Where to see the seven highlights of the "new" of the new vocational education law
Where to see the seven highlights of the "new" of the new vocational education law
The Vocational Education Law of the People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the "New Vocational Education Law") was revised and adopted by the 34th meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People's Congress on April 20, 2022, and will be officially approved on May 1. implement.
This is the first major revision of the Vocational Education Law since it was promulgated and implemented in 1996. It has increased from 8 chapters and 58 articles after the first review of the previous revised draft to 69 articles after the third review. The newly revised Vocational Education Law has more articles and more content. Also more perfect.
After the promulgation of the new law, many topics such as "general job diversion" and "employment equality" have attracted a lot of attention.
What are the new breakthroughs in the new vocational education law?
What signals are released?
The Beijing News invited a number of experts to interpret it.
Coordinated development of general vocational education is by no means abolishing secondary vocational education
Article 14 of the New Vocational Education Law: At different stages after compulsory education, adjust measures to local conditions and make overall plans to promote the coordinated development of vocational education and general education.
Zhou Hongyu: Actually, "coordinated development" was mentioned in the old vocational teaching method. It still needs to be adhered to today, and it is in line with the new development concept.
Therefore, in this revision, the statement of coordinated development was retained, which was expressed as "in different stages after compulsory education, according to local conditions, coordinated development of vocational education and general education should be promoted."
Chen Ziji: After the promulgation of the newly revised Vocational Education Law, some media and experts interpreted the "coordinated development of general vocational education" as "the division of general vocational education after the abolition of junior high school". This is actually a misreading.
Regarding the issue of "diversion of general jobs", we should pay attention to "adjusting measures to local conditions", that is, not to "one size fits all", and to allow differences in the proportion of general jobs in various regions within a certain range.
The implementation of "universal vocational coordinated development" after compulsory education is definitely not to cancel secondary vocational education, but to change the way of developing secondary vocational education.
The statement in this new law is a more scientific and normative statement of the development of post-compulsory vocational classification based on "dual-track" education in my country.
It reflects our concept of high-quality and balanced development of education at all levels and types, and also provides a legal basis for the diversified development of high-quality education in my country.
School-running level breakthrough
Article 15 of the New Vocational Education Law: Higher vocational school education shall be implemented by higher vocational schools and ordinary institutions of higher learning at the level of junior college, undergraduate and above education.
Zhou Hongyu: The proposal of "undergraduate education level and above" reflects a breakthrough in the school-running level of vocational education.
Vocational education is a type, and this type is self-contained, with both undergraduate and postgraduate education, which is inevitable.
There are already many vocational and technical universities engaged in training postgraduate-level vocational education.
If it is not stated that "education above the undergraduate level", it can neither meet the objective needs of economic and social development and personnel training in the new era, nor conform to the inherent laws of vocational education development and the development trend of world vocational education.
Chen Ziji: The new vocational teaching method has opened up the channel for vocational education students to rise.
For a long time, the society has had a general understanding of vocational education, that is, vocational education is a kind of low-level education, and the passage for students to ascend is not smooth and wide.
In addition to the establishment of undergraduate-level vocational schools, the Vocational Education Law also reserves space for exploration in two aspects: the establishment of undergraduate vocational education majors in ordinary colleges and universities, and the establishment of undergraduate vocational education majors in college-level vocational schools.
This shows that students in vocational schools can not only study colleges, but also go to undergraduates. From the legal level, the development channels of vocational school students are unblocked, and it opens a hole for students in secondary vocational schools to go to university, which will greatly improve students' access to secondary vocational schools. School positivity.
Equal participation of enterprises in vocational education
Article 9 of the New Vocational Education Law: The state encourages the development of various levels and forms of vocational education, promotes diversified education, and supports the broad and equal participation of social forces in vocational education.
Article 26: The state encourages, guides and supports enterprises and other social forces to establish vocational schools and vocational training institutions in accordance with the law.
Deng Chuanhuai: The new vocational teaching method takes multiple measures to promote enterprises to run schools, implement the dominant position of enterprises in vocational education, promote enterprises to deeply participate in vocational education, and encourage enterprises to hold high-quality vocational education.
Enrich the way of holding and improve the support policy.
Sun Cheng: The signal released by the new vocational education law is that many industries, enterprises and even social groups can participate in vocational education, and it is a multi-form and multi-modal way of running schools.
It can mobilize more enterprise strength and various social resources to participate in the team building of talent training, focusing on the high-quality technical and technical talents that are really needed in social and economic development.
If enterprises really play the main role, it will help to change the situation of "one thousand schools, one side", and make vocational education a reservoir of technical and skilled talents in all walks of life.
Crack the "two skins" of the integration of production and education
Article 14 of the New Vocational Education Law: The state establishes and improves the needs of economic and social development, in-depth integration of production and education, equal emphasis on vocational school education and vocational training, mutual integration between vocational education and general education, effective integration of vocational education at different levels, and service for lifelong learning for the whole people modern vocational education system.
Sun Cheng: Before the integration of production and education in vocational colleges, there was a problem of "two skins", but the introduction of the new law will greatly encourage enterprises to participate in the reform of vocational colleges.
Therefore, the problem of "cold enterprises and hot schools" will be improved under the protection of the law.
