How to make the toughest summer harvest from "weak seedlings" to "high yield"

  During the planting season, the wheat harvesting line crossed the Huaihe River. The largest wheat producing area in the country, the Huanghuaihai wheat area, entered the peak period of the summer harvest. 121 million mu of wheat.

The harvesting progress of the main summer grain producing areas has accelerated. On the vast plains of Henan, Jiangsu, Shandong and other places, a large number of harvesters operating across regions converge into a torrent, galloping in the farmland, harvesting every grain of wheat and returning it to the warehouse.

  The summer harvest in 2022 is the most difficult harvest. Last summer's heavy rain in Henan, the autumn flood in the north, and repeated new crown epidemics... For more than half a year, many farmers, agricultural experts, and agricultural cadres have been busy in the countryside. Countless hard work and efforts have been made just for this bumper harvest.

  from south to north

  Summer Harvest Roadmap for Wheat

  Data from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs shows that last winter, the sown area of ​​winter wheat in my country was 336 million mu, mainly distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the Huanghuaihai, the southwest and other regions.

  From April to June every year, winter wheat gradually matures from south to north.

The earliest mature wheat area is the southwest wheat area, mainly in Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and other places. Sichuan is the largest wheat area in the southwest. On the flat Guanghan Plain, millions of acres of wheat are harvested in mid-May.

  In late May, the wheat on the plains of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River also matured. Most of the agricultural machinery operators working across regions will start their harvesting journey in Hubei, especially Xiangyang, a major agricultural market on the Jianghan Plain. More than 5 million acres of wheat.

  Before the wheat harvest in the Jianghan Plain was over, the wheat from both banks of the Huaihe River to the Qinling Mountains was also mature. The agricultural machinery workers went all the way north, crossed the Huaihe River, crossed the Qinling Mountains, and scattered into Anhui, Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan and other places, and entered the country's largest wheat The main producing area is Huanghuaihai wheat area.

  The entire Huanghuaihai Sea covers the wheat areas of Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, etc. The alluvial of the Yellow River, Haihe and Huaihe for thousands of years has formed a vast, flat and fertile plain, where more than 200 million mu are planted of wheat, is the center of the country's summer harvest.

  From the end of May to the end of June, the wheat on the Huanghuaihai Plain is gradually harvested, and the harvest is completed before July. The summer harvest enters the final stage, and then the spring wheat harvest begins.

Northeast spring wheat is mainly concentrated in Inner Mongolia, with more than 6 million mu, and Heilongjiang has more than 700,000 mu.

Northwest spring wheat is scattered in Xinjiang, Gansu, Ningxia and other places, covering more than 7 million mu.

  Estimated production

  Production measurement on the Guanghan Plain

  On May 18, in the National Modern Agricultural Industrial Park in Lianshan Town, Guanghan City, Sichuan Province, a field production test was underway.

Last autumn, this place was also affected by the autumn flood, and some wheat was sown late.

In this yield test, the expert group conducted special tests on late-sown wheat. After mechanized harvesting, weighing, and moisture testing, the expert group announced the results of the yield test. The yield per mu has reached more than 600 kilograms.

  Compared with the high-yield wheat in the modern agricultural industrial park, the wheat in ordinary farmland, especially the late-sown wheat affected by the autumn flood last year, also exceeded expectations this year.

  Why can the late-sown winter wheat in Sichuan increase the yield?

This is due to the work of countless farmers and experts to ensure summer grains from last winter to this spring and summer, as well as warm winter and spring, and lighter than expected pests and diseases.

Liu Luxiang, deputy director of the Institute of Crop Science of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and chief scientist of the National Wheat Industry Technology System, introduced that since last fall, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs has organized agricultural experts from all over the country, and the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences has selected more than 160 experts to form 11 teams. In each main producing area, field guidance is given to strengthen the seedlings with science and technology, especially the 100 million mu of late-sown seedlings. Agricultural experts are divided into pieces and provide long-term guidance to promote the growth of wheat at all stages.

  Officially open the sickle

  Wheat production depends on three factors

  During the intense harvest of wheat on the Guanghan Plain, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, at the northern end of the Jianghan Plain, wheat also began to mature.

On May 17, in Zhongxiang City, Hubei Province, more than 800,000 mu of wheat was officially opened.

  In Gengxiang Village, Shipai Town, Zhongxiang City, 60-year-old Lu Zhenhua packed up the harvester and began to help the surrounding grain farmers harvest wheat as in previous years. He told reporters that the local wheat harvest this year was good and it was a bumper year. He estimated that the local The yield of wheat grown by farmers can reach 900 catties per mu.

In the cooperatives and farms with a higher degree of scale, the output can be higher. Ma Lianfang, the head of a cooperative in Zhongxiang City, told reporters that their cooperative has planted more than 20,000 mu of wheat, and the average yield per mu is between 1,000 jin and 1,000 jin. Between 1200 pounds.

  "There are three main factors that affect the yield of wheat." Liu Luxiang introduced, "The multiplication of the three numbers per mu, the number of ears per ear, the number of grains per ear and the thousand-grain weight is the yield per mu of wheat. Generally speaking, the three factors of yield of the same variety are relatively stable. , but the data of these elements will also vary with the climate and environment of different places. For example, in Sichuan this year, the average number of ears per mu of Class I and Class II seedlings is about 240,000, that is to say, in one mu of land, the average 240,000 ears of wheat have grown. The number of grains per ear of locally grown varieties is around 40 all year round, but this year it reached 43-45, which means that each ear of wheat has an average of 3-5 more grains than in previous years. The last one is 1000-grain weight, which is the weight of 1,000 grains of wheat, with an average of about 45 grams, and this year it reached 46.1 grams."

  In the Huanghuaihai wheat area, the data of the three elements of wheat varieties are different. The average number of ears per mu is about 420,000. The further north, the higher the number. "For example, Henan, less than 400,000, to achieve the best yield It will be difficult. In Hebei, the number is even higher. Generally, high-yield wheat fields will reach 450,000-470,000.” Liu Luxiang said, “From this year’s survey data, all major wheat-producing provinces have performed well in all three factors. The technology of sowing seedlings is very effective in promoting growth.”

  suitable climate

  Create the conditions for a good harvest

  From mid-May to early June, in half a month, the progress of the wheat harvest went north from the humid southwestern and central-south regions, crossed the Huaihe River, and entered the country's largest main wheat producing area, Huanghuaihai wheat. Area.

  On May 29, Wu Ruirui, an agricultural machine operator in Bengbu, Anhui Province, started wheat harvesting for nearly a week.

Wu Ruirui, his wife Cheng Xiaodan, and his cousin and his wife formed a "wheat harvesting team". A few days ago, they traveled south and north and went to many places to harvest wheat.

During this time, Wu Ruirui mainly helped the nearby retail investors to harvest, and the large-scale farms were harvested around June 1.

  "Small farmers have a small number of crops and can pull them home to dry, so it's okay to have high humidity. However, large-scale farms or cooperatives have a large number of crops. If you harvest early, there is no place to dry. So you have to wait until the wheat is a little dry. Children, harvest it when the moisture is reduced to about 13%." Wu Ruirui told reporters.

  "Anhui was hardly affected by the autumn flood last year, and this year's harvest is very good." Wu Ruirui introduced that this year's local yield per mu is estimated to be more than 900 catties.

According to the survey data, the average number of ears per mu in Anhui reached 400,000, the number of grains per ear was 33.7, and the thousand-grain weight reached 42 grams.

  On the north bank of the Huaihe River, Zhumadian, Xinyang and other places in Henan also started harvesting at the same time. Liu Luxiang told reporters that the current feedback data was good. From the perspective of the three factors of yield, the number of ears per mu was the same as last year, and the number of grains per ear increased by 1- 2 capsules, there is currently no data on the 1000-grain weight.

In Shandong, the average number of ears per mu this year is 10,000-20,000 ears higher than last year, and the number of grains per ear is the same as last year.

  According to the data of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, in the autumn of 2021, affected by the autumn flood, about 100 million mu of wheat will be sown late. After more than half a year of weak and strong growth, most of the original three types of seedlings will be converted into one or two types of seedlings.

  "In addition to the scientific and technological action to strengthen seedlings, weather and low incidence of pests and diseases are also important factors." Liu Luxiang said, "Last winter to this spring, the daily average temperature was 1°C to 2°C higher than previous years, and after a few months, the accumulated temperature was higher than in previous years. When the temperature is higher than 100°C, the weak seedlings caused by late sowing in some places have the conditions to grow stronger. At the same time, the incidence of pests and diseases is relatively light, which is also the basis for a bumper harvest. For example, Sichuan, which was originally the base camp of stripe rust, but after the autumn flood last year , the number of spores of the fungus is very small throughout the winter, and the incidence is relatively mild this year."

  time and people

  Lay the foundation for a good harvest

  "Looking at it now, the weak seedlings caused by late planting last year have basically been transformed. This is caused by a combination of many factors." Liu Luxiang said, "In simple terms, it is the hard work of people and the help of God, which has laid the foundation for a good harvest."

  On May 31, in Zhouzhuang Town, Xinghua City, Jiangsu Province, the grower Chen Sheng was making the final preparations for the wheat harvest. Chen Sheng planted nearly 300 mu of wheat last autumn, but the planting time was a little later. When the spring started, the seedlings were a little weak and the color was pale. yellow.

In March of this year, experts and local agricultural technicians from the expert group of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences to seize the summer grain harvest action analyzed and guided his seedlings in the farmland of Zhouzhuang Town, telling him to water as soon as possible to promote growth.

  By the time of the wheat harvest, Chen Sheng's weak seedlings had completely grown strong. He told reporters that it is estimated that this year's yield per mu can reach 900 to 1,000 catties.

"This yield is quite good, and it's a bumper year."

  Not only that, the purchase price of wheat this year is also much higher than last year. In Xinghua, the purchase price of food processing plants is 1.45 yuan per catty.

Chen Sheng introduced that 1.45 yuan per catty is the price of wheat with 13% moisture, but if you have to deliver it yourself, on average, the shipping cost per catty of wheat is about 2 cents, that is to say, the final price is 1.43 yuan.

  farmers' income

  Technology and market are equally important

  On May 29, several storage areas directly under the Nanyang warehouse of China Grain Grain Group began to purchase a large number of new wheat produced in 2022. The purchase prices of first-, second-, and third-class wheat were 1.48 yuan per catty, 1.47 yuan per catty, and 1.46 yuan per catty, respectively.

  "This price has never been seen before." A grower said, but the high price does not mean that it is more profitable to grow grain. In fact, from last autumn to this spring, the price of agricultural materials has risen, which has once again increased the cost of growing grain. , the grower told reporters, "One mu of land uses 5 packs of fertilizer. It used to be about 100 yuan per pack, but now each pack is 180 to 190 yuan, which is equivalent to a total increase of about 400 yuan. Even if the two seasons are spread evenly, it has also increased. 200 yuan. After the rise in oil prices, the cost of harvesting has also increased. Last year, it was 55 yuan for one mu of land. This year, it has risen to 60 to 70 yuan.”

  Wu Ruirui also told reporters that the rise in oil prices has made harvesting costs also rising. In Anhui, Henan and other places, the harvesting fee per mu of wheat last year was 45 yuan to 50 yuan, and this year it has generally increased by 5 yuan to 10 yuan.

  In this regard, on May 30, the Ministry of Finance issued another 10 billion yuan of agricultural subsidies on the basis of the 20 billion yuan of agricultural subsidies already issued in the previous period. The minimum purchase price of rice and wheat has been raised, and the ability to guarantee food security has been improved.

  In addition to agricultural subsidies, are there other ways to help farmers increase their income?

Liu Luxiang believes that it is still necessary to improve the quality and characteristics of grain crops, "my country is the largest producer of wheat and the largest consumer of wheat, but the main body of consumption is still the high-quality medium-gluten varieties used to make steamed bread and noodles, similar to making bread. The high-gluten varieties used, the overall consumption is not large. But this does not mean that there is no way to improve the quality and price of ordinary varieties. In fact, in some places in the northwest, some local specialties are mainly used. Local varieties, such as 'Ningchun No. 4', a spring wheat variety from Ningxia, are the main raw material for making a well-known local high-end snowflake powder. The purchase price in the local area a few years ago has reached 1.65 yuan per catty. Therefore, it is still necessary to turn raw wheat grain into a commodity, a commodity with special quality and higher added value, in order to help farmers truly increase production and income."

  last moment

  Most afraid of hot and dry wind

  After entering June, the harvest of summer grains is the most intense. Large areas of wheat in Henan, Shandong, Hebei and other places enter the grain filling and milk maturity stage, which is the last stage before harvesting.

  From May 28th to 30th, a heavy rain in the south of the Huaihe River and Qinling Mountains just fell in southern Anhui, Hubei and other places after the wheat harvest. It was still harvested in northern Anhui and north of the Huaihe River. rainfall.

