Why is malignant tumor in the middle and late stages as soon as it is discovered?

Doctors distribute cancer prevention "maintenance manual" --

  Check out the "timetable" for nine common cancer screenings

  Did you know that cancer is no longer incurable?

Nearly half of all cancers are preventable, and about one-third of cancers can be cured by early detection through screening.

And why are many people diagnosed with cancer in the middle and late stages?

Today, I would like to introduce a special "maintenance manual" to you, which is closely related to our own physical health - the screening and prevention of common malignant tumors.

  Why does cancer come to you without a genetic history?

  Malignant tumors are abnormal proliferation of normal cells after gradual mutation.

In addition to the continuous growth of the tumor itself, this abnormal hyperplasia is also manifested as invasion of adjacent normal tissues and metastasis to other parts of the body through blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and body cavities, and the occupation of normal tissues and organs by enlarged tumor tissue. Destruction, resulting in impaired organ function, eventually leading to organ failure, taking the patient's life.

  Some people may ask: "No one in the family has cancer, why does malignant tumor find me?"

  People's cognition of tumor pathogenesis has risen from the single factor theory of physical carcinogenesis, chemical carcinogenesis, virus carcinogenesis, mutation carcinogenesis, etc. to the comprehensive carcinogenic theory of multi-factor and multi-step.

The change of tumor incidence is mainly affected by many factors, such as population age structure, nutrition, heredity, environment, lifestyle, economic level, education level and so on.

Among them, smoking, obesity, diabetes, viral infections, and unhealthy eating habits are the top causes.

  Anti-cancer physical examination "finds out" malignant tumors

  Many patients are already in the middle and late stages of cancer when they get the exact diagnosis. Why does this happen?

  The diagnosis of malignant tumor is the unity of multiple diagnostic methods such as clinical examination, laboratory tests, imaging observation and pathological examination.

Because many cancers have no obvious symptoms in the early stage, or patients do not pay enough attention to the relatively subtle symptoms, most cancer patients are already in the middle and advanced stages when they are diagnosed.

  Therefore, we say that whether it is the advancement of diagnostic technology or the development of treatment methods, the fundamental improvement of the prognosis of tumor patients is still the "three early", that is, early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment.

  So, if you want to find out the real culprit of this scourge early, the anti-cancer physical examination is very important!

The anti-cancer physical examination is mainly divided into 5 aspects, which can be condensed into 5 words:

  Physical - Physical examination.

Some tumors can be detected by physical examination, such as bowel, breast, and thyroid cancers.

  Test - means a blood test.

Many tumors have tumor markers that can be caught with a blood test.

  Shadow - mainly refers to imaging examinations, such as color Doppler ultrasound, CT, magnetic resonance, etc.

  Endoscopy - mainly refers to endoscopy, such as gastroscopy, colonoscopy, bronchoscopy, etc.

  Reason - is the pathological diagnosis.

For the abnormal tissue found, take a small piece of it for pathological diagnosis, so as to finally determine whether it is a malignant tumor.

  What I want to remind everyone is that cancer prevention physical examination is not just a general physical examination, and it is by no means that the more items the more expensive the better, but the need for “tailor-made”.

  Screening for these common cancers

  The lung cancer screening population is people over 50 years old, with family history of lung cancer, smoking history, cough, chest pain, blood in sputum, long-term low fever, etc.

The main screening methods are low-dose CT of the lungs, and tumor markers such as neuron-specific enolase (NSE), cytokeratin 19 fragment (CY-FRA21-1), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), squamous epithelium Cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) and an emerging marker gastrin precursor-releasing peptide (ProGRP).

  Breast cancer screening population is women over 35 years old, with family history of breast cancer, breast disease history, marriage and childbearing history, menstrual history, breast tenderness unrelated to the menstrual cycle, abnormal nipple secretions, etc.

The main screening methods are breast ultrasound, mammography, and tumor markers: cancer antigen 153 (CA-153), cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).

  The population of cervical cancer screening is women over 21 years old, with family history of cervical cancer, menstrual history, reproductive history, unclean sexual life history, abnormal leucorrhea, vaginal bleeding, etc.

The main screening methods are cervical ultrathin cytology (TCT), human papillomavirus (HPV) test, tumor markers: squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).

  The colorectal cancer screening population is over 50 years old, with family history of colorectal cancer, history of chronic colitis and intestinal polyps, lower abdominal pain, blood in the stool, mucus stool, stool frequency, etc.

The main screening methods are rectal examination, fecal occult blood, colonoscopy, double barium angiography, and tumor markers: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 199 (CA-199), and cancer antigen 242 (CA-242).

  The gastric cancer screening population is over 50 years old, with a family history of gastric cancer, gastric ulcer, gastrointestinal polyps, abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, tarry stool, etc.

The main screening methods are gastroscopy, double barium gas angiography, Helicobacter pylori examination, determination of pepsin and gastrin, etc. Tumor markers: cancer antigen 72-4 (CA72-4), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).

  The prostate cancer screening population is men over the age of 45 who have repeated frequent urination, urgency and hematuria, especially those who have a family history of prostate cancer and a history of chronic inflammation.

The main screening methods are prostate palpation, prostate ultrasound, and tumor markers, namely prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) screening.

  Liver cancer is for any of the following groups of men over the age of 35 and women over the age of 45: chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection; family history of liver cancer; schistosomiasis, alcohol, primary biliary cirrhosis, etc. Patients with cirrhosis; patients with drug-induced liver damage; patients with inherited metabolic diseases; patients with autoimmune hepatitis; patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and liver B-ultrasound are recommended, and screening every 6 months .

  Thyroid cancer requires both functional and morphological examinations of the thyroid.

For the general population, there are currently no standard tests for early detection or routine screening of thyroid cancer; clinical neck physical examinations are recommended: every 2-3 years between the ages of 20 and 29, and annually after the age of 30; neck ultrasonography: Once a year after age 30 (including thyroid, neck and supraclavicular).

For those at high risk of thyroid cancer, annual cervical ultrasonography (including thyroid, neck, and supraclavicular).

  Esophageal cancer is a high-risk group over the age of 40 and meets any of the following factors: from areas with high incidence of esophageal cancer in my country; upper gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, acid regurgitation, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), people Papillomavirus (HPV) infection; family history of esophageal precancerous disease or precancerous lesions or esophageal cancer; smoking, heavy drinking, overweight, liking hot food, or suffering from squamous cell carcinoma of the head, neck and respiratory tract, etc., general endoscopy is recommended Check every 2 years.

Pathological results suggest mild dysplasia, endoscopy once a year, pathological results suggest moderate dysplasia, endoscopy once every six months.

  10 cancer prevention tips start with the little things in life

  Studies have shown that a comprehensive healthy lifestyle is the most reliable solution for cancer prevention.

The latest report on cancer prevention jointly released by the world's two leading authorities in the field of cancer, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), put forward 10 recommendations for cancer prevention.

  The normal range (BMI) for maintaining a healthy weight is ideally between 18.5 and 23.

Pay attention to control the "waist-to-hip ratio": waist-to-hip ratio = waist circumference / hip circumference.

If the waist-hip ratio is 0.9 for men and 0.8 for women, it means that you have excess visceral fat.

  Actively participate in physical activity by walking more and sitting less.

150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per week, or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity physical activity.

In addition, for sedentary people, it is best to set aside a few minutes every hour to get up and walk.

  Eat a diet rich in whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and legumes When preparing a meal, aim to have at least two-thirds of your plate full of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes.

These foods are rich in fiber.

Fiber is known as the "cleaner" of the intestines. An appropriate increase in intake can promote intestinal peristalsis and defecation.

  Limit your intake of "fast food" and other processed foods that are high in fat, starch, or sugar. Limiting these foods can help control calorie intake and maintain a healthy weight.

  Eat less red meat and processed meat. Do not eat too much red meat such as beef, pork, and lamb. Eat only a small amount of processed meat if you want to eat it.

The national recommended red meat intake is an average of 50 to 75 grams per person per day.

  Limit sugar-sweetened beverages and drink plenty of water and unsweetened beverages.

There is solid evidence that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages can cause weight gain, overweight and obesity, the latter of which is linked to 12 types of cancer.

  Limiting drinking The accumulation of acetaldehyde, an intermediate product of alcohol metabolism, can lead to cancer, so drinking must be done within your means.

  Don't rely on supplements to prevent cancer Nutritional needs only need to be met by diet.

  Breastfeeding Breastfeeding helps mothers prevent breast cancer.

Plus, breastfed babies are less likely to be overweight and obese.

  Adhering to a healthy lifestyle after a cancer diagnosis

  Text / Wang Ruoxi and Lin Xiaohua

  (Beijing Xiaotangshan Rehabilitation Hospital)