"Double reduction" has become a hot topic of the National People's Congress and the National People's Congress and members of the CPPCC.
How can school education be "increased" after the "double reduction"?
On July 24, 2021, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council issued the "Opinions on Further Reducing the Burden of Homework and Off-campus Training for Students in Compulsory Education", requiring all regions and departments to conscientiously implement them in light of their actual conditions.
The "double reduction" policy has been fully promoted, and all localities have responded and implemented it.
On the occasion of the National Two Sessions, "double reduction" has become a hot topic.
The Democratic Progressive Central Committee submitted two proposals to the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference - "Proposal on Improving the Quality and Efficiency of After-school Services in Primary and Secondary Schools under the Background of the "Double Reduction" Policy" and "Reducing the burden on teachers reasonably and providing effective incentives and "Proposal for Guarantee", all related to "double reduction".
What exactly is a "double subtraction"?
After the "double reduction", how can schools improve the quality of teaching and enrich the content of after-school services?
After the "double reduction", teachers' working hours are extended, how to reduce the burden on teachers... The problems encountered after the implementation of the "double reduction" policy have become the focus of everyone's attention.
In this regard, a reporter from Beijing Youth Daily interviewed several deputies to the National People's Congress and members of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and listened to their voices.
Wang Huan, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Secretary of the Party Committee and President of Shijia Education Group, Dongcheng District, Beijing:
"Double subtraction" does not contradict performance
reduce unnecessary burdens
After the "double reduction", school homework has been significantly reduced, and the number of cram schools around him has been significantly reduced.
For a while, parents could not adapt to it. Some people think that if they leave the training class, their children's academic performance will be affected.
In this regard, Wang Huan, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Secretary of the Party Committee and President of Shijia Education Group in Dongcheng District, Beijing, said that "there is no contradiction between 'double deduction' and grades", and the "double deduction" subtracts from unnecessary students. It can stimulate students' interest and internal drive, and realize independent learning, thereby improving the quality of teaching. Quality refers more to students' comprehensive ability, not only academic performance, but also thinking ability, hands-on ability, etc. These abilities It is beneficial to the future development of students.
Faced with anxious parents, Wang Huan often persuaded them to "get out of the logic of 'evaluating children with scores'" when communicating with them.
She believes that the task of family education is to guide children in terms of moral quality, literacy and behavioral habits. The main body of learning and achievement is the school. If the education of parents replaces the school, the responsibilities of different roles will be confused.
At the same time, she stressed, don’t look at problems from a superficial level, and don’t simply define students by their study time. Real growth follows a law, and education must follow this law in order to promote children’s success. It is even more important to be an adult, and to do meaningful things when you have spare energy, which is valuable to yourself, to others, to the nation, and to the country.”
According to the policy requirements, the Shijia Education Group where Wang Huan belongs, on the one hand, strictly controls the students’ study time; Repetition, adding innovative and research-based content, trains students to plan their time appropriately in the process.
In addition to academic assignments, the school is constantly updated in terms of classroom teaching and after-school services.
Wang Huan told a reporter from Beiqing Daily that teachers' participation in after-school services was not very high before, and the school did not have such rich courses, but now the school has opened many interest classes and remedial classes according to the needs of students, providing In this way, the teacher-student communication in the process realizes the natural extension of knowledge in class and after class, and it also realizes our 'bringing children' stay in school' purpose."
Xiong Shuilong, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and full-time deputy director of the Proposal Committee of the Guangdong Provincial Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference:
Guide the school's faculty and staff to actively participate in after-school services
Third parties can also be brought in
After the "double reduction", how to solve the problem of the shortage of existing teachers?
After the "double reduction", the after-school services of many schools are still undertaken by their own teachers, which not only limits the richness of courses, but also increases the working hours of teachers invisibly.
Xiong Shuilong, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and full-time deputy director of the Guangdong Provincial Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, found through investigation that the "double reduction" policy clearly requires schools to provide after-school services and further extend teachers' working hours.
From morning reading to lunch break management, to after-school service, from 7:00 in the morning to 7:00 in the evening, almost all of them are in a working state.
Research shows that more than 90% of teachers work 9 to 12 hours a day.
He suggested that we should give full play to the advantages of the school's educational resources, guide the school's staff and retired teachers to actively participate in after-school services, provide after-school service subsidies and remuneration according to reasonable standards, and give preference to professional title evaluation, recognition and rewards, etc. , to stimulate the enthusiasm and motivation of teachers.
At the same time, the introduction of trainee teachers to the school to participate in after-school extension services, etc., the "teaching experience" of trainee teachers can be used as a "bonus item" for the formal entry teaching industry.
In addition, third-party organizations can also be introduced to mobilize social workers, volunteers, and college students to participate in after-school service by purchasing services.
Establish a collaborative working mechanism for after-school services, fully integrate social education resources such as the Children's Palace, youth activity centers, and research and education practice bases, strengthen urban and rural inter-school exchanges, and guide and encourage sharing with surrounding schools, community facilities and venues.
Zhu Yongxin, Member of the Standing Committee and Deputy Secretary-General of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Vice Chairman of the Democratic Progressive Central Committee, and President of the China Tao Xingzhi Research Association:
Establish a list of public services for off-campus educational institutions
Clarify the admission method for off-campus institutions
After the "double reduction", how to solve the funding problem?
Enriching courses and hiring teachers are inseparable from financial support.
In this regard, deputies to the National People's Congress and members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference have supported the move.
Zhu Yongxin, Member of the Standing Committee and Deputy Secretary-General of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Vice Chairman of the Democratic Progressive Central Committee, and President of the China Tao Xingzhi Research Association, suggested that in order to better improve the quality of school education and make full use of the high-quality educational resources in the society, it is recommended to establish off-campus educational institutions. Mechanisms for purchasing public services.
First, establish a list of public services for off-campus educational institutions, and clearly include teacher training, curriculum supply, educational information technology services, professional services for education and teaching evaluation, and school entrusted management into the list of public services purchased by off-campus educational institutions; the second is to clarify that off-campus institutions provide public education The third is to establish an access mechanism, clarifying the admission method, quality assessment mechanism and withdrawal mechanism of qualified institutions for public services of off-campus educational institutions, and to announce the list of qualified institutions to the whole society; the fourth is to establish public service purchases of off-campus educational institutions As for the funding guarantee mechanism, all localities should include the purchase funds for public services of off-campus educational institutions in their financial budgets.
Take a certain share for the purchase of professional services from off-campus educational institutions.
At the same time, entrusted management can be actively promoted, and a certain proportion of teachers and curriculum supply can be used to purchase public services from off-campus educational institutions.
Pi Jianlong, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and director of Beijing Jintai Law Firm:
Promulgate special laws and regulations on "double reduction" as soon as possible
Establish and improve the black and white list system
In response to the lack of legislative support for the "double reduction" policy, the policies are mostly flexible governance and short-term problems, Pi Jianlong, member of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and director of Beijing Jintai Law Firm, believes that special laws and regulations for "double reduction" should be introduced as soon as possible .
Pi Jianlong suggested that, first of all, it is necessary to improve the double top-level design of "policy + law".
Promulgate special laws and regulations on "double reduction" as soon as possible, especially the regulations on the supervision of off-campus training institutions. At the same time, build a legal management mechanism and establish a closed-loop management system for off-campus training institutions from approval, supervision, punishment to withdrawal; establish and improve black and white lists A long-term mechanism for supervision and evaluation of systems, etc., guides training institutions to complete the transformation in accordance with laws and regulations in all aspects.
In addition to the top-level design, the coordination and interaction of various regions and departments is equally important.
Pi Jianlong believes that the joint law enforcement mechanism of relevant departments under the leadership of the party committee and the government should be improved to break down geographical, level, and departmental barriers and integrate resources; in addition, network supervision and law enforcement should also be strengthened, and the intensity of case investigation and judgment should be strengthened. For the law enforcement work of off-campus training of “discipline”, the regulatory standards for corresponding institutions shall be issued as soon as possible, and the approval and management of “non-discipline” off-campus training institutions in various regions shall be further standardized, so as to prevent capital operation and the generation of new anxiety.
