◎Reporter Zhang Jiaxing

  From April 15th to 21st every year, it is the National Cancer Prevention Awareness Week.

On the live broadcast of "The Truth of Cancer Prevention" on early cancer screening, a number of academicians in the field of cancer prevention and treatment directly answered the questions that people are most concerned about.

Everyone has cancer cells in their bodies, really?

  Is it true that "everyone has cancer cells in their bodies"?

  "There is some truth to this statement. Our body interacts with many carcinogenic factors all the time, which may lead to the instability of DNA in the body and the transformation of cells." Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Academician of Peking University Zhan Qimin, deputy director of the committee, explained that, in a sense, cancerous changes will continue to occur.

  Zhan Qimin also said, but don't worry about this process, because human beings have formed a strong immune monitoring system during the evolution process, which can be continuously cleared when a single cancer cell appears in the body.

Therefore, maintaining a good attitude can maintain a stable state in the body, achieve the best state of the immune system, and use good means to screen and diagnose early, detect early cancer or precancerous lesions, and identify and remove cancer cells in time.

  Is cancer hereditary "fate"?

Is the theory of tumor constitution scientific?

  In reality, it is often found that some families have a high probability of developing tumors, so is cancer hereditary "destiny", and is it scientific to say that "some people are born with a tumor constitution"?

  "The appearance of some tumors is due to an important gene mutation, such as a gene mutation called BRCA, which is easy to cause breast cancer and ovarian cancer. The possibility is as high as 70%." Zhan Qimin explained, but this is entirely due to genetic factors. The chance of cancer forming in the entire tumor is only 5%.

  There is also a hereditary susceptibility gene in the body, which is prone to developing tumors under the interaction with carcinogenic external factors.

"Therefore, staying away from carcinogens and maintaining a healthy state can minimize the genetic susceptibility factors." Zhan Qimin said.

  In response to the statement of tumor constitution, Tian Yantao, chairman of the Professional Committee of Cancer Prevention and Treatment of China Anti-Cancer Association, said that tumors are diseases under the combined action of internal and external factors.

In 2020, there will be 4.57 million new cancer patients in my country, familial hereditary tumors account for 5%-10%, and more than 90% of the patients are caused by poor control of acquired eating habits and emotional management.

  Are there any "signs" of the tumor?

Can cancer be screened early?

  Will there be signs before the tumor arrives, and advance warning?

  "The early symptoms of all tumors are no typical symptoms." Wang Guiqi, a long-term professor at the Cancer Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/Peking Union Medical College Hospital, said that when he thinks he is very healthy, he eats Mamaxiang, so he should take the initiative to do screening and early diagnosis. "Signs" of tumors can be detected earlier.

  "The incidence of cancer in my country is not high, but the biggest problem is that the mortality rate of cancer patients in my country is relatively high, and the five-year survival rate is relatively low." Wang Guiqi said that to solve this problem, we need to achieve early diagnosis and early treatment through screening, and even some Tumors can also be cured.

  What is the scientific way of early diagnosis of cancer screening?

  Wang Guiqi believes that the common people should be provided with some simple and convenient primary screening techniques at home. High-risk groups should be identified through primary screening such as fecal occult blood testing and genetic testing, and then go to medical institutions for gastrointestinal endoscopy for fine screening.

  "By screening seemingly healthy asymptomatic people, we can find patients with early-stage cancer or precancerous lesions, and prevent cancer from developing to the next stage." Zhu Yeqing, director of China Cancer Foundation and CEO of Nuohui Health, said that screening is From the seemingly healthy asymptomatic "sea of ​​people", fish out the "needle" of cancer or precancerous lesions to prevent the further development of cancer in these patients.

The most critical point of cancer screening is to ensure that people who have no problems in the screening are as good as possible, that is, they do not miss the test.

  Zhu Yeqing introduced that "Science" magazine once proposed five major challenges in early cancer screening, which mentioned the biological characteristics and effective biomarkers of early cancer. Biomarkers used for screening, comprehensive analysis of results including hemoglobin, genes and gene methylation through algorithm models to judge a person's cancer risk, through the largest prospective multi-center registration clinical trial of early cancer screening in China, Verified performance.

  "Taking colorectal cancer screening as an example, the Chang Weiqing test using kits such as stool FIT-DNA can be used in hospitals, communities, and families to cover people who do not want to do digital examinations and refuse colonoscopy, and achieve early diagnosis and early diagnosis. Screening.” Wang Xishan, Director of Colorectal Surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, introduced that after screening, different risk stratification of the population can be carried out, and high, medium, low and low risks can be classified, which is more conducive to the screening and prevention of colorectal cancer. Find.