  "From what we have collected so far, the wind a few days ago only caused some wheat to tilt, but it did not lodg, so it had little impact on yields," said Xiao Yonggui, a researcher at the Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

  However, the crisis before wheat ripening is not limited to strong winds and rainstorms. Dry and hot wind is also an important factor affecting yield, especially the recent continuous high temperature requires special attention. "Before wheat is ripe, it is necessary to prevent high temperature adversity and prevent local dry and hot wind. Before and after the wheat harvest, it is the high temperature season, which is prone to dry and hot wind, and the dry and hot wind will accelerate the ripening of wheat, which will shorten the grain filling period, reduce the thousand-grain weight, and naturally affect the yield of wheat." Liu Luxiang introduced, "The grain filling period is to lay the foundation for wheat yield ( Grain weight formation) is one of the most important periods, such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, which set a national high-yield record of more than 2,000 catties per mu in the 1980s, and has always been a high-yield wheat planting area, because the spring wheat there is grouting The period is 30-50 days longer than that in the Huanghuaihai region, and the plateau temperature is low, which is suitable for wheat growth. The wheat there has a large number of grains on a large ear, and the thousand-grain weight can reach more than 50 grams, which is more than 40 grams in Huanghuaihai. Much higher."

  The growth period of winter wheat lasts for more than half a year, but each stage is extremely important. "Generally speaking, this year's high yield should have a foundation, which is much better than previously expected, but it should not be taken lightly, especially in the last period before the wheat harvest. , we must do our best to prevent disasters such as dry and hot wind, and we must not relax to ensure that the particles return to the warehouse." Liu Luxiang said.

  after harvest

  planted new seeds

  When Wu Ruirui in Anhui was about to harvest his own wheat, Hao Yingran, a farmer in Shandong, was already preparing for the next season's sowing.

The state encourages soybean expansion, which is good news for growers.

  In Helen City, the hometown of soybeans in the northeast, soybean planting is also coming to an end.

Hailun City has more than 5 million mu of cultivated land, and more than half of it is planted with soybeans all year round. There are many high-yield and high-quality soybean varieties in the local area, and because the soil is naturally rich in selenium, local crops are very popular.

  In Huanghuaihai, soybean is also one of the main crops in autumn. "Huanghuaihai wheat area is mostly two crops a year or three crops in two years. Wheat is sown around October every year, and harvested from mid to late May to June of the following year. Autumn crops will be planted in the middle of the month, mainly corn and soybeans." Liu Luxiang introduced, "The accumulated temperature in the Huanghuaihai region is generally high, and the planting can mature normally around June 20."

  In the Northeast, in the annual planting area, the planting of spring corn has just ended and it has entered the summer management stage.

In the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, after the harvest of more than 75 million mu of wheat, most of them are about to enter the season of transplanting rice. "Jiangsu, Anhui and other places are mainly rice-wheat rotation. After the wheat is harvested, rice is planted, and the rice will be in November at the latest. At that time, The warm central and southern regions still have time to plant winter wheat, such as Anhui." Liu Luxiang said.

  Summer harvest, summer sowing, and summer management, the three summers of each year are the busiest times in the farmland. The food security of 1.4 billion people grows from a seed. "Food is the lifeline of human beings. Love food, even if we have a lot of people, we don’t have to worry about food security. In fact, today, we are completely self-sufficient in food rations, and food security is guaranteed. In the future, we need to consider how to eat healthier and tastier.” New Beijing News reporter Zhou Huaizong

  Pass the pass, pass the pass, pass the pass, and pass the pass in the summer of 2022

  January

  According to the forecast of the National Agricultural Technology Extension Station, it is expected that in 2022, the main diseases and insect pests of wheat will occur on an overall basis, with an area of ​​810 million mu, including 410 million mu of diseases and 400 million mu of pests.

At that time, wheat in my country's main producing areas was in the wintering period, and the proportion of weak seedlings in the wintering period of wheat was the highest in recent years.

  The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs focuses on the implementation of responsibilities, policy support, precise guidance services, and disaster prevention and mitigation in the work arrangements for stabilizing grain production.

Among them, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs pointed out that it will continue to promote the implementation of various measures on a region-by-region, link-by-link, season-by-season, and crop-by-crop basis.

  February

  Tang Renjian, Director of the Office of the Central Rural Work Leading Group and Minister of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that in 2021, a total of about 110 million mu of wheat will be sown in the five provinces. Unprecedented challenges and difficulties.

  Premier Li Keqiang's instructions pointed out that preparing for spring ploughing is crucial to ensuring a bumper grain harvest throughout the year.

At present, the winter wheat seedlings are weak, and the task of promoting the weak to become stronger is arduous. It is necessary to do a good job in spring field management according to the location and seedlings, and do a good job in the prevention and control of pests and extreme weather, so as to strive for another bumper harvest of summer grain.