Industry self-discipline is also an important part of the implementation of the "double reduction" policy. Pi Jianlong suggested that industry associations should play a leading role to accurately convey the policy spirit and related work requirements, and to issue detailed implementation rules and other documents as soon as possible to urge all off-campus education and training institutions. Self-examination, self-examination, and self-correction in accordance with laws and regulations, and take the initiative to assume social responsibility.
the representative said
Li Yan, deputy to the National People's Congress and president of Qilu Pharmaceutical Group:
It is recommended to comprehensively increase the hours of physical education and aesthetic education
Li Yan, deputy to the National People's Congress and president of Qilu Pharmaceutical Group, said in an exclusive interview with a reporter from Beiqing Daily that my country is currently promoting the implementation of the "double reduction" and "double increase" policies, and sports and aesthetic education are important links.
She suggested, "Further strengthen students' physical education and aesthetic education during school, and appropriately increase physical education and aesthetic education class hours."
Beiqing Daily: What do you think is the role of sports and aesthetic education?
Li Yan: Sports can strengthen the body and temper the will; aesthetic education can improve the ability of observation, imagination, creativity, spiritual civilization and happiness. Strengthening students' physical education and aesthetic education is very important to the overall development and quality improvement of people, and it is even related to children. lifetime.
At present, my country is gradually implementing the transformation and upgrading of exam-oriented education to quality education, so as to realize the comprehensive and sustainable development of students.
In July 2021, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council issued the "Opinions on Further Reducing the Burden of Homework and Off-campus Training for Students in Compulsory Education".
While implementing the "double reduction" policy, the Ministry of Education is also promoting "double increase", that is, to increase the time and opportunities for students to participate in outdoor activities, physical exercise, art activities, and labor activities, and to increase the time for students to receive extracurricular training in sports and aesthetic education. and opportunity.
Realize "double increase" with "double decrease", and "double increase" to promote "double decrease", so that students can be liberated from the heavy and complicated subject learning, and strengthen the complex and growth-oriented quality of sports, aesthetic education, labor, and social practice. Cultivation and ability shaping, to cultivate more talents with all-round development of morality, intelligence, physique, beauty and labor for the country.
Beiqing Daily: What do you think is the current status of sports and aesthetic education?
What problems are you facing?
Li Yan: Judging from the actual situation, physical education and aesthetic education are still the weak links in the full implementation of the "double increase" work.
In reality, there are insufficient class hours for physical education and aesthetic education in schools, imperfect construction of relevant venues and equipment, large gaps in professional teachers, uneven quality of teachers, and there are exam-taking phenomena in social physical education and aesthetic education examinations.
Only by making up for the shortcomings and vigorously improving the sports and aesthetic education sectors can we effectively promote the implementation of the "double reduction" and "double increase" policies.
Beiqing Daily: In your opinion, how should sports and aesthetic education be strengthened?
Li Yan: I suggest to increase the number of physical education and aesthetic education classes in an all-round way, and at the same time increase financial investment, improve the construction of hardware and software such as venue equipment, optimize the structure of teachers and teaching methods, and improve the quality of teaching.
Beiqing Daily: How to increase class hours?
Li Yan: The state encourages schools at the basic education stage to offer one physical education class every day.
To strengthen the main responsibility of the school, at least 5 physical education classes per week in the primary school stage, and physical education and aesthetic education classes should not be crowded out in any form.
Make full use of the time after the school's formal courses are over, add sports and aesthetic education courses in the school, and increase students' outdoor activities and interest expansion.
Continuously expand the curriculum area, enrich the curriculum content, and ensure that the sports and aesthetic education classes in the school are fully opened.
Taking into account the high fees of off-campus training institutions and the uneven teaching quality, it is necessary to increase investment in various parties, implement school responsibilities, and encourage schools to uniformly evaluate and purchase high-quality off-campus sports and aesthetic training services by purchasing services. "Double increase" will cause parents to spend extra time and expenses for their children to participate in off-campus training institutions, adding new burdens, and will also promote the prevention and control of students' myopia and obesity rates.