If the integration of production and education and school-enterprise cooperation can achieve mutual progress and conspiracy between the two parties, teachers will have a clearer grasp of the talent demands of industries and enterprises, and everyone can output better talent training programs.
Chen Ziji: The integration of production and education and school-enterprise cooperation are the basic models of vocational education and the key to running vocational education well.
However, for a long time, the lack of integration of production and education, and the lack of deep and unrealistic cooperation between schools and enterprises have been a pain point and a blocking point.
The revised Vocational Education Law replaces the "integration of production and education" in the current law with the term "integration of production and education", and uses 9 "encourage", 23 "should" and 4 "must", and also includes the need for deep participation in production. Enterprises that integrate education and school-enterprise cooperation make incentive policies such as incentives and tax concessions. It is not difficult and beneficial for enterprises to participate in the legal aspect, and enterprises are encouraged to hold high-quality vocational education.
Safeguarding Employment Equity
Article 53 of the New Vocational Education Law: Vocational school students enjoy equal opportunities with ordinary school students at the same level in terms of further education, employment, and career development; the people's governments at all levels shall create a fair employment environment.
Employers shall not set up conditions for application, recruitment and employment that hinder the equal employment and fair competition of graduates of vocational schools.
Sun Cheng: At the national level, it is necessary to promote the glory of labor and the precious skills. I hope that the government and state-owned enterprises will take the lead in setting an example, and the door of employment will be open to everyone.
There are echelons of talents needed by any industry and any unit, and each position has its own capabilities.
In addition, we must increase social publicity. At the conceptual level, we must let everyone know that all roads and all walks of life can be brilliant, and obstacles in future career choices are being cleared. When various tracks appear, everyone No more "involution" and less anxiety.
Liu Lin: Although at the legal level, vocational education and general education have the same status, but there is still a long way to go to achieve the same status in the eyes of the public.
It is necessary to get rid of discriminatory and restrictive factors that are not conducive to the development of vocational education both inside and outside the current education system.
For example, in terms of enrollment levels, employment positions, treatment, promotion, promotion and other aspects, the relevant system of equal treatment should be implemented to the end.
At present, there are still many discriminatory and restrictive policies. For example, in the enrollment level design, placing higher vocational colleges after ordinary high schools will give people the feeling of "lower class". These obstacles must be removed as soon as possible to clear the way for the development of vocational education. .
Clarify the responsibility to let the law "long steel teeth"
Article 66 of the New Vocational Education Law: Vocational schools and vocational training institutions, in violation of the provisions of this Law, organize, arrange, and manage students through human resources service agencies, labor dispatch units, or units or individuals that illegally engage in human resources services and labor dispatch business. Internships shall be ordered by the administrative department of education, the administrative department of human resources and social security or other relevant departments to make corrections, the illegal income shall be confiscated, and a fine of not less than one time but not more than five times the illegal income shall be imposed; Ten thousand yuan calculation.
Article 67: Staff members of education administrative departments, human resources and social security administrative departments or other relevant departments who violate the provisions of this Law, abuse their powers, neglect their duties, or engage in malpractices for personal gain shall be punished according to law; if a crime is constituted, they shall be investigated for criminal responsibility according to law .
Zhou Hongyu: The law must clearly write the legal responsibility.
The 1996 version of the Vocational Education Law has an obvious omission, that is, there is no "long steel teeth", and it is a "soft law".
Without clear legal responsibilities, when illegal acts occur, they cannot be investigated, and legislation will lose its meaning.
A new chapter has been added to the New Vocational Education Law, the seventh chapter, which is the legal responsibility part.
The terms and expressions in it are rigid, clear and powerful, and are "long steel teeth" laws.
Establishing a third-party evaluation system to promote the quality of education
Article 43 of the New Vocational Education Law: Vocational schools and vocational training institutions shall establish and improve education quality evaluation systems, attract industry organizations, enterprises, etc. to participate in the evaluation, and disclose relevant information in a timely manner, and accept educational supervision and social supervision.
The education administrative department of the people's government at or above the county level shall establish a quality evaluation system in line with the characteristics of vocational education in conjunction with relevant departments and industry organizations, organize or entrust industry organizations, enterprises and third-party professional institutions to evaluate the quality of vocational schools, and evaluate the quality of vocational schools. The results are made public in a timely manner.
Chu Zhaohui: It is clear that the third-party evaluation system for vocational education is a highlight of the new vocational education law.
The scale of vocational education has developed greatly in recent years, but the quality of vocational education has been criticized. Parents' reluctance to let their children enter vocational schools is related to the quality of education.
Clarifying the third-party evaluation system can attract the attention of relevant parties and promote the improvement of education quality.
Member of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, Vice President of the Chinese Society of Education, Professor of Central China Normal University
Director of the Policy and Regulation Department of the Ministry of Education
Director, Department of Vocational Education and Adult Education, Ministry of Education
Member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, State Inspector
Former Director and Researcher of the Institute of Vocational and Continuing Education, Chinese Academy of Education Sciences
Researcher at the Chinese Academy of Educational Sciences
(names not listed in order)
Written by Feng Qi and Liu Yang, reporter from Beijing NewsKeywords: