□ Gao Hesheng

  As an aesthetic form that relies on contemporary scientific and technological means, integrates human multi-dimensional functions such as audio-visual and imagination, and has popular and extensive influence, film and television actually expand the aesthetic scope of traditional visual art and auditory art.

He Zhipu and Ma Mingjie's new work "General Theory of Film and Television Aesthetics" (China Textile Publishing House) systematically explains the theory of film and television aesthetics, and intentionally touches on the contribution of film and television art to traditional aesthetic theories, deepening people's cognition of contemporary film and television cultural phenomena, which is refreshing.

  Plato in ancient Greece and Hegel in modern times held different views on the theory that "art imitates nature".

Plato pointed out that the art of painting is "the shadow of the shadow", which is far from the truth; Hegel said that the imitation of art can only provide the appearance of reality to a certain sense, it does not give people the real life, but the impersonation of life, Art should satisfy higher spiritual interests.

As a consensus of artistic aesthetics, this statement has a strong and lasting influence.

  In the 20th century, the French film theorist Bazin proposed that the film realizes "the myth of a realistic and complete reproduction of the world". As a comprehensive art, film provides people with a full-dimensional reality to see, hear and imagine, and express the pure and original appearance of the world.

German scholar Krakauer calls film "material aesthetics", and believes that film expresses the affinity between people and the objective world from which it comes, thus having the function of cultural redemption and opening up a new horizon of mimetic aesthetics.

Their theory goes beyond the criticism of the theory of imitation by traditional aesthetics. From the perspective of Bazin and Kracauer, The General Theory of Film and Television Aesthetics sees the limitations of traditional art aesthetics and has fun in the interpretation and reflection of the basic theory. .

  Does the art of film and television construct a new "reality"?

Perhaps the charm of theory lies in the negation of negation.

In the past, Bazin and Krakauer sincerely regarded the film as a comprehensive reflection of reality, and praised the affinity between people and reality brought by the film. Later, the second semiotic theory of film denied the objective reflection of film and television art on reality. For example, French scholar Baudry regards film and television as a purposeful construction of reality through a series of "movie machines". There is an imaginary relationship between people and video texts, and film and television works are artificially created daylight. Dreams, the director, actors and audience experience from this dream mainly their own thoughts, emotions and desires.

French scholar Metz believes that film is not a "copy of the perceived whole that reality provides for people", but a conventional symbol.

The construction of reality by film and television texts is inseparable from the conspiracy of a series of environmental or instrumental factors such as film machines and film-watching desires. Reflected copy.

  This involves a universal problem of artistic aesthetics.

That is to say, we can also view architecture, painting, music, drama and other art forms from the perspective of constructing reality, analyze their distinctive intentional relationships between subjects and objects, and grasp what they do to reality. "Phenomenological Reduction", in order to re-examine the relationship between people and them.

In this sense, different forms of works of art are also "reflection copies" of the builder's spirit, but in most cases, they are not limited to the level of subconscious desire, but include a broader sense of personal encounter and Sociocultural concept.

  Therefore, it is necessary for us to re-examine the uniqueness and value of art.

  The value of art is that it expresses new emotional experiences.

From ancient Greece to the Renaissance, this emotional experience was realized through the genius of the individual artist.

Thanks to the support of the city-state or the nobility, the artist got rid of the dependence on external material and fame and fortune to a certain extent, and engaged in artistic creation in a pleasant game, which reflected Hegel's so-called artistic ideal.

However, after the rise of civil society, art and artists are subject to capital and profits, and the way of creation has undergone tremendous changes. Film and television art is produced and produced as a "cultural industry".

In this case, how to balance the uniqueness of film and television production and the uniqueness of human emotional experience?

Or to put it optimistically, what new dimensions and new forms have film and television art provided for it while challenging traditional aesthetics is also an interesting theoretical question.

  Film and television aesthetics is not a new topic, but the book always incorporates thoughts on aesthetic principles and cultural theories in the narrative, reflecting the dialogue between film and television art and aesthetic theory, showing a broad theoretical perspective, but also closely concerned about film and television practice and cultural development. It also has a certain practical significance for correctly appreciating the beauty of film and television works, comprehending its meaning, responding to the new phenomenon of contemporary film and television culture, and ensuring the healthy development of film and television art.

  (The author is the executive vice president of the School of Film and Television Art, Hebei University of Media and Communications)