• There are fewer admitted than places to be filled in the first degree in Ile-de-France.

    And many positions will not be filled in several secondary education disciplines at the national level.

  • A situation not new, but which is worsening and which is due to several causes, in particular the lack of salary attractiveness of the profession.

  • The academies will in particular have to use more contract workers, in order to put a teacher in front of the students in each class.

" What you want to do later ?


“I want to be a teacher”.

A dialogue that we would like to hear more often, but which, alas, has become rare in recent years in our country.

Proof of this is, again, with the final results of the external teacher competitions published at the end of last week, which for some show historically low success rates.

In the first degree, some academies have not filled up with new teachers from the schools.

Like Versailles, which has 424 admitted for 1,430 positions offered, that of Créteil (419 for 1,079) and that of Paris (157 out of 219).

Elsewhere in France, positions remained vacant: 14 in Nancy-Metz, 11 in Grenoble, 7 in Amiens, 6 in Dijon, 4 in Besançon and 3 in Nice.

The situation is worse in the second degree, especially in certain disciplines.

In math, there are 557 admitted to Capes for 1,035 positions, in German 60 out of 215, in classics 55 out of 134, in physics-chemistry 209 for 425, in SES 102 for 212, in modern letters 598 out of 755 positions, in education music 37 out of 127 positions, English 675 out of 781. “The three disciplines that are structurally complicated are maths, German and classics.

But we see that certain disciplines which were not affected by the phenomenon, such as the SES, are beginning to be,” underlines Jean-Remi Girard, president of the National Union of High Schools and Colleges (Snalc).

This deficit is all the more damaging as permanent voluntary departures, among public teachers in post at the National Education, have increased sharply:

they went from 1,554 in 2019-2020 to 2,286 in 2020-2021.

“We are really in a dramatic situation”, underlines Sophie Vénétitay, general secretary of Snes-FSU, the first secondary school union.

"There will be a teacher in front of each class at the start of the school year", says Pap Ndiaye

The causes of this drop in vocations are multiple.

First of all, the competitions were reformed during the previous five-year period and are now taken by candidates in the second year of the master's degree, and no longer at the end of the license.

“This mechanically reduced the pool of candidates for this session,” explains Jean-Remi Girard.

In addition, the lack of salary attractiveness arises.

Primary and secondary teachers earn 7% less than the average for OECD countries, and 20% less after ten or fifteen years of service, according to the annual

Education at a Glance report

published in September 2021. "Wage downgrading is a reality", insists Sophie Vénétitay.

The fact that the academies of Ile-de-France lack new teachers from the schools is therefore no coincidence.

"There is a cost of living effect which comes on top of the fact that salaries are not very attractive", emphasizes Jean-Remi Girard.

Finally, “certain disciplines, such as economics-management or mathematics, compete on the private labor market with more remunerative jobs,” adds Hélène Buisson-Fenet, director of research at the CNRS in sociology of education.

However, the new Minister of Education, wants to be optimistic for the next school year.

"There will be a teacher in front of each class at the start of the school year," said Pap Ndiaye on June 14.

Without convincing all the actors.

"There will be holes in the racket," predicted in May the national secretary of the National Union of National Education Management Staff (SNPDEN-Unsa), Bruno Bobkiewicz.

In the first degree, two additional competitions, organized in the academies of Versailles and Créteil (the results of which will be known at the beginning of July), should make it possible to recruit more teachers.

In addition, rectorates have already planned to bet on the additional lists of other competitions (internal and third way *).

More contract workers at the start of the school year

Several academies have also launched operations to recruit contract workers.

According to figures from Rue de Grenelle, they represent 1% of the teaching staff in the first degree and 8% in the second.

But Hélène Buisson-Fenet observes that their number has increased significantly in recent years: “Over the period 2008-2020, the rate of contract workers increased by 4%.

These same contractors only benefit from a few days of training, which is often insufficient to know how to manage a class.

"It's a structured training that is getting stronger from year to year", however defended Pap Ndiaye.

Jean-Remi Girard already predicts that they will be more numerous in certain establishments at the start of the school year: “In particular in those of priority education and in rural areas.

And in the academies of Versailles and Créteil.

On August 22, cells will be set up in the academies to manage the staffing problems that will arise.

It will also remain to be seen whether the hired contract workers will remain in office: “Some give up after a month”, underlines the trade unionist.

The difficulty will also be to ensure the replacement of teachers who will be on sick leave and maternity leave during the year.

Raising wages, an emergency

A major consultation is due to begin in September on the salaries and working conditions of teachers.

"The salary increase could have effects on first-time entrants, especially in the first degree, where allowances and bonuses are almost non-existent," says Hélène Buisson-Fenet.

“We will have to operate an overall catch-up in wages and not be content with upgrading the beginnings of careers, if we really want to restore the attractiveness of the profession”, concludes Jean-Remi Girard.

* In an administrative competition, an additional list is made up of candidates who have passed the oral examination, whose mark is sufficient to pass the competition, but for whom there was not enough space to be admitted.


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