As the founder of "the rule of Wenjing", the location of the tomb of Emperor Wendi Liu Heng of the Han Dynasty seems to have long been determined in history.

On the Bailu Plain in the eastern suburbs of Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, a place known as "Phoenix Mouth" is the location of the Han Dynasty's mausoleum.

  However, after entering the 21st century, archaeologists from the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology and the Xi'an Institute of Cultural Relics Protection and Archaeology have carried out extensive archaeological investigations in this area, but have achieved nothing.

So, where is the "Han Wen Emperor Ba Mausoleum"?

  In December 2021, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage announced that the location of the Emperor's Mausoleum of the Han Dynasty was determined to be the tomb of Jiangcun, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, rather than the "Phoenix Mouth" recorded in historical records.

This achievement solved the eternal mystery of the location of the tomb of Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty, and solved the problem of the name of the eleven tombs of the Western Han Dynasty.

  On March 31, the top ten new archaeological discoveries in the country in 2021 were announced in Beijing. The tomb of Jiangcun in Xi'an, Shaanxi, the Piluo site in Daocheng, Sichuan, the sacrificial area of ​​Sanxingdui site in Guanghan, Sichuan, and the Yulikeyakkuduke beacon site in Xinjiang were selected.

  It is understood that a total of 20 shortlisted projects from 15 provinces will compete for the final selection of the top ten new archaeological discoveries in the country in 2021. So, how did the Jiangcun Tomb in Xi'an stand out?

At what stage is the excavation work of Emperor Ba's Mausoleum of the Han Dynasty progressing?

In this regard, the West China Metropolis Daily and the cover news reporter had a dialogue with Cao Long, a witness of the Baling archaeology and the vice-captain of the Hanling archaeological team.

  Although this is not the first time that Cao Long's project has been selected as one of the top ten new archaeological discoveries in the country, he is still very excited.

In his opinion, the selection of the Jiangcun Tomb into the top ten new archaeological discoveries in the country is not only determined by the significance of the archaeological work, but also a review of the entire project.

"The unearthed cultural relics are important, but archaeology is not just for 'digging treasures'." The significance behind the selection of Jiangcun Tomb as one of the top ten new archaeological discoveries in the country is also valued by archaeologists like Cao Long.

Why was the Gangchon Tomb selected?

He boils down to four great meanings

  "The reason why the Jiangcun Tomb can be selected is actually the significance of the archaeological work of the Jiangcun Tomb." The "Phoenix Mouth" is the negation of the Paling Mausoleum, completing the last puzzle of the Western Han Emperor Mausoleum, and making up for the development and evolution of the Western Han Emperor Mausoleum's shape. The context... Since the Jiangcun Tomb was confirmed as the Tomb of Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty, these meanings have been talked about by people.

Cao Long told reporters that this is actually one of the reasons why the Jiangcun Tomb was selected as one of the top ten new archaeological discoveries in the country.

  What is the significance of the archaeological work of the Jiangcun Tomb?

Cao Long summed it up in four points: First, the confirmation of the true location of the Baling Mausoleum gave a clear object for the protection of field cultural relics and archaeological research, and also gave people a new understanding of the thin burial and frugality of Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty; second It is to make it clear that Ba Mausoleum is no longer a special case of the Western Han emperor's mausoleum, and re-examines its position in the development and evolution of the Western Han emperor's mausoleum.

The shape and layout of the tombs of Baling inherits the basic elements of Changling and Anling, and lowers the regulations of cemeteries such as Qiyangling and Maoling. The important physical materials of development and change; thirdly, a large number of gold and silver artifacts with exotic styles unearthed in the outer Tibetan pit of the Nanling of the Empress Dowager Bo are direct evidence of the exchange and integration of farming and animal husbandry cultures in the pre-Qin and Han dynasties, and they have witnessed the historical development of Chinese civilization. Fourth, the scientific and detailed archaeological materials have laid the foundation for the protection and utilization of the Tomb of Emperor Hanwen and the Tomb of the Empress Dowager Bo.

Unearthed cultural relics

Not the only factor that defines eligibility

  "Although Changling also has outer pits, the distribution of outer pits is irregular. At Baling, each outer pit, which symbolizes the official agency, is distributed around the mausoleum in a centripetal manner, which is a reflection of the strengthening of centralization. ." Cao Long explained.

Although many ancient books such as "Historical Records" and "Han Shu" have recorded the thin burial of Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty, the confirmation of the geographical location of Baling has given people a new intuitive understanding of the emperor's "thin burial". .

  "The thin burial of Emperor Wen of the Han is mainly reflected in the 'reduction of rituals without reduction of system'. One is that the Baling "does not place a seal on the soil", and the terrain is slightly raised, which is good for drainage; The wall of the cemetery. Emperor Wen of the Han Dynasty was after all the monarch of a country. Although he could 'reduce rituals', the regulations of the emperor could not be reduced. In addition, compared to the tombs of Liu Bang, Emperor Gaozu of the Han Dynasty and Liu Ying, Emperor Hui of the Han Dynasty, Ba Ling also reduced the power of the king. The idea is reflected in the construction of the mausoleum." Cao Long said.

  Cao Long has participated in the archaeological work of the Western Han Emperor Mausoleum Site since September 2006, which was selected as one of the top ten new archaeological discoveries in the country in 2009.

At that time, the Shaanxi Institute of Archaeology conducted "comprehensive surveys, large-scale general surveys, detailed surveys in key areas, trial excavation of key parts, and high-precision surveying and mapping of tombs of the Western Han emperors, including the Maoling of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, the Kangling of Emperor Ping of the Han Dynasty, and the Weiling of Emperor Yuan of the Han Dynasty. and data digitization" work ideas, closely combined field work and data collation, and achieved great results.

  Cao Long recalled that in the eyes of the public, this archaeological project did not unearth any heavy cultural relics. However, from the perspective of archaeological research, through the work of exploration and mapping, we can fully understand and understand the elements of the tombs of the Western Han Dynasty. The basic layout and connotation, and have further exploration and research.

In other words, the unearthed cultural relics are not the only factor that defines whether they are selected into the top ten new archaeological discoveries in the country.

  Therefore, in Cao Long's view, whether or not the Jiangcun Tomb is selected as one of the top ten new archaeological discoveries is enough to make people excited: "The selection of the top ten new archaeological discoveries is essentially a comprehensive assessment of archaeological projects, not only to see the soil The cultural relics and the results of the research also depend on whether the whole work plan is scientific and standardized, whether the information contained in the site is extracted to the greatest extent through multidisciplinary cooperation, whether the arrangement and release of archaeological materials are timely, and whether there is any information during the excavation period. There is no corresponding public archaeological and cultural heritage protection publicity activities, etc.”

  This also requires archaeologists not only to do well in field excavations, but also to pay attention to scientific and rational planning of excavation objects, and at the same time, try their best to integrate archaeological work with the cultural construction of the site in a timely manner.

For example, the open day of the archaeological site can be held to the surrounding people, so that the people can understand the cultural heritage around them and improve their awareness of protection. "During the selection, the judges will take these factors into consideration."

  "Therefore, the significance of the selection of the top ten new archaeological discoveries is not only in the selection, but also in participation, learning, communication and publicity." Cao Long said.

How is the progress of Baling archaeology?

Currently mainly doing cultural relics restoration and data sorting

  "At present, we are mainly working on the restoration of cultural relics and the collation of data. We have completed the "Jiangcun Tomb Archaeological Survey and Exploration Briefing Report" and related research articles such as Jiangcun Tomb's main textual research. The timely publication of archaeological materials can help Let the academic community and the public know the first-hand information, accurate data and preliminary research conclusions as soon as possible." Cao Long introduced that the field archaeological work of the Jiangcun tomb is currently suspended, and it is only a small excavation in the northwest corner of the Queen Mother Bo's Nanling. The animal bones unearthed in the pit are protected on-site and packaged and extracted as a whole.

  Since the start of the archaeological work on the Jiangcun Tomb in 2017, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage has successively approved a total of 6 excavation sites.

The excavation of the northern section of K15 at the northeast corner of the Jiangcun Tomb and the newly approved accompanying tombs are the main tasks of the field work in 2022.

  "From field archaeological work to the restoration and protection of indoor cultural relics, collating data, and writing excavation briefs and reports, this is a basic process of archaeological work. At the same time, the protective backfilling or subsequent display and utilization of excavated sites requires The local government invites relevant experts to jointly evaluate and plan." Cao Long mentioned that he hopes that after the archaeological excavation is completed and the protection plan for the Baling site is issued, the application for the construction of the Baling Archaeological Site Park can be continued.

  Whether it is building a museum or an archaeological site park, Cao Long feels that the Baling site has multiple advantages.

First of all, the site of Baling is located in the suburbs of Xi'an City, and the location advantage is very obvious; secondly, the excavated figurines of prisoners are the first to be found in the outer pit of the tomb of the Western Han Dynasty.

Cultural relics such as bronze gears that reflect the exquisite level of handicrafts in the Western Han Dynasty, gold and silver chariots and horse ornaments with grassland cultural elements unearthed in the outer Tibetan pit of Nanling are also very good exhibits. The development is relatively mature, and there are many universities in the area, which is also an important support and goal for the construction of the archaeological site park.

  The selection of the top ten new archaeological discoveries in the country in 2021 has attracted more attention to the already hot Baling.

Cao Long said that with the publication of the follow-up work results and the introduction of the Baling site protection plan, the protection and display of the entire Baling site area where the Jiangcun Tomb is located will soon be put on the agenda.

  West China Metropolis Daily - Cover reporter Liu Kexin

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