General Secretary Xi Jinping emphasized: "It is necessary to strengthen the protection and inheritance of intangible cultural heritage, actively cultivate inheritors, and make intangible cultural heritage bloom more charmingly."

  At present, we are in an era of great social change, and cultural prosperity has become an important symbol of this era.

Intangible cultural heritage is an important part of the excellent traditional Chinese culture and the precious spiritual wealth of the Chinese people of all ethnic groups.

Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, China has adhered to the cultural development strategy of continuing the tradition and restoring the ecology. In the process of excavation, protection, inheritance and development, the existence of many “intangible cultural heritage” projects deeply hidden in the people has undergone positive changes. It has played an active role in promoting the fine traditions of the nation and helping rural revitalization.

Excavate the historical and cultural roots and consolidate the foundation for the protection of "intangible cultural heritage"

  In the long history, the diligence and wisdom of the working people have left precious heritage for human civilization. For thousands of years, the Chinese nation has a fine tradition of collecting and protecting these heritages.

For nearly half a century, the state has invested a lot of money to organize a large number of experts, scholars, art workers, and folk artists to carry out scientific and rigorous censuses and collections.

For example, after the reform and opening up, China began to conduct a large-scale, organized and planned census and collection of ethnic and folk cultural heritage, and compiled and published ten sets of "Chinese Ethnic Folk Literature and Art Collection Books".

After entering the new century, the state has increased investment in the census of intangible cultural heritage, and the total number of census resources has reached more than 870,000, so that a batch of important materials and precious objects with historical value and in an endangered state have been rescued and protected.

On this basis, the state launched the intangible cultural heritage recording project in a timely manner to conduct comprehensive, systematic and professional records of the content, expression, rheological process, core skills and inheritance practices of representative projects.

  In 2011, the state officially promulgated the "Intangible Cultural Heritage Law of the People's Republic of China" (hereinafter referred to as the "Intangible Cultural Heritage Law"). ""), established the legal status of intangible cultural heritage in national social life, and provided legal guarantee for the protection of intangible cultural heritage.

At present, 30 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) have formulated corresponding local-level regulations.

China has also established a four-level registration system and a successor identification system. As of June 2021, the State Council has announced a total of 1,557 national-level intangible cultural heritage representative projects; as of December 2021, the national intangible cultural heritage representative list There are a total of 3063 representative inheritors of the project.

  Inheritance is the unique principle of intangible cultural heritage protection.

"People-oriented, living inheritance", intangible cultural heritage can be passed on from generation to generation and last forever.

For more than ten years, the "Intangible Cultural Heritage Entering Campus" activity has been vigorously carried out. While enriching teaching resources, it enables young people to understand the splendid Chinese civilization and enhance cultural self-confidence.

Organize folk artists, masters of craftsmanship, and inheritors of "intangible cultural heritage" to participate in vocational education and teaching to achieve inheritance and innovation.

At present, 162 vocational colleges in China have set up professional demonstration teaching points, which have played an active role in the continuous growth of the successor talent team of intangible cultural heritage.

Governments at all levels attach great importance to the organization and publicity of the protection of intangible cultural heritage. The state stipulates that the second Saturday of June every year is the "Cultural and Natural Heritage Day" to enhance the awareness of cultural heritage protection in the whole society.

National intangible cultural heritage exhibition halls, training centers, and cultivation bases have sprung up like mushrooms after a spring rain, becoming important places to enhance the public's awareness of and protection of intangible cultural heritage.

  As one of the first contracting states to join the UNESCO Convention for the Protection of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (hereinafter referred to as the "Convention"), China actively promotes the spirit of the The responsibility of publicizing, promoting, inheriting and revitalizing", vividly showing "Chinese wisdom", and exploring the sustainable development path of intangible cultural heritage in line with China's national conditions, has been recognized by UNESCO.

As of 2021, China has a total of 42 items selected into the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List and List, including 34 items in the "Representative List of Human Intangible Cultural Heritage", 7 items in the "List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Urgent Need of Protection", and "Excellent List of Intangible Cultural Heritage". 1 item in the “Practice List”, becoming the country with the largest number of items selected into the UNESCO intangible cultural heritage list and the list.

Carry out "productive protection" and promote the economic development of "intangible cultural heritage"

  Over the past few decades, social progress and economic development have brought unprecedented vitality to the intangible cultural heritage.

In order to ensure the continuation of the life of intangible cultural heritage, enhance the activity of "intangible cultural heritage" practice and the stability of practice frequency, China has put forward the concept of productive protection, that is, in the process of production with the nature of practice, use the Authenticity, integrity and inheritance are the core, effectively inherit intangible cultural heritage skills, and promote the transformation of intangible cultural heritage to realize the social value of resources through production, circulation, sales, etc. The inclusive concept of development is highly compatible.

In recent years, 100 "National Demonstration Bases for Productive Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage" have emerged in China. According to the characteristics of regions and ethnic groups, in the protection and inheritance of core skills, the production of derivative products of intangible cultural heritage will be expanded and the inheritance of intangible cultural heritage will be improved. The status and income of people provide jobs for the society and become an important force to boost local economic development and rural revitalization.

  Taking Yunnan Pu'er tea as an example, Ning'er Hani and Yi Autonomous County in Pu'er City is the hometown of well-known Pu'er tea both at home and abroad.

From the Chinese map, Ning'er is like a golden pot embedded in the mountains.

In this 3,670 square kilometers of land, mountainous areas account for 96.8%, and among the 195,000 population, ethnic minorities account for 55.5%.

The county's 204,800 mu of tea gardens are distributed in 6 towns, 3 townships and 85 villages.

Since June 2008, the Pu'er tea making technique was announced by the State Council as the second batch of representative projects of national intangible cultural heritage, this technique has been paid more and more attention by the society, and 45 inheritors of "intangible cultural heritage" above the county level have been active in tea gardens, In the workshop, dozens of training centers have been established, leading tea farmers to create wealth with traditional skills and diligence and wisdom.

The local government gave full play to the three advantages of location, resources and culture, and established a Pu'er tea distribution center through modern information dissemination and circulation channels, so that Ning'er tea farmers can completely get rid of poverty and embark on the road of poverty alleviation and prosperity.

Ning'er County vigorously promotes the extensive participation of industrial and commercial enterprises and leading agricultural enterprises, builds raw material bases and processing bases for Pu'er tea, and explores the establishment of a "enterprise + base + farmers" production and operation model to expand employment and increase income.

Actively encourage the inheritors to innovate and practice, integrate modern craftsmanship into traditional craftsmanship, and use the plasticity of tea leaves and pressed tea molds to develop Qizi cake, gourd tea, Tuocha, and pressed tea products with traditional auspicious characters. brand.

Facts have proved that the productive protection, innovative practice and mass inheritance of Pu-erh tea have marked this ancient human cultural heritage with a distinct stamp of the times, making it accessible to thousands of households.

Build "integral protection" to ensure the sustainable development of "intangible cultural heritage"

  The "Intangible Cultural Heritage Law" states: "The protection of intangible cultural heritage should pay attention to its authenticity, integrity and inheritance, which is conducive to enhancing the cultural identity of the Chinese nation, maintaining national unity and ethnic unity, and promoting social harmony and harmony. Sustainable development." "Integration", in addition to emphasizing the integrity of the intangible cultural heritage project itself, it also emphasizes the integrity of the intangible cultural heritage project, its related objects and places, and the dependent natural environment.

  A good ecology provides objective conditions for the creative transformation and innovative development of intangible cultural heritage.

According to the nature and distribution of intangible cultural heritage and related natural, ecological, humanistic, economic and other factors, China has delimited protection areas, and the protection, continuation and inheritance of intangible cultural heritage will be closely related to the ecological environment and humanistic environment in the region. Combined, build a cultural ecosystem with "intangible cultural heritage" projects as the core of protection, and achieve overall protection.

From 2007 to 2020, the national cultural authority has successively approved the establishment of 7 national-level cultural and ecological protection zones and 17 national-level cultural and ecological protection experimental zones in 17 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Dissemination and other aspects have accumulated experience that can be used for reference.

For example, the Ocean Fishing Culture (Xiangshan) Ecological Reserve is the only national-level cultural and ecological reserve in China that protects the marine fishing culture. It is centered on some ancient villages, ancient streets and islands in the administrative area of ​​Shipu Town, Xiangshan County. Show Mazu customs, fishermen, fishermen and other life scenes, teach fishing lanterns, boat models, marine life model making, perform fish lantern dances, horse lantern dances and other folk intangible cultural heritage skills. These folk activities are closely integrated with people's production and life. The marine culture blends with each other, forming a typical cultural ecology.

  China's intangible cultural heritage is mainly distributed in vast rural areas, especially in ethnic minority areas. Therefore, townships and villages have naturally become the focus of intangible cultural heritage protection.

For example, the Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture in Guizhou Province is one of the experimental areas with the largest number of national-level intangible cultural heritage projects in China. There are 56 items and 78 protection sites listed as national-level non-material cultural heritage sites. List of material cultural heritage.

Here, 46 ethnic groups, including Miao, Dong, Buyi, Shui, Yao, Zhuang, and Tujia, thrive on this magical land.

Over the years, the experimental zone has built "100 Demonstration Villages for Inheritance, Protection and Development", innovated the concept of "National Culture +", formulated "Thousands of Inheritance Training Plans", and held "Dong Nationality Songs and Hundred Villages Singing Contest" and other activities to make intangible cultural heritage cultural into the production and life of people of all ethnic groups.

  We should also see that with the acceleration of urbanization and the impact of multiculturalism, great changes have taken place in the cultural ecology, such as the weakening of agricultural civilization, and the gradual disappearance of traditional communities with the special meaning of "intangible cultural heritage".

Especially with the popularization of the Internet, people's production and lifestyle have changed, and the social functions of intangible cultural heritage have been replaced by new production, life, cultural and entertainment methods, and the living space has been squeezed to a certain extent.

In recent years, the national cultural authority has emphasized that in the protection of "intangible cultural heritage", upholding the concept of "seeing people, seeing things, and seeing life", the intangible cultural heritage such as folk customs, crafts, and related objects scattered among the people will be brought into the people's attention and integrated into people live.

The "14th Five-Year Plan for the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage" promulgated in 2021 pointed out that, focusing on new tasks in the new era, the relationship between the protection and inheritance of intangible cultural heritage and economic development, urban and rural construction, social governance, and improvement of people's livelihood should be coordinated and actively served and into the national development strategy.

In March this year, six departments including the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, the Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of Natural Resources formulated the "Opinions on Promoting Cultural Industry Empowering Rural Revitalization" to support the use of intangible cultural heritage workshops, heritage experience centers and other places to cultivate a group of rural non-heritage A tourism experience base for material cultural heritage; to create characteristic brands of "one township, one product", "one township, one art" and "one township, one scene", and form a rural cultural business card with regional influence.

On the basis of the establishment of an effective mechanism for cultural industry empowerment of rural revitalization, we must incorporate intangible cultural heritage brands with distinctive features, outstanding advantages, and market competitiveness into key projects of cultural industry empowerment of rural revitalization, and cultivate new momentum for rural development.

  Intangible cultural heritage has broad prospects and huge development space in carrying forward the traditional culture of the Chinese nation and realizing creative transformation and innovative development.

Intangible cultural heritage should be explored and practiced actively, so that intangible cultural heritage can become a powerful carrier for people to recognize the beauty of craftsmanship, ingenuity, perceive the beauty of tradition and life, comprehend the Chinese context, and enhance cultural self-confidence.

  (The author is Ge Yuqing, an associate researcher at the Chinese Academy of Arts)

Keywords: