This summer, the continuous high temperature weather in my country has repeatedly refreshed the historical extreme value of the highest temperature.

The Central Meteorological Observatory continued to issue a high temperature red warning at 18:00 on the 21st, which is the 10th consecutive day that the Central Meteorological Observatory issued a high temperature red warning.

  Among them, the highest temperature in parts of eastern Sichuan, Chongqing and other places can reach above 40 ℃.

  What impact will the continuous high temperature weather bring, and will it become the norm in the future?

Recently, a reporter from Chengdu Business Daily-Red Star News invited Qian Weihong, an expert in meteorology and a professor of the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Wang Yuanfeng, director of the Carbon Neutral Technology and Strategy Research Center of Beijing Jiaotong University, and a professor of the School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Wan Yanhua and Gao Yan, chief physician of the Emergency Medicine Department of the General Hospital of the Northern Theater Command, discussed what the high temperature will bring to humans and the environment and how to deal with it.

Talk about high temperature climate

  This time, the intensity is large, the scope is wide, and the time is long

  Reporter: The recent weather can be said to have turned on the "scorching" mode. On August 17, the National Climate Center monitored and assessed that the comprehensive intensity of regional high temperature events since June 13 this year has reached 1961. The strongest value since the complete meteorological observation record.

What kind of concept is this?

  Qian Weihong, an expert in meteorology and a professor at the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University: One of the judgments of high temperature events in meteorology is based on "comprehensive intensity", which considers three indicators: one is the intensity index.

For example, at high temperatures of 30°C and 40°C, the strength is different.

The second is the scope indicator.

For example, the range of 300,000 square kilometers and 400,000 square kilometers is different.

The third is duration.

50 days and 60 days, the duration is not the same.

If these three indicators can be satisfied: very large, very strong, and very long, then the impact will be great.

Sorting and synthesizing all high temperature events since 1961 according to different indicators will lead to the conclusion of "the strongest high temperature value since 1961".

  Reporter: What are the specific manifestations or characteristics of this high temperature weather?

  Qian Weihong: First, in Hubei and Chongqing, as well as some sites in Hebei and Yunnan, the temperature reaches 44°C, and the strength is very high; second, the high temperature range above 40°C is also the largest in history; third, the high temperature continues Time exceeds 62 days in 2013.

The consequences are high temperature and heat waves, large-scale droughts, and then reduced river runoff, lower water levels in lakes and reservoirs, and even forest fires.

  Reporter: How did the continuous high temperature weather come about?

  Qian Weihong: The high temperature weather is related to the atmospheric circulation system.

The abnormal high pressure moves and stabilizes, and it will not change in intensity until a typhoon over the sea or a low pressure on land hits it.

For example, in the past two days, there have been abnormal low pressures in the north, and North China and Jianghuai have cooled down.

The longer the abnormally high pressure stays, the longer the heat wave lasts.

Moreover, the larger the abnormal high pressure range, the stronger it is.

  Reporter: Is the occurrence of extreme weather related to global warming?

  Qian Weihong: These are two different things.

Global warming is an increase in the average temperature, which is the average condition of the entire planet.

It is different from high and low pressure anomalies, cold and warm anomalies, droughts and floods, and typhoons.

on economy and society

  We need to change production and lifestyle

  Reporter: What is your attitude towards this hot weather?

  Wang Yuanfeng, Director of the Carbon Neutrality Technology and Strategy Research Center of Beijing Jiaotong University: High temperature cannot be completely solved with technology.

It is not true that technology can completely solve the problem of high temperatures, nor is it true that technology can completely mitigate climate change.

Just like when we get sick, it is incorrect to think that we rely entirely on doctors to prescribe medicine for treatment, and that we do not adjust our mental state and lifestyle.

Of course, technology is very important and will play a big role, but it is not correct to think that technology can solve all problems.

  Reporter: Under the background of continuous high temperature, while the climate is changing, my country's environment, economy and social production have been affected to varying degrees. For example, the electricity load in many places has surged and the efficiency of outdoor operations has decreased.

How can we slow climate change?

  Wang Yuanfeng: Human beings emit too much greenhouse gas, leading to a gradual increase in global temperature and more and more extreme climates.

To slow down this phenomenon, we must rely on technology, but we cannot rely solely on technology.

Mitigating climate change and achieving carbon neutrality is a grand strategy. The world will achieve net zero emissions around 2050, and China will achieve carbon neutrality by 2060.

How to achieve carbon neutrality?

  The first is energy. It is necessary to transform from fossil energy, which originally relied on coal, oil and natural gas, to renewable energy such as solar energy and wind energy. The energy system must be revolutionized.

  Second, there must be a revolution in the economic and social system, and it must be transformed from an economy that is extensive and has not formed a circular economy in life to a green, low-carbon and intensive economy.

There is no doubt that technology is an important force, but our production methods and lifestyles must be transformed in order to realize the transformation of energy modes. Even if we rely on renewable energy in the future, it is not unlimited and casual use.

In the future, we will turn to a life of renewable energy, instead of turning on air conditioners and driving more private cars every day, we must live a more economical and low-carbon life.

We need a revolution in the energy system, a revolution in the economic and social system, in order to slow down climate change.

The carbon neutrality strategy has just begun, we have just taken the first steps, and there is still a lot of urgent work.

  Reporter: How can we adapt to climate change, especially hot weather?

  Wang Yuanfeng: Why adapt to climate change, because climate change will continue.

Some people say that this summer is hot, and it may be the hottest in the past, but this summer may also be the coolest summer in the future. Because our temperature will continue to rise, we must build a climate-adaptive and climate-resilient society.

  In June, 17 departments including the Ministry of Environmental Protection issued the National Strategy for Adapting to Climate Change 2035. We want to build a climate-adaptive society as well as a high-temperature-adaptive society.

  In the past, we had no experience in building a high-temperature adaptable and high-temperature resilient society. Therefore, we must evaluate the plans and actions we have made, and continue to give feedback in order to do better.

This is not only a climatological issue, but also a non-linear model that integrates economic, social, technological, and population factors to make predictions. It requires a joint response from all aspects of climate, economy, society, and ecology to adapt to this high temperature. We will build a good society and a high-temperature resilient society.

On Urban Governance

  In the long run, a "resilient city" should be built

  Reporter: Facing high temperature weather is also a challenge to urban governance.

  Wan Yanhua, a professor at the School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Huazhong University of Science and Technology: The government is the provider of public goods.

For example, the supply of water, high temperature and little rainfall will lead to drought, which will lead to water shortage, so the supply of water will be tested.

Another is the power supply. Because of cooling, the power load will increase, and it may be necessary to limit industrial power consumption, which will cause problems to production and energy supply.

High temperature may also lead to short circuit, overload, and fire, etc., which brings difficulties to urban disaster management.

High temperature will cause a lot of bacteria to breed, cause garbage to rot, and cause great damage to the environment.

  Reporter: What issues should the public pay attention to?

How do the citizens themselves get along with the hot weather?

In order to cope with high temperature weather, in what ways does the government carry out urban governance and reduce the impact of high temperature weather?

  Wan Yanhua: There may be short-term and long-term differences between the government's confrontation and governance.

Short-term, such as artificial rainfall, to gradually alleviate the high temperature.

In terms of internal governance, more care needs to be given to vulnerable groups.

For example, subways, shopping malls, and other places with shady spaces should be opened, so that residents who cannot afford electricity or are affected by electricity shortages can spend the hot weather in air-conditioned spaces.

Another example is some water features, sprinklers, etc., which can be used for routine urban governance to reduce some temperatures.

In the long run, we must return to the proposition of resilient cities.

  Reporter: You mentioned before that the concept of "resilient city" is still in the discussion stage. When we talk about resilient cities, what should we pay attention to?

  Wan Yanhua: Resilient city is a model for urban development in a state of frequent disasters.

Resilience includes adaptability as well as the elastic part.

From a planning point of view, we believe that the elastic space falls into the blue-green space.

Besides, the bigger point is the mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes and grasses.

The blue-green space will actually form a cold island effect opposite to the heat island effect, that is, a cold source.

  If some blue and green spaces are evenly distributed in the city, it should have a good effect on cooling.

  Reporter: In urban planning, are there any specific indicators to consider how to mitigate the heat island effect?

Does our country have any institutional and legal requirements for the green construction of cities?

  Wan Yanhua: There is a "green space rate" in urban planning, which is a mandatory indicator.

From a microscopic point of view, a community and a unit have green space rate requirements.

The same is true for cities, where the green space rate in industrial parks reaches 50%.

Then the green space becomes a cold source of cold island.

We also have requirements for the water surface rate, but because of the difference between the north and the south, the indicators are not uniform. It may be 8% in the north and 10% in the south. That is to say, whether it is lakes or rivers, there is an expectation in the city. .

The Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development proposed that 300 meters see green, 500 meters see gardens, 1000 meters see water, and blue and green spaces are included.

  The ventilation duct is also a good means to solve the high temperature, which is of great significance to the south.

Our country has a northwesterly wind in winter and a southeasterly wind in summer.

As far as my country's topography is concerned, there is a summer monsoon entering the city from the southeast, which plays a role in cooling.

  In fact, from planning indicators, spatial structure, ventilation corridors, to building forms, there are many topics for climate change.

Talking about heat stroke

  Body temperature must drop below 38.5°C within 2 hours

  Reporter: When it comes to high-temperature production, we have seen constant media reports of deaths from heat stroke.

Who is prone to heat stroke?

  Gao Yan, Chief Physician of the Emergency Medicine Department of the General Hospital of the Northern Theater Command: There are two types of heat stroke, one is exertional heat stroke and the other is non-exertional heat stroke.

We usually call non-exertional heat stroke classic heat stroke.

  Exertional heat stroke often occurs in athletes, soldiers, and laborers who do strenuous exercise, and non-exertional heat stroke often occurs in the elderly, children, and people who are not particularly well accustomed to heat at home.

In fact, heat stroke is exposure to a hot environment, or coupled with high temperature, high humidity, and strenuous exercise, the body's function of heat production and heat dissipation is unbalanced, and its pathogenesis is very clear.

  Heat stroke is very dangerous and the disease progresses very quickly.

  Reporter: Front-line workers such as construction workers, sanitation workers, traffic police patrolmen, outdoor inspectors, etc. need to stick to their jobs despite the sweltering heat. What should they pay attention to?

  Gao Yan: There are many management methods that should be changed. For example, sanitation workers can appropriately reduce their working hours and replace them within half an hour.

Traffic police, construction workers and other people working outdoors can suspend work under special circumstances.

Still others, may have some heat acclimation training.

  Reporter: If you encounter a heat stroke patient, what emergency rescue and treatment methods should you take?

  Gao Yan: Once such a disease occurs in the crowd, the patient should be treated appropriately on the spot.

For example, immediately move the patient to a cool place, or a place with an electric fan and air conditioner, and quickly replenish the patient with appropriate water.

Severely ill patients should be sent to the hospital in time.

It is the most basic requirement to have cooling and hydration measures throughout the process, to protect the airway, and to be safely sent to a hospital capable of treating heat stroke.

Because in the high temperature state, the patient's body temperature is particularly high, even reaching 40 ℃.

And we have a most basic principle in the treatment of heat stroke, that is, it must drop below 38.5 ℃ within two hours, and its damage to organ function will be significantly reduced.

  Reporter: Do you have some life tips to relieve heatstroke and prevent heatstroke?

  Gao Yan: Self-protection is very important. Wearing sun hats, sun-protective clothing, and umbrellas in summer is the easiest.

There are also some classic cases of heat stroke, such as: some elderly people never turn on the air conditioner at home, and are reluctant to open windows and doors.

At this time, we need skills. We can use the air conditioner in another room, open the door, or lower the temperature of the elderly's room to prevent heat stroke.

  After heat stroke occurs, remember to move the patient to a ventilated environment first. If the humidity reaches 90%, the entire skin will feel like a plastic sheet is covered, which is often more harmful than high temperature. It will affect heat stroke. incidence rate.

In the Daxinganling, the humidity is as high as 90%, and the temperature may be 25℃, which is the characteristic of this disease.

In this process, we must pay attention to ventilation and cooling, even if there is a small river ditch next to it, it can solve the problem.

  Chengdu Commercial Daily-Red Star News reporter Luo Danni intern Cao Hongyu Yan Ya