The college entrance examination volunteer application season is here. For many students and parents, choosing a major is not an easy task.

To this end, China Youth Daily, China Engineering Education Professional Accreditation Association, and the Education Quality Assessment Center of the Ministry of Education, together with 9 national industry associations (academies) and 10 colleges and universities, jointly create a series of programs for the 2022 high recruitment season "Academicians Talk About Majors" .

How to choose a university major, academicians help you!

11 academicians appeared in turn to provide authoritative professional interpretations for candidates and parents for targeted reference.

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  【Material Major】

Academician Wang Guodong: How to make "steel life"

  Yang Jie, a trainee reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily

  Steel is hard and cold.

But in the eyes of Wang Guodong, the "Father of Super Steel in China", academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, and professor of Northeastern University, steel is a material that is easy-going, easy to domesticate, unpretentious, hard-working, self-denying and self-disciplined.

  In the program "Academicians Talk About Majors", Academician Wang Guodong mentioned that steel is the most important raw material from national defense construction to major powers. "The development of human society is inseparable from steel."

  As early as 1968, Academician Wang Guodong went to work in Anshan Iron and Steel Small Factory.

At that time, the second workshop of the small factory produced a kind of periodic section steel for the front axle of domestic automobiles. Due to technical reasons, the material was wasted in many links. Originally, the billet for the front axle of the liberation automobile could be rolled out in four cycles, and the finished product rate was only 75%. .

  The pain point of the problem was found in practice, Wang Guodong and his masters improved their skills, made a breakthrough in the rolling of periodic section steel, and ensured the yield.

  With 10 years of practical experience in the factory, Wang Guodong gradually understood the production process of steel, the factors affecting the quality, output, yield, efficiency, labor intensity and other indicators of steel production, the current development status of China's steel industry and the world's Steel manufacturing level.

  In the 1980s and 1990s, Japan and South Korea successively launched experiments to explore the limit of grain refinement. Academician Wang Guodong led the team and innovatively proposed the concept of moderate grain refinement based on the position that can be produced under existing industrial conditions.

From the laboratory to the steel mill to the application, after a lot of demonstrations, measurements, simulations, calculations, experiments, etc., the problems were solved one by one, and China's "super steel" was developed.

The application of super steel not only saves the country hundreds of millions of dollars every year, but also effectively reduces resource consumption and environmental pressure, which is of great significance to the comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of the national economy.

  Looking back on the past, Wang Guodong believes that it was only by going deep into the front line of steel production that he understood the needs, pain points, and frontiers of the industry, so that he could have research directions and research topics. He could find problems in innovative work, solve problems in practice, and promote In-depth integration of production, education and research to find methods for scientific research.

He encouraged young people to say: "Materials majors, including metallurgical engineering majors, require young people to combine theory and practice in practice, find solutions to problems accurately, and cultivate the quality of the unity of knowledge and action."

  Facing the future, how to make a new batch of "Iron Man"?

  Academician Wang Guodong listed a list of knowledge and skills: have the ability to innovate in the whole chain from technology, equipment, products and services; have the ability to solve practical problems in steel production with digital scientific methods, and constantly force the exploration of major theories Ability to improve solutions for problems; to "remain unwilling to be inferior, and strive to be upstream".

  "The iron and steel industry contributes 'No.1 or Only 1' products to the country and society." He hoped that young people who study materials majors should cultivate an innovative spirit in scientific research and study, so that they can become people in practical work in the future. I have nothing, people have my essence, and people have essence and I am strong.

During the critical period of industry transformation and upgrading, we will invest together to develop leading new products and start a new generation of "steel life".

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  【Instrument majors】

Academician You Zheng: The world is inseparable from the instrument

  China Youth Daily, China Youth Daily reporter Zhang Miao Leiyu

  Measurement and control technology and instruments are the source of the development of science and technology in the information age, the "pioneering officer" of scientific research, the "multiplier" of industrial production, the "combat effectiveness" of national defense and military, and the "materialized judge" in national life.

  Another year of the college entrance examination season, You Zheng, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, president of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, and chairman of the China Instrument and Control Society, explained to candidates and parents what is measurement and control and what is an instrument in the program "Academician Talks About Majors".

  "Measurement is a means, control is a goal, and an instrument is a tool." You Zheng said.

  The ancients used Si Nan to guide the way, and today people use satellite navigation. In fact, these are all instruments.

People use measurement to understand the world, and use precision to understand nature.

The research of instrument majors is the source of mastering information science and technology.

The instrument major integrates many interdisciplinary majors such as metrology, materials, machinery, electronics, optics, computers, automatic control, and artificial intelligence.

  "The birth of the astronomical telescope has opened up a new era of astronomical research; it is because of the invention of the X-ray diffractometer that people understand the double helix structure of DNA; the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope has promoted the development of nanotechnology." You Zheng said .

Advanced scientific instruments and equipment are not only the premise of knowledge innovation and technological innovation, but also one of the main contents of innovation research and an important manifestation of innovation achievements.

  According to You Zheng, the manufacturing level of instruments and the demand for advanced instruments reflect the level of economic development of a country.

  In scientific research activities, the role of scientific instruments and equipment cannot be ignored. You Zheng gave an example to reporters. During the launch of the Shenzhou spacecraft, measurement and control are required, and the operation of the spacecraft in space also requires various types of instruments to guarantee.

In addition, my country's self-designed, self-integrated manned submersible Jiaolong can obtain information on the deep-sea environment, "also done by instruments."

  From the sky to the sea, You Zheng said that major progress in basic research and industrial technological progress is often preceded by breakthroughs in experimental instruments and technical methods.

"The development of core key technologies in the field of smart sensors and microsystems in my country is relatively lagging behind, and mid-to-high-end sensors are still controlled by others, which has become a 'neck stuck' obstacle. The instrument major is a discipline that urgently needs more students to devote, develop and contribute." Yu Zheng said.

  You Zheng mentioned that the measurement and control technology and instrument majors may make students feel that "learning is more difficult".

Because the knowledge involved in this profession is "extremely broad".

Many undergraduate professional courses are usually completed before the senior year, but students majoring in measurement and control technology and instruments are still taking professional courses in the senior year.

  But You Zheng also emphasized that the hardships in the study period are for the sweetness of the future.

Students enter the golden age after graduation. They are very adaptable to social needs. Usually, they are "in short supply", and many industries "need us to play a role."

  "This is an indomitable major. You can not only do basic research, study science, but also be an engineer serving the society and study the products you need." You Zheng said: "In the instrument major, you can be full of beautiful Looking forward to using the advanced instruments you invented and developed to explore the mysteries of the human brain and nature, transform the world, and create a better life."

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  【Teacher majors】

Academician Fang Yu: Who is suitable to be a teacher

  Sun Haihua, reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily

  As a "senior" educator, Professor Fang Yu, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and former president of Shaanxi Normal University, joked in the "Academician Talks About Majors" program, "I have been dealing with education all my life, either as a teacher or as a teacher. teachers teach".

In his more than 40 years of teaching career, he has taught elementary and junior high schools, and led high schools and universities. His students include both Chinese and foreign students.

  In the impression of 66-year-old Fang Yu, teachers play a vital role in every step of his growth.

"In the past rural areas, there were almost no books to read, and teachers were synonymous with the most cordial and civilized." Fang Yu, who had a special fondness for teachers since childhood, became a private teacher after graduating from high school.

Later, when he returned from studying abroad, he declined the invitation of scientific research institutes, returned to campus, and returned to the path of teaching.

  "Teacher is a very special profession." Fang Yu emphasized: being a teacher is honorable, but the responsibility is even greater.

"It's not just one person who can be a good teacher. A good teacher can easily lead students to the right path. Similarly, an unqualified teacher can easily ruin a child." In Fang Yu's view, "Love from the heart" is the first condition to become a qualified teacher.

  Being a teacher, the job and income are relatively stable, there are two long vacations in winter and summer, and the society has a high degree of respect. These are the reasons why more and more people like to be teachers.

"This is a problem that needs to be studied carefully" - only by well-selected, will there be more opportunities to send more excellent teachers to basic education and university education in the future, and promote the virtuous circle of education development.

  "You won't regret applying for the Normal University." Fang Yu said to the college candidates: Graduates from Normal University will most likely become teachers in the future. Even if they don't want to be teachers, Normal University will not delay you. At present, Normal University, most of them will become teachers. It is a multi-disciplinary comprehensive normal university, in addition to normal majors, there are also non-normal majors.

Normal students are special. After graduation, they work in teaching positions for a certain number of years, and then they can have other choices.

If after a few years of study, you really feel that you are not suitable to be a teacher, go to graduate school, engage in scientific research or work, these paths are all passable.

After graduation, non-teaching students have a variety of options.

  Now, many undergraduates and even graduate students from prestigious universities are also willing to become teachers in primary and secondary schools.

Fang Yu believes: "This is a good phenomenon, which shows that the society has become more and more aware of the importance of education. Compared with the outstanding graduates of these comprehensive colleges, normal students will definitely have a better understanding of education." At the same time, once the graduates of high-level comprehensive universities adapt to their positions, their academic advantages will soon appear. "This and the characteristics of normal graduates will promote each other, and will make the quality and ability of the primary and secondary school teachers more excellent."

  In the face of the rapidly developing information society, all walks of life have undergone tremendous changes. What new requirements does this place on the teaching profession?

"It's really not easy to be a teacher now." Fang Yu said with a smile.

In his view, teachers need to constantly update their knowledge, position themselves, and teach each other, otherwise there will be no way to communicate with students, and they will not be qualified to teach students.

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  【Agricultural Engineering Major】

Academician Luo Xiwen: Modern Agricultural Engineering Subverts Your Imagination

  Yang Jie, a trainee reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily

  In the setting of WeChat nicknames, Luo Xiwen, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and a professor at South China Agricultural University, called himself an "old man who opened a live broadcast machine".

After graduating in 1970, he was assigned to work at the Tongren County Agricultural Machinery Factory in Guizhou Province, and he has been associated with agricultural machinery for more than 50 years.

  Luo Xiwen said in the program "Academician Talks About Majors" that when he was a child, he raised pigs in his hometown in rural Hunan, and the pig house was always dirty and smelly.

Today, the production scene in the field of agricultural engineering has undergone earth-shaking changes: "Piglets can also live in high-rise buildings." The highest floor has reached 26 floors.

Not only that, each floor is equipped with inspection robots to automatically detect humidity, temperature, CO2, SO2 and other environmental parameters in the pig house, and can also observe the growth status of piglets at any time and give early warnings.

  "Agricultural engineering is a unique and interdisciplinary subject that needs to be developed in depth and breadth." Luo Xiwen explained.

It has changed our production and life.

  Luo Xiwen introduced that the Dujiangyan Water Conservancy Project uses agricultural engineering technology to realize the three functions of flood control, irrigation and dredging; today, the unmanned rice transplanter can plant 60 acres a day, and the unmanned water direct seeding machine can sow 100 acres a day. Dry direct seeding machine can sow 200 acres a day.

  "Today, the development of modern agricultural engineering more and more needs to strengthen the integration and coordinated development with biotechnology, information technology, artificial intelligence, big data and the Internet of Things." Luo Xiwen said.

  As early as 2020, the engineering team of South China Agricultural University created the world's first unmanned rice farm based on the integration of intelligent agricultural machinery with biotechnology and information technology.

  "In the field of agricultural engineering, a variety of high and new technologies are used to achieve full coverage of farming, management, harvesting and production links, fully automatic transfer operations in hangars and fields, automatic obstacle avoidance and abnormal parking to ensure safety, real-time full monitoring of crop growth processes, and intelligent decision-making for accurate operations. A goal of no one." Luo Xiwen said.

  The change of technology in the field of agricultural engineering has improved the depth of talent training in the discipline.

  Taking agricultural soil and water engineering as an example, Luo Xiwen introduced that students need to master basic agricultural knowledge, basic mathematical knowledge, and systematic professional knowledge of rational development and effective utilization of water and soil resources.

In the classroom, the courses involved include engineering hydrology and hydraulic calculation, hydraulics, irrigation and drainage engineering, water and soil resources planning and management, etc.

  Agricultural engineering has a wide range of majors, including agricultural mechanization and automation, agricultural electrification, agricultural soil and water engineering, land consolidation engineering, and agricultural intelligent equipment engineering.

In the agricultural engineering classroom, knowledge is aimed at solving a range of real-world problems.

  "'Who will plant the land' and 'how to plant the land' are the urgent problems to be solved in my country's agricultural development." In Luo Xiwen's view, accelerating the development of modern agricultural science and technology is the best answer.

When advanced science and technology become an important support for the development of modern agriculture, the construction of modern agriculture with digitization, networking and intelligence as its core features requires the participation of a new generation of young people to improve the development of agricultural engineering technology and speed up agricultural engineering construction.

  "I don't know how science and technology will develop in 50 or 100 years, but I know that in 50 or 100 years, we will still need food, farming, and agricultural machinery." Luo Xiwen said.

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  【Energy Power Major】

Academician Gao Xiang: Joining the "Double Carbon" Energy Talents at the Right Time

  Ye Yuting, reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily

  What is energy?

  "Maybe there are many answers in your mind: coal, oil, natural gas, solar energy, wind energy, electricity, etc. These answers all make sense. In fact, energy is often divided into primary energy and secondary energy according to the attributes of conversion and utilization. Energy." Gao Xiang, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and dean of the School of Energy Engineering of Zhejiang University, said in the special program "Academicians Talk About Majors".

  According to Gao Xiang, people call the energy that can be directly used as primary energy, such as coal, oil, natural gas and other fossil energy, as well as new energy such as wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy, etc. Other energy, we call it secondary energy.”

  As a typical representative of energy and power majors, the major of energy and power engineering actually studies the production and utilization process of converting primary energy such as coal, oil, and natural gas into secondary energy such as electricity and thermal energy; at the same time, it also studies solar energy, wind energy, Development and utilization of new energy sources such as biomass energy, hydrogen energy, ocean energy, and tidal energy, as well as scientific research and engineering technology issues related to energy utilization in the fields of HVAC, low-temperature refrigeration, vehicle and ship power, etc.

  my country is currently in a period of rapid development of modernization, and the demand for energy is particularly strong as the driving force of social and national economic development. At the same time, the environmental protection problems caused by the use of fossil energy are also particularly prominent.

Therefore, it is a major mission for Chinese energy people to develop new technologies for clean energy utilization suitable for my country's national conditions and to help the high-quality development of national energy and environmental protection.

  In September 2020, my country clearly put forward the goals of "carbon peaking" in 2030 and "carbon neutrality" in 2060.

Gao Xiang pointed out that in the future, energy disciplines will develop in a green, zero-carbon and sustainable direction.

From the perspective of achieving carbon neutrality, the utilization of hydrogen energy will become the frontier development direction.

Large-scale energy storage technology and carbon dioxide capture technology are also important development directions. Low-cost energy storage technology and carbon dioxide collection and utilization technology will be the focus of breakthroughs.

  Regarding the choice of majors, Gao Xiang said: "When we are young, instead of wasting time on choices, we should spend our time on perseverance after making choices. If we haven't worked hard on one thing, but we care about it. It's obviously not wise to potentially bring us greater benefits."

  Gao Xiang believes that entering a university is not the only way to acquire in-depth knowledge, but entering a university can create an atmosphere of increasing personal ability and knowledge.

"Choosing a major is not so much about comparing the pros and cons of different majors' employment and further study prospects. Rather, it is actually a process of discovering and developing personal strengths; you can choose the major that best shows your personal strengths according to your own interests. Apply for the exam." Gao Xiang said.

  Gao Xiang said that under the background of "double carbon", all fields of the national economy have the need for energy conservation and emission reduction.

Whether it is clean energy production, efficient conversion and utilization of energy, energy conservation and environmental protection technology, various advanced power systems, and refrigeration and air conditioning technology, energy and power professionals are inseparable.

  "It should be said that the students are now devoting themselves to this major, and they are born at the right time!" Gao Xiang said.

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  【Chemical Major】

Academician Tan Tianwei: The beauty of chemical industry, where is the beauty

  China Youth Daily, China Youth Daily reporter Zhang Qian

  Every time I apply for the college entrance examination, there are always voices such as "chemical engineering is a Tiankeng". Is that really true?

The "Academician Talks Majors" program invited Tan Tianwei, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and president of Beijing University of Chemical Technology, to give a comprehensive and in-depth interpretation of the chemical industry.

  As one of the leaders of my country's chemical industry, and as a university teacher who has been sticking to the podium, Tan Tianwei said bluntly: "It is wrong to say that the chemical industry is a 'Tiankeng'. , In fact, our food, clothing, housing and transportation are all related to chemicals. The simplest, soy sauce, vinegar, and salt are all chemical products."

  Tan Tianwei introduced that during the thousands of years of historical development of mankind, less than 3 million kinds of substances have been discovered and extracted from nature.

Since the birth of chemistry and chemical industry, in less than 200 years of history, chemical industry has synthesized nearly 30 million new molecules.

  "How can a profession that creates so many new substances be called a 'tiankeng'?" Tan Tianwei said, in fact, chemical industry occupies a very important position in my country's national economy.

  He introduced that penicillin for anti-inflammatory is commonly used by everyone.

In the early 1930s, when penicillin was first discovered, a kilogram cost $16,000, more expensive than gold.

When Bethune came to China, the gift he brought to the Eighth Route Army was three penicillins.

Now, 5 pieces of penicillin of 9 purity only cost about 100 yuan per kilogram.

  Artemisinin, Chinese scientist Tu Youyou won the Nobel Prize for discovering it.

In the 1970s and 1980s, we extracted it from the cultivated Artemisia annua, and even if the planting area was expanded, we could only plant one crop a year.

Now, microbial fermentation of artemisinin can be done 365 days a year.

The output of artemisinin in a 50-cubic-meter reactor is equivalent to planting 100,000 mu of Artemisia annua.

  Chips are the most severely "stuck" area in my country.

Tan Tianwei has visited Huawei's newly built basic research laboratories, one of which is a chemical laboratory.

The high-purity reagents and materials required for the production of chips are obtained by chemical methods.

Academician Tan Tianwei explained that in scientific research, in the end, it is to compare who has come up with new things, and only chemistry and chemical industry can produce new molecules.

  In his view, the world is so colorful, and chemistry and chemical industry have contributed.

And this is precisely the charm of chemical industry.

  Academician Tan Tianwei wants to say to the candidates: "If you are curious about the future and want to invent and create, you should come to the field of chemical industry. Because there will always be new things you didn't expect."

  What kind of students are suitable for chemical engineering?

Tan Tianwei believes that students with strong curiosity, ambition to innovate, and strong hands-on ability are very suitable for studying chemical engineering.

  Tan Tianwei said to the candidates with passion: "If you want to change your life through your own efforts, if you also want to change the world through your own efforts and your own hands, and dedicate your ingenuity to make our world more colorful, Then I hope you apply for the chemical engineering major, this major can help your dreams come true."

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  【Electronic Information Major】

Academician Su Donglin: Entering the Magical Electromagnetic World

  China Youth Daily, China Youth Daily reporter Zhang Miao

  Filling in the volunteers is another highland that students need to conquer after the college entrance examination.

When electronic information majors come into view, how should candidates and parents choose?

A reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily interviewed Su Donglin, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and a professor at Beihang University, in the special program "Academician Talks About Majors".

  She told reporters that the major of electromagnetic field and wireless technology is actually closely related to everyone's life.

Going out on planes and high-speed trains, heating food in home microwave ovens, using 5G mobile phones to connect to the Internet... Basic knowledge about electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic environment is involved everywhere.

  "The major of electromagnetic field and wireless technology relies on electromagnetism, which is an engineering discipline that studies how wireless signals carried by electromagnetic fields are generated and changed." Su Donglin said.

In her words, the field of electromagnetics, which is related to electromagnetic fields and wireless technology, is becoming more and more important at the moment, and is currently on the fast track of development.

On this spacious lane, we can see the development of technologies such as artificial intelligence and big data, and we can see the era of intelligence that is showing its dawn.

  Su Donglin gave an example. With the continuous development of Internet of Things technology, more and more autonomous driving devices will appear around. Once electromagnetic failure occurs in the nodes and networks of these intelligent networked systems, the problem will spread to a wide range and affect The area is huge.

This requires people to use electromagnetic theory to find problems in advance and prevent them from happening.

  In addition to applications in life, remote sensing and space exploration can also be achieved by relying on electromagnetics. For example, China's Sky Eye FAST conducts astronomical observation activities by collecting electromagnetic waves in the universe.

The electromagnetic field and wireless technology major is one of the means to explore the mysteries of the universe.

  "At present, talents in the electromagnetic field are in short supply in various industries. In addition to the field of autonomous driving, there are also electric power, communication, transportation, and aerospace fields, which are in urgent need of talents in electromagnetic fields." Su Donglin said.

The industry she is engaged in is one of the most important research directions of electromagnetic field and wireless technology: electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic environment.

  "Learn electromagnetic fields and wireless technology well, and you are not afraid to travel all over the world. No industry can leave the electromagnetic field and wireless technology now." Su Donglin said.

  Although there is a saying in this major that "teachers are difficult to teach and students are difficult to learn", in Su Donglin's view, if you want to learn any major well, one depends on interest and the other depends on persistence. "As long as you get into it, you can learn it well." .

No matter what field you are in, you must "do one line and love one line".

  Su Donglin hopes that candidates and parents can choose majors based on the front-end needs of the country and the industry.

She recommended two directions, one is remote sensing and space exploration that can be linked to China's Sky Eye FAST.

Su Donglin hopes that students who choose this direction will not only realize their personal ideals in the future, but also make contributions to national scientific research and human understanding of the universe.

The other is the direction of electromagnetic safety.

Su Donglin explained that nowadays there are more and more electronic devices, and the electromagnetic environment is becoming more and more complex. In such an electromagnetic environment, the problem of adaptability of electronic systems is even more important.

  "Electromagnetic security is a major strategic security element of the country, and I hope that students can join the research in the field of electronic information." She said.

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  【Mechanical major】

Academician Li Keqiang: Internet of Everything, Different Vehicle World

  Ye Yuting, reporter from China Youth Daily and China Youth Daily

  Vehicles are often called "machines that change the world". As an important carrier of "travel" in the four basic needs of human beings, "clothing, food, housing and transportation", vehicles affect the national economy and people's livelihood, and are the main battlefield of the national economy. It is also an important tool for national defense modernization and an important field for the competition of world powers.

  This year's "Academician Talks Major" program invited Li Keqiang, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, a member of the Chinese Society of Automotive Engineering, and a professor at the School of Vehicles and Transportation of Tsinghua University, to give a detailed interpretation of the vehicle engineering major under the category of machinery.

  Academician Li Keqiang introduced that my country is the largest country in the world in terms of production and sales of automobiles, with sales accounting for about 30% of the world's total, more than the sum of the three countries of the United States, Japan and Germany.

In China, the proportion of vehicle engineering-related industry tax in the national tax revenue, the proportion of related employees in the national urban employment and the proportion of related industry sales in the national retail sales of goods all exceed 10%.

  The corresponding vehicle engineering specialty is a specialty with characteristics and charm.

"The vehicle industry involves many majors and is deeply intertwined. With the advancement of science and technology, its internal knowledge system has been migrated and updated, and it has become a multi-technology intersection and application platform, including: mechanical, hydraulic, power engineering, electrical, and electronic integrated circuits. , computer, communication network, automation, transportation, management and laws and regulations, etc." said Academician Li Keqiang.

  李克强院士介绍,从工业1.0的机械化、2.0的电气化到3.0的信息化,汽车工业每次都发生了重大变革,以信息物理系统为标志的工业4.0时代,将使汽车交通系统在未来10-20年中发生革命性的变化。这种变化可以通过提升汽车四个方面的性能来描述。

  事实上,按照我们国家的规划,2035年我国将建成便捷通畅、经济高效、绿色集约、智能先进、安全可靠的国家综合立体交通网,显然,车辆工程专业将在这一过程中起到重要的人才培养和支撑作用。

  那么,当同学们选专业的时候,需要综合考虑哪些问题呢?李克强院士表示:“首先,兴趣是最好的老师,只有感兴趣,才有持续学习、持续进步的驱动力。我们常说‘要干一行爱一行’,但如果能先做到爱一行,再干一行,这显然就赢在起跑线上了。其次也要考虑毕业以后的就业前景,比如像车辆产业在国民经济中的支柱地位和重要角色,显然是非常有就业前景的。”

  然而,这些年,有些同学和家长有这样的观点,他们认为学车辆工程或其他机械类专业,是不是等于学“汽修”,对此,李克强院士指出,这是一个巨大的误区,汽车早已成为高科技载体。

  李克强院士认为,低碳化、电动化、智能化、网联化成为车辆行业的科技变革趋势,因此智能网联汽车和新能源汽车,将是未来重要的发展方向。

  “所以,我推荐同学们报考我们车辆工程专业和机械类专业,学习丰富的科技知识,培养勇敢的探索精神和优良的人文素养,不负时代,不辱使命,为专业、行业和国家的发展作出我们应有的贡献。欢迎同学们一起来迎接挑战!”李克强院士说。

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  【自动化类专业】

桂卫华院士:自动化为什么是“宝藏”专业

  中青报·中青网记者 张茜

  自动化是做什么的?为何会有许多种带自动化后缀的专业?网传自动化“易学难精”?这个专业以后就业前景如何?每到高考填报志愿,自动化专业都会引发不少考生和家长的关注,大家同时也会提出不少疑问。

  “院士说专业”特别节目邀请中国工程院院士、中国自动化学会副理事长、中南大学学术委员会主任桂卫华,对自动化类专业做了深入、全面的解读。

  在他看来,自动化可谓“宝藏”专业。

  乍一听自动化,不少同学和家长可能觉得有点抽象,实际上,这个专业与日常生产生活息息相关。桂卫华说,大家熟悉的高铁就有很多自动化的技术,比如它的速度控制、电气运行问题。此外,大家家中用的空调、冰箱、电视的生产过程,也都离不开自动化。

  “自动化是一门技术,是代替人或者部分代替人、辅助人进行工作的一门技术。”桂卫华说。

  了解了“学自动化能干什么”这个基础问题之后,不少同学和家长又产生了新的疑惑:很多带自动化后缀的专业,比如机械自动化、电气自动化等,这些有什么区别呢?

  桂卫华认为,这是根据这些专业自身发展的需求来确定的,这也从侧面说明,自动化技术应用特别广泛,可以很好地和其他学科进行交叉融合。

  针对“这个专业涉猎广泛,但是易学难精”的相关说法,桂卫华说:“这个我不太理解。”

  他认为,随着信息技术的不断发展,这个专业的课程设置的面确实更宽一点,但对一门学问来说,只要肯下功夫,都不存在“难精”的问题。

  “只要真正热爱这个专业,就会学精学透。”桂卫华说。

  他同时坦言,“在大学里,想学,到处都是机会。”

  桂卫华告诉中青报·中青网记者,他自己上大学的时候,学校开了个夜间德语班,“我跑去旁听,没想到若干年以后,我就到德国留学去了,德语派上了用场”。

  他希望同学们能够认识到,“上了大学,很多时间安排要靠自己。只要抓住机会,自己把自己的时间安排好,将来一定会成功。”

  什么样的同学适合学自动化?桂卫华表示:“首先你要喜欢这个专业,这是前提。有人把这个专业划分为物理类专业,其实我认为,化学也很重要。工科专业,都离不开数理化的基础。”

  结合40多年教书育人的经历,桂卫华认为选专业时该考虑三方面的问题:“一是考虑兴趣;二是考虑发展;三是要将自身发展和国家需求结合起来。”

  他说:“在下一轮工业革命中,我们要抢占先机,自动化技术会起到核心作用,如果你想成为国家命运的书写者,自动化专业的大门,永远向你敞开!”

  ——————————

  【计算机类专业】

郑纬民院士:计算机类专业为啥是大热门

  中青报·中青网记者 樊未晨

  多年来,计算机类专业一直是考生志愿填报的大热门,而当这个专业与大数据、区块链、元宇宙等代表着科技发展最前沿的词相连接后,考生对计算机类专业的兴趣就更加高涨了。那么,计算机类专业为什么会一直持续高热度?“院士说专业”节目专访了中国工程院院士、清华大学计算机科学与技术系教授郑纬民。

  从世界上第一台计算机出现,到现在不到80年的历史,跟很多有着几百上千历史的学科相比,不足百年的计算机类专业确实还很年轻。因此,郑纬民院士认为,年轻的专业,意味着更多的挑战,也意味着更多的机会,这也不难理解,为什么计算机类专业对年轻人有着特别的吸引力。

  在郑纬民院士看来,计算机类专业持续高热度的另一个原因是相关专业毕业生有着良好的就业形势。“在当前的数字经济环境下,各行各业都急需大量的计算机人才,因此,计算机类专业的学生毕业后比较容易找工作,而且工资待遇也不错。”

  郑纬民院士介绍,其实大家平时所说的计算机类专业是一个大类,它还包括了四个一级学科,计算机科学与技术、软件工程、人工智能和网络信息安全,如果再进行细分的话,还可以再分出大数据、物联网、元宇宙等。

  那么,这么热门的专业有没有门槛呢?选择这个专业的考生应该具备哪些条件呢?郑纬民院士介绍,报考计算机类专业的考生应该具备三个条件。

  首先是要学好数学、物理、英语、语文这四门课。其中,数学是基础,物理知识也必不可少,计算机类专业还有很多文献,因此英语也要学好,另外,郑院士特别强调不能忽视语文的学习,因为,“写报告、交流都要有较好的语文基础。”

  第二个条件是对专业的兴趣。“我觉得有兴趣这件事比学好那四门课程更重要。”郑纬民院士说,“无论是对制造计算机感兴趣,还是对编程有兴趣,都对学好这个专业有很大的帮助,而且,一旦对专业有了兴趣,学生就会利用各种时间想办法去做跟专业有关的事情,而不会出现因无事可做而沉溺网络游戏等现象了。”

  众所周知,计算机类专业的知识更新非常快,因此“学计算机类专业的人真的是要活到老学到老的,只有这样才能保证自己一直掌握最新的知识和技术”。郑纬民院士说:“青春就是用来奋斗的。”

  郑纬民院士最后向年轻人发出号召:“如果你想把计算机技术发展的主动权掌握在自己手里,我建议你学计算机;如果你是甘于创新勇于创新的人,我建议你学计算机;如果你想融入国家发展社会进步的大潮,我建议你学计算机……同学们,我在计算机的世界里等你们!”

  ——————————

  【水利类专业】

许唯临院士:智慧水利时代已来

  中青报·中青网记者 王鑫昕

  水利是做什么的?填报志愿之前,不少学生会有这样的疑问。

  在“院士说专业”栏目中,中国工程院院士、四川大学常务副校长、水力学与山区河流开发保护国家重点实验室主任许唯临教授做了深入浅出的介绍。

  许唯临以都江堰水利工程为例,总结了水利在历史上要做的两件事:兴水利、除水害。在经济、科技高度发达的今天,水依然是人类社会面临的巨大挑战。许唯临强调,从古至今,水利都是治国安邦的大事。兴水利、除水害,人类还远没有做好。因此,这位长期从事水利教学、科研工作的教授希望有更多的年轻人加入到水利事业中来。

  他特别讲到,在一些水利老专家的办公室或者家里的墙上,都挂着他们主持或参与过工作的水利水电工程的照片。可以想象,一个人晚年的时候,看着这些照片,想到千里之外江河上矗立的那些“大国重器”、水利水电丰碑,会是一种什么样的自豪感。

  对于考生如何选择专业,许唯临提出四个参考因素:一是看专业是否符合国家和行业发展的需求;二是考虑自身的特长与喜好;三是要看长远、重基础;四是不要赶时髦。

  许唯临注意到,社交媒体常有一些热门、冷门专业排行榜。他提醒考生,千万不要被这些排行榜误导。“一个专业是不是真正的‘冷’,要看它是不是不符合国家经济社会发展需求。”许唯临说,“如果国家已经不需要它,那是真正的‘冷’。如果它是国家长期需求的专业,那么就不要过分地在意它是不是被列入了所谓的冷门名单。”

  Xu Weilin believes that following the national strategy newspaper major will never go wrong.

Water conservancy is closely related to national water security, ecological civilization construction, energy security, and "two-carbon" goals. The long-term and urgent needs provide a broad development space for future water conservancy people.

  Of course, choosing a major also depends on the long-term and foundation.

Xu Weilin said that university is not about cultivating all the abilities of a person. Four years of university lay the foundation for the next 40 years.

  At present, there are more than 100 colleges and universities in my country with more than 200 water conservancy majors, including hydrology and water resources engineering, water conservancy and hydropower engineering, etc., and some colleges and universities have water conservancy science and engineering majors.

In addition, there are smart water conservancy majors based on the concept of interdisciplinary cross-training, which are new majors in recent years.

  The emergence of new majors reflects the changes in the needs of national economic and social development.

Xu Weilin said that the current traditional water conservancy is rapidly moving towards the stage of smart water conservancy.

Under this background, the connotation and extension of water conservancy discipline have undergone great changes.

  "In the past, personnel training and scientific research in water conservancy projects were highly focused on the construction of water conservancy and hydropower projects. Now, in addition to project construction management, they also attach great importance to water environment, water disasters, water information, water management and other fields." Xu Weilin said, "This reflects It has the distinctive features of systems engineering, interdisciplinary, and intelligent."

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