and punishment that He sent down to Al-Waleed bin Al-Mughirah. Oh God, this is Umar bin Al-Khattab. Omar said: I bear witness that you are the Messenger of God, so he embraced Islam and said: Come out, O Messenger of God.

Then Omar announced his conversion to Islam in front of the Quraysh, so they stood up to him and beat him and beat them until Omar got tired, so he left them and told them to do what seemed to you.

Islam Omar was in the sixth or seventh year of the mission after the second migration to Abyssinia.

After Islam 40 men.

God honored the Muslims with his conversion to Islam. After his conversion, the Muslims were able to go out to the Sacred House, circumambulate it and pray there.

And when the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, authorized the Muslims to emigrate, Omar was one of the first emigrants, and the common narration is that he emigrated openly, unlike the Muslims in that period, because when he intended to emigrate, he girdled his sword and went to the house, circumambulated and prayed, then shouted at the top of his voice: “Whoever wants his mother to be bereaved of him and orphaned.” his son, and his wife is widowed, let him meet me beyond this valley.” No one from Quraysh followed him.

Other accounts were mentioned of his emigration in secret, like other Muslims.

His role in Islam

Omar was one of the close companions, to whom he witnessed the strength of faith, certainty, and satisfaction with the judiciary and destiny, as he was known for his diligence in obedience, frequent prayers, fasting, remembrance, alms, and night prayers, and he was the owner of knowledge and jurisprudence, and one of the people of fatwa.

And Omar had a status with the Messenger of God, as he was an advisor to him, peace and blessings be upon him, and he was among those whom he trusted, so he made him one of the zakat collectors and entrusted him with the money of Muslims, and he was one of the book of revelations, and he participated in building the Quba Mosque.

Quba Mosque, Umar ibn al-Khattab, may God be pleased with him, contributed to its construction (Reuters)

And he participated in the invasions and battles, so he witnessed the great Badr, and after the victory of the Muslims and the capture of 70 men from the infidels, the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, consulted Abu Bakr and Omar about what he would do with the polytheists. Next, a Qur’anic verse was revealed supporting Omar Ibn Al-Khattab’s position, which is the Almighty’s saying: “It is not for a prophet to have prisoners until he thickens the earth.

And in the Battle of Uhud, Umar was among those who stood firm around the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace.

In the Battle of Bani Al-Mustaliq, he had a firm stand with the hypocrites, so he asked the Prophet to allow him to cut off the neck of Abdullah bin Ubi bin Salul because of the sedition that he had kindled among the Muslims, and the Prophet did not allow him until it was said that Muhammad kills his companions.

And on the day of Hudaybiyah, his position on reconciliation was clear, as he was rejecting the gains that were given to the polytheists at that time, and he believed that the Muslims were right and the unbelievers were wrong, and he wondered why the Muslims would give the lowness of their religion?!

However, he obeyed the instructions of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, and carried out his orders.

He participated in the Battle of Khaybar, and the Messenger, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, sent him after Khaybar secretly to Hawazin, so he informed them of the news before his arrival, so they fled, and when Omar and his concubine arrived, he did not find any of them, so he returned to Medina.

Omar participated in the battle of That Al-Salasil under the command of Amr Ibn Al-Aas, and the Al-Khatt Expedition under the command of Abu Ubaidah Ibn Al-Jarrah.

He also participated in the Battle of Hunayn, and was among the few who stood firm around the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, at the beginning of the battle when he betrayed them.

He also witnessed the Battle of Tabuk, and the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, assigned him to be with the army of Osama bin Zaid.

His role in the succession of Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq

After the death of the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, a dispute arose between the Muhajireen and the Ansar over who the caliphate would be, and the Ansar indicated that there were two caliphs, except that Umar ibn al-Khattab asked Abu Bakr al-Siddiq to extend his hand to pledge allegiance to him, so he was the first to pledge allegiance to him, then the companions of the Muhajireen followed him, then the Ansar, and in this is a reminder of the thanks of my father Bakr, his position and entitlement to the caliphate, and his fear of a rift among the Muslims.

And when apostasy occurred and the zakat was withheld, Omar was contrary to Abu Bakr in his opinion, then he returned after Abu Bakr showed him what was right, so he was his supporter and helper in his wars.

Omar advised Abu Bakr to collect the Qur’an after the Battle of Yamama and the martyrdom of between 600 and 700 Muslims, including a large number of memorizers, so Abu Bakr ordered Zaid bin Thabit to collect the Qur’an, so he followed it from the hardwoods, the fears, and the chests of men, and collected all the newspapers with Abu Bakr until God took him.

Omar was an advisor to Abu Bakr, who appointed him in the administration of the state, organizing the affairs of the parish and matters of the judiciary, and Abu Bakr appointed him over the city when he went out for Umrah.


Abu Bakr al-Siddiq appointed Umar ibn al-Khattab over the Muslims before his death after he consulted the senior emigrants and supporters, and Othman bin Affan wrote, by order of Abu Bakr, the will of succession, and Umar ibn al-Khattab took charge of the Muslims on Tuesday 22 Jumada al-Akhirah in the year 13 AH.

Omar asked the subjects to obey him and his governors, and he explained to them that the righteousness of the ruler is from the righteousness of his subjects, and he alerted them to the importance of giving advice to him, and he loved someone who told him of his faults, and he rejoiced if someone explained to him his mistake, so he corrected his position.

Omar was keen on his subjects, fearing God among them, and checking their conditions, and people praised his justice, his good leadership, and his performance of the rights of his subjects. righteousness and piety and consult them in matters of parish.

Umar was keen on assuming the governors over the regions that they be among the best of the subjects, characterized by righteousness and piety, and known for their integrity, and that they be among the companions of the Messenger of God, and not be from his people, so he spared his relatives and sons the guardianship, and that they be experienced and know-how in managing the affairs of the subjects and in politics, and owners of acumen And intelligence, mercy, affection, and pity for Muslims, and they have asceticism in the world and its enjoyment.

He dismissed those who failed to order his subjects, or his subjects complained to Umar, and the complaint and its validity were confirmed, or those who did not comply with the orders of the caliph.

During his reign, the Qur’an was written in one Qur’an, and a group of the Companions supervised that with the narration of Saeed bin Al-Aas.

And he was interested in establishing the rituals of religion, especially prayer and its performance, and taking care of mosques and their imams, and he was urging his parishioners to follow the rituals and bring them to prayer, fasting and pilgrimage.

Omar Ibn Al-Khattab is the first to put the Hijri date.

conquests during his reign

The Muslims conquered Damascus during the era of Umar ibn al-Khattab, and the army at that time was led by Khalid ibn al-Walid before his dismissal.

Jerusalem was also opened during his reign after a siege that lasted 4 months, when the armies led by Amr ibn al-Aas, Khalid ibn al-Walid and Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah gathered in it, so its people surrendered, and Omar came to it and received its keys from the Romans.

Al-Madain was opened during the era of Omar bin Al-Khattab, Nahawand and Al-Ahwaz.

These conquests were aided by Umar's interest in the fighting ability, the preparation of the army, the physical strength of the soldiers, their learning of various combat skills, raising their fitness, the fear for the army and the soldiers, the concern for their lives, and the recognition of their merit and status.

Omar was keen to equip the armies well, prepare them, and provide them with equipment and equipment.

He always urged the soldiers and the commanders of the armies to be patient, to trust in God, not to despair, to be certain of relief, to be courageous and forbearing.

Omar is considered the first to establish the Soldier's Office at the invitation of the Companions to guarantee the rights of the soldiers and to distribute the spoils and give the people justly.

his martyrdom

Omar Ibn Al-Khattab was leading the Muslims in the dawn prayer, so Abu Lulu'ah Al-Majusi stabbed him with a poisoned knife, and stabbed 13 Muslim men while he was trying to flee, killing 7 of them, then killed himself after he was trapped.

Omar asked to call a doctor to see his wound, so the doctor came and gave Omar wine, and it came out of the wound, and the doctor suspected the color of the wine with blood.

Omar nominated 6 companions for the caliphate, they are Othman, Ali, Abd al-Rahman bin Auf, Talha, al-Zubayr and Saad, and he recommended them to fear God and asked them to pledge allegiance to whoever pledged allegiance to Abd al-Rahman bin Awf, and whoever refuses to strike his neck, and Omar ordered his son Abdullah to pay his debt, and ask Aisha for permission to be buried in her house next to his companions;

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq.

Several sayings were narrated about the date of his death, all of which ranged from the end of Dhu al-Hijjah to the beginning of Muharram, in the year 23 AH, and his son Abdullah washed and shrouded him, and the honorable companions prayed the funeral prayer for him, and he was buried in Aisha’s room next to his two companions.

The duration of his caliphate was 10 years, 5 months and 21 nights, may God be pleased with him.