It is necessary to increase the support for agricultural production, ensure the production and supply of agricultural materials, stabilize the price of agricultural materials, strengthen the guidance of agricultural technology, and ensure the smooth development of spring ploughing and sowing.

  March

  Wheat production has entered a critical period of spring management, and has also entered a period of high incidence of "cold spring".

According to the forecast of the meteorological department, the temperature in most parts of the country will be high this spring, but there may be periods of low temperature locally.

Since the wheat seedlings in the main producing areas are weak this year, if they encounter the "cold spring" again, it will increase the difficulty of winning a bumper harvest.

  The Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs have timely investigated the situation of wheat seedlings, analyzed and predicted extreme weather conditions, studied and judged the occurrence trend of major crop diseases and insect pests, formulated fund allocation plans, and allocated 1.6 billion yuan in agricultural production and water conservancy disaster relief funds.

Among them, 5 provinces including Hebei, Shanxi, Shandong and other 5 provinces have subsidized 773 million yuan for measures to promote the weak, strong and stable yield of late-planting winter wheat.

  April

  Stripe rust expanded significantly in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, Jianghuai and Huanghuai Hai wheat areas, aphids increased rapidly in the Jianghuai and Huanghuai Hai wheat areas, and the occurrence area increased by nearly 50% in a week. Yanghua is about to enter the peak of popularity.

It is estimated that the area of ​​pests and diseases at the ear stage of wheat will reach 590 million mu. The mid-to-late April to early May is the decisive stage for the prevention and control of diseases and insect pests at the ear stage of wheat.

  The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs held a video conference on the prevention and control of major diseases and insect pests in the wheat ear stage, emphasizing that the bottom line of disaster prevention and mitigation should be kept firmly, and various measures should be implemented to resolutely win the battle for the prevention and control of wheat ear diseases and insect pests. In place, resulting in reduced wheat production and harvest.

Manage and make good use of the special funds of the central government for the prevention and control of major wheat pests and diseases, seek local financial support through multiple channels, and prepare sufficient prevention and control materials such as pharmaceuticals and equipment.

  May

  May is the critical period of wheat grain filling.

At present, more than 97% of wheat is harvested by machine, and the epidemic prevention and control situation is severe and complicated. At that time, the epidemic situation spread across the country.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs pointed out that the epidemic may have a certain impact on the road and cross-regional operations of agricultural machinery.

  During the same period, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council and the Ministry of Transport have clearly included agricultural machinery and spare parts in the scope of key material transportation guarantees, and enjoy the green channel policy for ensuring supply. Agricultural machinery operators across regions only need to hold a negative nucleic acid test certificate within 48 hours and be healthy. If the code is green and the body temperature is normal, it can work normally.

At the same time, all localities actively promote the establishment of green channels for agricultural machinery transfer at highway entrances and exits, implement priority inspection and priority release for combine harvesters and their transport service vehicles, and provide nucleic acid and antigen testing, territorial registration and filing for cross-regional operators. one-stop service".

  June

  The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs and the China Meteorological Administration jointly issued an early warning of dry and hot wind disasters for winter wheat. The two departments judged that there is a risk of dry and hot wind disasters in the winter wheat areas in central and southern Hebei, southern Beijing, Tianjin, most of Shandong, and northern Henan, which may affect the grain filling and maturation of wheat. .

At the same time, there is still no effective precipitation in Henan, southwest Shanxi, and northern Jiangsu and Anhui, which may affect the suitable summer sowing.

  The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs said this is the last hurdle of this summer's harvest.

As early as the end of May, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs issued a notice to go all out to do a good job in grain and agricultural production, and resolutely win the tough battle of preventing "dry and hot wind", ensuring a bumper harvest of summer grain, fighting drought, promoting summer planting and summer management, and ensuring that summer grain is safe, mature, and harvested. Strive to only increase the area of ​​summer planting, and to carry out the summer management in an orderly manner, so as to win the initiative of a bumper grain harvest throughout the year.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs requires that key measures such as disaster prevention and mitigation should be implemented in advance, and at the same time, according to the maturity time of wheat, information on machine harvesting operations should be released in a timely manner to ensure that "the wheat is harvested organically, and the machine is ready to work."

At the same time, the summer planting areas where dry elephants are outcropped should actively create conditions to ensure the implementation of the summer planting area, and promote the orderly development of summer management.

  Beijing News reporter Tian Jiexiong

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