Fang Yun

  "Flower paths are swept by the wind, and the medicinal fields are hoeed in the rain. Gooses are in leisure to change books, and moths keep books. Qin painting and poetry, Xiao Ranya is more than happy." This is the diversified garden life described by the Ming Dynasty poet Sun Chuanting. It is called "garden class", which highly condenses the daily life of the ancient literati's garden life and its artistic and literary aesthetics.

  Elegance is the keynote of Chinese classical garden life.

Song native Wu Zimu wrote in his notes "Dream Lianglu": "Burning incense and ordering tea, hanging pictures and arranging flowers, four kinds of nostalgia, not tired at home", also known as "Four Ya" or "Four Arts", showing interesting details of life It reflects the restrained and subtle Qing Jun style of the Song Dynasty and has influenced subsequent generations.

Ming Feng Mengzhen wrote about his thirteen daily activities in seclusion in the "Xixi Thatched Cottage" in his "Remarks on the Regular Lessons of Zhenzhai": "burning incense, drinking tea, drinking spring, playing the qin, waving the dust, practising tranquility, imitating the method of imitation. Books, watching pictures, playing with brush and ink, watching fish in a pond or listening to birdsong, watching flowers and trees, recognizing strange characters, and playing with aragonite.”

Chen Jiru also has a similar description in his "Little Window You Ji": "Reading the principles of justice, learning the law and writing, sitting in meditation, benefiting friends and talking, drinking half-drunk, planting flowers and bamboo, listening to the piano and playing with cranes, burning incense and cooking tea, It means playing chess." The mirror image of Chinese classical garden life can lead us back to the elegant era of "Qiuyuan nourishment, forest spring ambition" from the many garden literature works and landscape paintings of the past dynasties.

  From the gardens that build safe homes to the gardens in the south of the Yangtze River where poetic dwellings are made, the spiraling path of garden speculation and aesthetic evolution is clearly visible.

  The first gardens in China were the "encircles" and "gardens" in the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties.

In oracle bone inscriptions and bronze inscriptions, the words "view (囿)" and "jian, turn (nursery)" appear, which specifically refer to activities such as raising animals and plants within the bounded range.

In "Zhou Li Dazai", it is recorded that "the garden is full of grass and trees." In "Zhou Li·Zai Shi", it is recorded: "The field garden is used as the garden." And note: "The fan garden is called the garden." ” clearly describes the leisurely and contented garden life of King Wen of Zhou in Lingyuan, “The king lives in Lingyuan, and the deer and deer are swaying.” In the garden and the garden, people interact closely with rare birds and animals, flowers and trees, which is the beginning of a thousand-year-old garden life in China. Preface.

  During the Qin and Han Dynasties, the confinement and the garden were transformed into a "garden", which was built on the basis of the confinement and was specially designed for the emperor's palace.

Shanglin Garden is one of the most prestigious gardens in Chinese history.

According to "Han Book Jiuyi", "there are hundreds of animals in the garden, and the emperor shoots and hunts in the spring and autumn, and there are countless animals." mixed with advocacy."

In addition to traditional hunting games, garden activities, viewing palace buildings and garden ponds, there are also magnificent singing and dancing.

Sima Xiangru's "Shanglin Fu" depicts the magnificence of the wonders of Shanglin Garden incisively and vividly.

  The Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties were an important turning point in the history of ancient Chinese gardens.

Literati and elegant scholars talk about cynicism, express their love for landscapes, and consider themselves elegant.

The construction of Yuanyuan has changed from artificial to natural landscape. The garden no longer pursues grand momentum, but ingenuity and skills to reproduce nature.

At this time, Wang Xizhi's "Lanting Gathering", Shi Chong's "Jingu Garden Meeting" in the Western Jin Dynasty, Tao Yuanming's "Xiechuan Tour" in the Eastern Jin Dynasty, and Xie Lingyun's "Mountain and Lake Tour", together with the famous gardens in history, It has become a legend passed down through the ages.

  During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the concurrent development of the imperial examination system, Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism led to the rise of literati gardens.

Wang Wei's "Wangchuan Tu" in the Tang Dynasty was a pioneer of garden-themed painting, and Wangchuan Bieye was his seclusion place in the mountains and streams. Here, there are thick forests, bamboos, pavilions and pavilions. Drinking chess, throwing pots and succulents, the mood is sullen.

Since then, the word "Wangchuan" has become synonymous with the sacred place and the poetic habitation in the mountains and forests in the minds of Chinese literati in the past dynasties.

  During the Song and Song Dynasties, a large number of freehand landscape gardens appeared in the garden with landscape paintings, and poetry and paintings influenced each other.

Li Gefei's "Luoyang Famous Gardens" in the Northern Song Dynasty described 19 famous gardens at that time.

Song Mengyuan's "Tokyo Menghualu" volume six records: "People from all over the city rushed out of the city to explore spring. In the south of the prefecture, there is a school outside Yujin Garden, Fangchi Pavilion. From Yuxian Temple, turn to the west of Longwan, and there are Yizhang Buddha Garden and Wang Taiwei Garden. The Yujing Garden in front of Fengsheng Temple, ... is probably near the capital, all are garden gardens, and there is no spare space within a hundred miles." This describes the Qingming season, when people from Kyoto in the Northern Song Dynasty went to the gardens outside the city to find spring. trace.

In the southern Song Dynasty, private gardens were mostly concentrated in the Suzhou and Hangzhou areas. There are also many records in "Menglianglu" and "Wulin Old Stories".

Zhou Mi of the Southern Song Dynasty wrote in the "Miscellaneous Knowledge of Guixin": "The mountains and rivers are clear and distant, and the days are rising, and the scholar-officials live in many places... Therefore, there are many good people and more gardens and ponds." .

  In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the society became more and more prosperous, commerce and material civilization became more and more prosperous, and the elegance and customs of garden construction intersected.

The space for the buildings in the garden is enlarged, and the space left for landscape construction is relatively reduced. The symbolic technique of "seeing the big from the small" has appeared, in order to pursue "the beauty of the mountains and forests without leaving the city, and the interest of forests and springs in the busy city". situation.

The literati personally participated in the design and construction, and pursued natural freehand brushwork in a lake, rock, and clear water.

Ji Cheng's "Yuanye" and Wen Zhenheng's "Longwuzhi" are known as the double jades of ancient gardening.

"Yuanye" comprehensively and systematically summarizes and expounds the rules and techniques of gardening, while "Changwuzhi" covers basic necessities, food, housing and transportation, literary and entertainment, and presents a model of the elegant lifestyle of late Ming literati gardens.

Since then, Chinese garden art has reached its peak.

  From the gardens where safe homes are built to the gardens in the south of the Yangtze River where poetic dwellings are made, a clear and clear evolution path of garden speculation and aesthetics that integrates ideal scenery, life functions and aesthetic tastes from the pursuit of simple life. visible.

  The aesthetics of garden life is a process from sensory pleasure, to peace of mind, and then to spiritual sublimation, and constructs the mirror image of the ideal world "Peach Blossom Garden" and "mountain forest in the city".

  "Quietly thinking of gardens is good, and the world is good." The aesthetics of garden life is a process from sensory pleasure, to mental comfort, and then to spiritual sublimation.

Humans perceive the world through the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body. These five are called "five senses".

On the basis of eye color, ear sound, nose smell, tongue taste, and body touch, consciousness is generated through cognitive recognition, which is the sixth consciousness.

The six senses make the main body of the garden pay more attention to the perception of life, and through artistic creation, observe the self in real life, thus imprinting the garden with the trace of spiritual life.

The multi-sensory aesthetics in the garden life include: visual enjoyment - such as the snow is fast and clear, green shade screens; auditory enjoyment - such as the sound of the Sanskrit crane, and the boiling water of the spring; taste enjoyment - such as drinking tea and drinking iced drinks Food; olfactory enjoyment - such as flowers and trees, burning incense in a quiet room, etc.

Here are a few examples to explore the sounds of nature in the garden:

  Appreciating rocks and flowers, rafting and hanging, can be described as the most obvious kind of garden life.

  "A garden can be without mountains, but it cannot be without stones", the purpose of the camp is to nourish the heart with spring stones and cultivate sentiment.

As the "second nature", the garden moves the mountains and shrinks the land, and puts the three mountains and five mountains into the heaven and earth within a short distance, so as to achieve the situation of "one peak can make Taihua thousands of searches, and one spoon can make all rivers and lakes thousands of miles".

The garden plants are more than Xingjunzi's character, which embodies a profound cultural implication.

Such as pine, standing upright and steadfast, bamboo, the bamboo knot is hollow, the gentleman uses pine and bamboo to describe himself, highlighting his steadfast integrity and noble conduct.

Hongshi's Panzhou Garden built "You Bamboo Pavilion", and his poem "You Bamboo Pavilion" said: "A virtuous and durable friend, an alliance with the same age." In the garden, plantains are mostly planted in front of courtyard windows or in the corners of the walls, and are called together with bamboo. "Shuangqing", as Li Yu's "Leisurely Feelings Ou Ji" said: "The banana can rhyme people to avoid vulgarity." The garden dwellers pay attention to the clear offering of the flowers in the four seasons, use the vessel to carry the Tao, and take the environment as the honor.

The vase of flowers is the elegance of the literati, the companion of seclusion, and the companion of seclusion. It softens the hard physical environment of the garden and bursts out elegant aesthetic taste and deep emotional cognition.

  "The stone is ancient, and the water is far away." The development of the water system in the garden has greatly enriched the ways to play in the garden, such as waterfront, boating, fishing, lotus picking, and fish watching.

In the eighth year of Yonghe’s reign, the Lanting Gathering, sang water, drank and sang, and lingered through the ages.

The word "Canglang" in Canglang Pavilion comes from "Mencius: Li Lou Shang": "When the water in Canglang is clear, I can wash my tassels; when the water in Canglang is turbid, I can wash my feet." Be kind to yourself.

In his poem "Wild Voyage", Hong Mai called himself a "fishing man". "The short canopy collects and washes, and the lintel occupies the therapeutic beam. It receives two or three guests, and the fishing man is added." Tired of human affairs, do not travel with the West. Talk about going to the more meaning, referring to this as a flat boat." Through the literary rhyme of spring stones, flowers and trees, etc., the aesthetic characteristics of the garden's seclusion can be seen at a glance.

  Studying calligraphy and painting, burning incense and cooking tea, interpreting another style of garden life.

  Poems such as "The door is free from vulgarity and the guests are not disturbed by the dust, there are clear bottles and books on the shelf", "Holding a scroll of books, the eyes are green", "Sit on the couch of the lover, spread the books on the sun" and other poems describe the garden's main guest mountain. Zhai Poetry and Books are the companions, and you can swim in the situation of friendship with the ancients.

From the description of the layout of the garden study in "Changwuzhi" and "Zunsheng Bajian", it is not difficult to see that the garden study, calligraphy and painting have achieved a high degree of consensus, and are specific and typical.

The furniture of the study room is generally desks, bookshelves, Arhat beds, stools and chairs, screens, etc. The utensils arranged include pianos, tea pots, antiquities, famous paintings, incense burners, vase flowers, books, etc.

  Wen Zhengming once said: "The pavilions of the Wuzhai Pavilion are incapable of building structures, so they all start from the books." If you can't build your own exquisite gardens, you can build the gardens on the books through the hills and ravines in your writing.

Wen's "East Garden Picture" depicts the scene when the host and guests gather in the East Garden: Banqiao crosses over the gurgling stream, green pines and green bamboos echo each other, lakes and stones are scattered, green trees are shady, and the pond water is wrinkled by the breeze. , there are layers of ripples.

On the Yonglu Road, two scribes walked and talked, followed by a boy with a qin; the four people in the hall watched the paintings attentively, and the boy with the scrolls of calligraphy and painting in his hand stood at the table.

  Incense is a wonderful means of constructing the artistic conception of gardens.

"Sit on a self-burning incense stick, and sing and enjoy wandering." In the fragrance of the smoke and clouds, friends and friends gathered together, accompanied by incense tea, fine wine, food and scrolls, picture scrolls, or chatting and playing games, or sitting silently, or giving The chanting of poems reflects the pursuit of "quietness" in garden life.

There are "Xuexiang Yunwei Pavilion" and "Yuanxiangtang" in the Humble Administrator's Garden, and there is a scene of "listening to incense" in the cloister of the Lion Forest.

Zhuangzi's "The World in the World" has three "listenings" in the "heart fast", one of which is called "listening with qi", which is to use "qi" to purify one's mind, maintain a state of emptiness, and transcend the senses and intellectual prejudice to meet all things.

When burning incense, the aroma diffuses and diffuses. If there is or not, it is very touching. "Listening to incense" vividly transcends the appearance of objects and goes directly to the essence of the garden in the aesthetic realm.

  In the middle of the Ming Dynasty, tea brewing rose, using tea to meet friends and use tea to turn poetry into an important part of garden life.

Wen Zhenheng's "Changwuzhi" "Chaliao" note: "Constructing a room near the mountain, with a tea set, and teaching a boy to specialize in tea service, so that he can talk for a long day and sit down in the cold night. Youren's first priority , there must be no less waste".

There are a pot and two cups on several tables in the painting, which are used to brew tea in a teapot, and pursue the natural and ancient taste.

In the fragrance of tea, two or three confidants or poems and poems answer each other, or chat and laugh, and in the long aftertaste of incense and tea, a splendid chapter slowly flows.

  Playing chess and talking, raising cranes and listening to the piano are also a common garden life.

  Game is an important part of oriental cultural life. Chess is not an ordinary recreational game, but a means to adjust moral concepts, behavioral standards, aesthetic tastes and ways of thinking.

The literati playing against the game of chess is more of a way of dialogue, which has gone beyond the level of "skill" of Go to the level of "intelligence", that is, to cultivate sentiment.

Tingyu Pavilion in the Humble Administrator's Garden, with a chess table in the center, antique shelves and bookshelves along the wall, and a number of porcelain poems and books on the top; there is a pool in the outdoor courtyard, with plantains and green bamboos planted by the pool, listening to the rain playing plantains outside the window, sitting and playing chess , throughout the past and present.

It is exactly the same as Li Zhong's "Giving to Qushan Yangzai", "Listening to the rain and entering the autumn bamboo, the monks overturn the old chess. Get the poems and books, and cook the tea and the cold pond." The poetry is exactly right.

  Poultry and fish are raised in the garden, headed by cranes.

"The crane sings in Jiugao, the voice is heard in the sky", the beautiful and handsome crane is a symbol of noble and immortal.

Tang Baile Tianyun said: "Quiet will take the crane as a companion, and leisure is similar to the cloud." The white crane, which has been transformed into food, welcomes guests at the door, and dances when it hears the qin. Therefore, Lin Bao's "Plum Wife Crane" has become the symbol of the mountains and forests. .

The qin is also a symbol of literati and doctors' leisure and ambition. "Every time the wind is clear and the moon is white, I take one from time to time and play its atonal tones. Qin Pavilion.

Yiyuan Gu Cheng has a special liking for the qin, and obtained the "Jade Run Liushui Qin" supervised by Su Dongpo.

There are phoenix trees planted outside the museum, which are taken from the "phoenix phoenix phoenix tree" reference.

The west of the hall is the "Stone Listening Qin Room". There are two peaks standing outside the window of the piano room, which look like two old men listening to the piano attentively.

  In a word, the ancient literati, through the painstaking efforts of garden architecture, landscape plants, furniture, and playful utensils, constructed a garden life based on what they saw with their eyes, what they heard with their ears, what they tasted on the tip of their tongue, what they smelled in their nose, and what they felt with their bodies. The mirror image of the ideal world "Peach Blossom Spring" and "Mountain Forest in the City".

Keywords: