□ Changjiang Daily reporter Li Yuying

  The Central Meteorological Observatory released a message on August 25 that from the 31st, the high temperature in most of the south has subsided, and the high temperature process has basically ended.

Some netizens sighed: "It's finally over." A reporter from Changjiang Daily reviewed the "China Climate Bulletin" since 2014 and found that there have been "too many extreme high temperature events" for six consecutive years.

  ■ The strongest high temperature since 1961

  The water coming out of the faucet is hot

  "Do you know what it's like to be scalded by the sun? I know this year." Li Jingping has lived in Chongqing for 15 years. This is the first time he has experienced such a tough summer. The water from the tap is hot, and he doesn't eat ice cream very often This year, I ate a lot, volunteered for epidemic prevention, and my arm was sunburned.

  The news released by the Central Meteorological Observatory said that the large-scale persistent high temperature weather experienced in the south this time is the strongest high temperature heat wave event in my country since 1961.

The wide range, long duration and intensity of high temperature weather are the strongest since meteorological records began in 1961.

  As of August 27, the Central Meteorological Observatory has issued high temperature warnings for 38 consecutive days.

As of August 23, a high temperature red warning has been issued for 12 consecutive days.

  In the Sichuan-Chongqing region, the summer of 2022 will undoubtedly be the hardest.

  The continuous high temperature and fine heat since July set a record for the most severe extreme continuous fine and high temperature weather in Chongqing since 1961.

How hot is Chongqing?

The news released by the Central Meteorological Observatory said: Chongqing is the "heart" of the country's high temperature, while Beibei is the "heart of the heart", with temperatures above 40°C almost every day.

The Jialing River is in the flood season, but it has dried up to the point where the riverbed is exposed.

  On August 13, the high temperature in Zhushan, Hubei was 44.6°C, ranking first among 2,418 national meteorological observation stations.

A local citizen said in an interview with reporters that the corn leaves planted in the surrounding area were all wilted, and some were broken when squeezed.

  According to the "Liberation Daily" report, as of August 23, Shanghai has experienced 49 high temperature days this year (the daily maximum temperature is ≥ 35 ℃), the second most since meteorological records began in Shanghai in 1873, and the "highest in history" was 1934. 55 high temperature days of the year.

  ■ Drought in the flood season

  The Yangtze River Basin has the lowest precipitation in 60 years

  Statistics from the Ministry of Water Resources show that as of August 22, 48.48 million mu of arable land had been affected by drought in 10 provinces and cities in the Yangtze River Basin, and 3.4 million people and 580,000 large livestock were affected by the drought, mainly in Sichuan, Chongqing, Hubei and Hunan. , Anhui, Jiangxi, Jiangsu and other places.

  On August 18, the Central Meteorological Observatory issued the first yellow warning for meteorological drought this year.

The Ministry of Water Resources released information on August 17: the Yangtze River Basin has the lowest precipitation in 60 years; the upper reaches of the Yangtze River have the lowest water in 72 years; the water level of Dongting Lake was lower than the dry water level on August 4, which is the earliest since 1971; Poyang Lake on August 6 Daily low water level, which is the earliest dry water level in the lake since 1951.

Netizens were deeply impressed by the natural landscape of the "tree of the earth" presented by Poyang Lake due to the continuous drop of water level.

  Every year from June to August, which is usually the main flood season in my country, why is there a drought during the flood season?

  Experts say that the intensity of the subtropical high pressure this year has been strong, causing the entire Yangtze River basin to continue to have high temperatures and little rainfall. The main rivers and lakes in the basin have significantly less water, and the water level is significantly lower, resulting in obvious drought.

  Chen Jin, the Luojia Chair Professor of Wuhan University and the Deputy Director of the Water Resources Professional Committee of the Chinese Society of Hydraulic Resources, analyzed in an interview with reporters that this year is special because the high temperature weather lasts for a long time, which aggravates the impact of drought, which is rare.

  Will the drought in many places cause food and vegetable prices to rise?

  Li Guoxiang, a researcher at the Institute of Rural Development of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said in an interview with the media: "High temperature and dry weather will have an impact on the production of vegetables and fruits in some areas. Most parts of the country have little impact, and some areas still have too much rain."

  "From the perspective of the whole of China, the proportion of affected areas is still relatively small, and the impact on the overall bumper harvest of autumn grains will not be obvious. Some production areas in the Yangtze River Basin may be affected." Li Guoxiang said.

The reporter noticed that the People's Daily published a report on August 16, "The area of ​​autumn grains has increased steadily, and most areas are growing better than the whole year of the previous year, which is supported by the harvest of grain."

  ■ High summer temperatures in Europe may become "normal"

  Worst drought in 500 years likely

  This summer, Europe and North America are also plagued by heat and drought.

  A report released by the European Commission's Joint Research Center on August 22 shows that nearly two-thirds of Europe has experienced drought or is at risk of drought, and the drought in some areas has continued to worsen since August, which has affected inland shipping, hydropower and electricity. agricultural harvest.

  The "starvation stone" is a marker placed in the riverbed by predecessors when they encountered drought. The stone is usually engraved with the year and warning text.

These markers are used to remind future generations that if the water level drops and the "starvation stone" is exposed, it means that the local area will suffer from famine due to drought.

This year, both the Po River, the longest river in Italy, and the Rhine, the largest river in Western Europe, have suffered historic droughts.

"Hunger stones" have been found in several rivers including the Elbe, Rhine and Danube in recent weeks as water levels continue to drop.

  The 2018 European drought was the worst in the past 500 years, but this year's drought is likely to exceed 2018 levels, meteorologists at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre have warned.

  The record high temperatures that swept Europe this summer could become the "norm" for European summers by 2035, according to a research report released by the UK Met Office Hadley Centre on the 25th.

  ■ “More extreme heat events”

  The average number of high temperature days across the country is on the rise

  Since the complete meteorological observation records began in 1961, which years have the strongest high temperature in my country ranked in the top three?

The China Meteorological Administration recently replied to reporters that in terms of the number of high temperature days (the daily maximum temperature ≥ 35°C), the top 1-3 years with the strongest high temperature in my country are 2022, 2017, and 2018.

  In addition, according to the ranking of the average high temperature days, the reporter checked the "China Climate Bulletin" since 2014 and found that the top few were 2017 (12.1 days), 2021 (12 days), 2018 (11.8 days) and 2019 (11.8 days).

Since the summer of 2022 (from June 1 to August 15), the average number of high temperature days in my country has reached 12.0 days.

This means that the years with the highest average high temperature days in my country are mainly from 2017 to 2022.

Among them, the "China Climate Bulletin" for six consecutive years from 2016 to 2021 appeared "more extreme high temperature events".

  Judging from the two charts released by the China Meteorological Administration, both the national average temperature and the national average high temperature days have shown a fluctuating upward trend in recent years.

  The "China Climate Bulletin" is an annual bulletin made by the China Meteorological Administration on China's climate conditions.

The preface to the 2020 China Climate Bulletin states: The Earth's climate system is experiencing global climate change characterized by warming due to the combined influence of natural and human activities.

The preamble of the "2021 China Climate Bulletin" adds the following sentence: It has seriously affected the environment on which human beings depend.

  In the past decade, the global temperature has been about 1.1℃ higher than the average of 1850-1900, and the warming trend is difficult to reverse in the short term.

In the context of future global warming, we should continuously improve our ability to resist and prevent future extreme events, and jointly create a good living environment.

 ■ "Energy saving mode" has been started in many places across the country

  The continuous high temperature has led to a significant increase in the electricity load. In order to alleviate the electricity consumption pressure, this summer, many places across the country have turned on the "energy-saving mode": lights off the Bund in Shanghai; landscape lighting in Hongyadong is suspended; Wuhan Yangtze River Light Show is suspended; Sichuan and Chongqing areas are suspended. Advertising lighting is turned off in many places, landscape lights are turned off, escalators are out of service, large screens in shopping malls are black, subway stations are turned off and dimmed, public charging piles are temporarily suspended, and business districts and shopping malls have adjusted their business hours from 16:00 to 21:00... just Even the office buildings have been cut off from electricity, and the central air-conditioning has stopped cooling.

  Sichuan is a major hydropower province with 3,962 hydropower stations, and 80% of its electricity supply comes from hydropower.

Xinhua News Agency reported on August 24 that the inflow of water from various river basins in Sichuan is more than 50% dry compared with the same period of previous years, the hydropower generation capacity has dropped sharply, and the power supply and demand are seriously unbalanced.

Since August 18, 50 emergency generator vehicles from 13 provinces (cities) including Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong and Jiangsu have arrived in Sichuan and put into operation.

  The sixth assessment report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change pointed out that human activities are making extreme climate events, including heat waves, heavy precipitation and drought, more frequent.

Therefore, people should also actively reduce greenhouse gas emissions and slow down global warming through actions such as energy conservation and emission reduction.