Qi Mei, deputy to the National People's Congress and chief research librarian of the Capital Museum:
Museum offers social lessons for students
The museum is known as the social classroom of primary and secondary education.
In the context of "double reduction", schools and students have more spare time, and there is an urgent need for rich courses and projects.
A reporter from Beiqing Daily talked to Qi Mei, a representative of the National People's Congress and chief research librarian of the Capital Museum. She believes that under the background of "double reduction", museums and other public cultural service institutions can provide students with more abundant "social courses".
Beiqing Daily: Could you tell us about the special exhibitions and activities of the Capital Museum as a "social class", and what attempts have you made in recent years?
Will there be more emphasis on students in exhibition planning?
Qi Mei: As the central museum in Beijing, the Capital Museum shoulders the important task of promoting Beijing’s history and culture, especially as an education base for young people, providing Beijing’s primary and secondary schools with a richer variety of museum cultural characteristics.
In terms of exhibition planning, the "Reading City Exhibition" series was specially created for young people, including the "Reading City - Pursuing the Historical Beijing City" exhibition in 2015, and the "Reading City - Discovering the Beauty of Beijing Siheyuan" exhibition in 2017. In 2019, the exhibition "Reading the City - Exploring Beijing's Central Axis" was launched, forming the brand of the first-ever temporary exhibition.
Beiqing Daily: Does Shoubo have co-construction activities with some primary and secondary schools to jointly develop a series of courses or projects?
Qi Mei: The Capital Museum attaches great importance to the co-construction with the school, makes full use of and exerts the characteristics and advantages of the museum, takes cultural relics as the breakthrough point, reveals the connotation of Beijing's history and culture, and constantly explores, researches and develops the characteristic courses of the museum into the campus, mainly combining The "Reading City Exhibition" series allows students to understand the development of Beijing City, the design of the central axis, and the characteristics of courtyard houses.
For example, co-construction activities with Beijing No. 8 Middle School and No. 4 Middle School.
According to statistics, the theme of the third phase of the "Reading City Exhibition" is "Exploring the Central Axis of Beijing".
In the meantime, on the one hand, let the students go to the museum to visit the exhibition, ask questions based on the exhibition, arouse students' thinking, and then complete the special "homework" in the museum classroom.
At the same time, relevant activities will be held, and activities such as photography, painting, and essay writing will be carried out in combination with the theme of Beijing's history and culture, so that students can give full play to their personal interests and strengths, and stimulate their enthusiasm for learning Beijing's history and culture.
Beiqing Daily: What do you think of the museum's actions in the context of "double reduction"?
What aspects can museums start from to enrich students' historical and cultural literacy?
Qi Mei: The purpose of "Double Reduction" is to allow students to study happily, to give full play to their personal interests and hobbies, and to cultivate diverse, personalized and creative talents.
This is the need for future social development.
As the "second classroom" of school education, I think the biggest difference between museums and school education is "learning without examinations".
Although homework is also reserved, the main purpose is to test the effect of students' learning and achieve the purpose of education.
When museum education enters the classroom, it is necessary to inject fresh blood into classroom teaching in terms of content. On the one hand, it combines the characteristics of the school curriculum, and at the same time, it mainly uses the cultural relics in the museum to reveal the profound heritage of Chinese excellent traditional culture and tell the stories behind the cultural relics. The content of various subjects in classroom teaching, including physics, chemistry, mathematics, Chinese, history, geography, etc., integrates the learning of Chinese excellent traditional culture into all aspects of classroom teaching.
The learning methods of these contents can be in the classroom, in the museum, or in the relevant places, reflecting a variety of choices closely integrated with the learning content, emphasizing interaction and vivid experience, and students can learn in joy.
In terms of study time, as far as I know, students mainly use their spare time to study in museums, and most of them have not yet formed systematic and regular off-campus courses.
In my opinion, the museum is actually very willing to cooperate with the school to carry out the development of related projects, so as to provide students with the pleasure of learning in the museum and provide in-place help.
Moreover, not only museums, but other public cultural service institutions can also play their own advantages, interact with schools, and provide more abundant social education resources for primary and middle school students.
Text/Reporter Liu Yang Guo Huimin Meng YaxuKeywords: