他们的卓越贡献高扬在共和国的旗帜上

  ——写在国家勋章和国家荣誉称号法施行6周年之际

  “于辛?”拎着行李回家的于敏,试探性地叫着路边的小男孩。

  “你找谁?”正在摆弄童车的小男孩回过头,他已经忘记了父亲的样貌,一脸疑惑。

  这是电视剧《功勋》的一个片段。

  2021年,《功勋》火爆荧屏,8个单元剧告诉年轻观众,首批共和国勋章获得者——这群真正的英雄人物,如何过着默默无闻的人生、做着掷地有声的事业。

  国家的勋章和荣誉称号制度是宪法规定的国家重要制度。为什么要设立这项制度,何人堪当如此荣誉,如何看待功勋模范?在国家勋章和国家荣誉称号法实施6周年之际,本报记者带您一起回顾我国功勋荣誉称号制度的建立及实践。

  农历虎年春节即将到来,一起致敬功勋模范!

国之大者,实至名归

  《功勋》的预告片里,有这样一句话——一个有希望的民族不能没有英雄,一个有前途的国家不能没有先锋。

  对先锋模范人物进行表彰有着长久的历史渊源,俄、英、法等国都有成熟的勋章制度。在我国,颁行国家勋章和荣誉称号制度是宪法规定的国家重要制度。2015年12月27日,全国人大常委会审议通过国家勋章和国家荣誉称号法,自2016年1月1日起施行。这部只有21个条款的法律,字字重逾千斤。

  立法何为——法律第一条开宗明义,旨在褒奖在中国特色社会主义建设中作出突出贡献的杰出人士,弘扬民族精神和时代精神,激发全国各族人民建设社会主义现代化国家的积极性,实现中华民族伟大复兴。

  何人堪当——“共和国勋章”授予在中国特色社会主义建设和保卫国家中作出巨大贡献、建立卓越功勋的杰出人士。“友谊勋章”授予在我国社会主义现代化建设和促进中外交流合作、维护世界和平中作出杰出贡献的外国人。国家荣誉称号授予在经济、社会、国防、外交、教育、科技、文化、卫生、体育等各领域各行业作出重大贡献、享有崇高声誉的杰出人士。

  How to confer—National medals and national honorary titles are the highest honors in the country. The meeting of the chairmen of the National People's Congress, the State Council, and the Central Military Commission put forward a proposal for conferring them.

The awarding ceremony is generally selected on National Day or other major festivals and commemorative days.

  The conferring of national medals and national honorary titles can be regarded as the highest courtesy in the country.

Huang Yufei, director of the Constitution Office of the Legal Affairs Committee of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, said that the highest quality of the awarding procedures and awarding ceremony fully reflects the highest respect and praise given by the People's Republic of China to the recipients of national medals and national honorary titles.

Highest honor, protected by law

  "How can the years be quiet, it's just that someone is carrying the load for you."

  Since the founding of the People's Republic of my country, our country has always attached great importance to exploring the establishment of a national meritorious honor system.

In September 1949, the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference passed the Organic Law of the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, which gave the Central People's Government Committee "to formulate and issue national medals and medals, and to formulate and award national honorary titles. ", the first time to establish the national meritorious honor system in the form of law.

The 1954 Constitution clarified the constitutional status of the system of national medals and national honorary titles.

In the following years, my country successively awarded the "Sino-Soviet Friendship" medals to Soviet experts who worked in China's national defense construction, and awarded the Medal of Meritorious Personnel in the War of Liberation, Resist US Aggression and Aid Korea, and national defense construction. 103,349 medals of various kinds were awarded to the PLA Revolutionary War, and more than 61,000 people were awarded.

  After the implementation of the current constitution, the Party Central Committee, the State Council, and the Central Military Commission, individually or jointly, will commend outstanding figures and groups on all fronts.

Huang Yufei introduced that the multi-level commendation system and rich practice have provided useful experience for the construction of the national honor and commendation system in the future.

  Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the "1+1+3" system of honoring and commending party and national merits has been established, that is, the Party Central Committee has formulated a guiding document, the National People's Congress Standing Committee has formulated a law, and relevant parties have formulated internal , National and Army three meritorious honors commendation regulations.

  On December 25, 2015, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issued the "Opinions on Establishing and Improving the Party and National Merit and Honor Commendation System" as the general outline of the entire party and country's merit and honor commendation work.

On December 27, 2015, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress passed the Law of the People's Republic of China on National Medals and National Honorary Titles. .

In April 2016, the Party and National Merit and Honor Commendation Working Committee was established, responsible for coordinating and coordinating the Party and State Merit and Honor Commendation work.

In August 2017, the "Chinese Communist Party Intra-Party Merit and Honor Commendation Regulations", "National Merit and Honor Commendation Regulations", "Military Meritorious Honor Commendation Regulations", "Republic Medal" and National Honorary Title Awarding Measures, "July 1 Medal" Awarding Measures" The "Measures for Awarding the "August 1st Medal" and the "Measures for Awarding the "Friendship Medal" were promulgated and implemented, and the Party, State, and Army Merit Books were established to record the recipients of meritorious honors and their achievements.

  Since then, the "four beams and eight pillars" of my country's merit and honor commendation system have been established, and the merit and honor commendation system with "five chapters and one book" as the mainstay has been formally established.

Among them, "five chapters" refer to the "Medal of the Republic", "July 1st Medal", "August 1st Medal", "Friendship Medal", and national honorary titles;

  "The active use of various national honor systems can condense the identification of the people of all ethnic groups with the country, the system and the road, help stimulate and encourage the positive energy of the masses to contribute to the cause of the party and the country, and help form socialism. Historical memory dominated by core values," said Zhai Guoqiang, a researcher at the Institute of Law of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

National Merit, National Idol

  Who is "the most popular idol in this era"?

  In 2021, the deeds of the late Academician Cheng Kaijia, winner of the "August 1st Medal", will be widely circulated on the Internet again.

Open the video of Cheng Kaijia's interviews in his early years, and the barrage of "Salute", "Armor of the Country" and "National Backbone" instantly filled the screen.

This academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, known as "China's nuclear commander", continues to influence contemporary young people with a deep and permanent spiritual force.

  In recent years, when many traffic "idols", "personality collapsed" and frequent "rollovers", a series of merit and honor recognition activities in my country have reshaped young people's "ideology of idols" in the name of the country.

  In 2017, on the eve of the 90th anniversary of the founding of the army, the "August 1st Medal", the army's highest honorary medal, was selected and awarded for the first time.

In 2018, the "Friendship Medal" was awarded, and nine foreigners including Russian President Vladimir Putin received this honor.

  "Father of China's hydrogen bomb" Yu Min, "Father of hybrid rice" Yuan Longping, National People's Congress representative Shen Jilan, aerospace pioneer Sun Jiadong... In 2019, on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, the nation's highest honorary medal, the "Medal of the Republic", was unveiled for the first time. awarded.

In 2020, the state awarded Zhong Nanshan the "Medal of the Republic" and awarded Zhang Boli, Zhang Dingyu, and Chen Wei the national honorary title of "People's Heroes".

  "First-class hero for crossing the river" Ma Mao, "Dashan female principal" Zhang Guimei, "Poverty Alleviation Model" Huang Wenxiu, "Guardian Hero" Chen Hongjun... In June 2021, 29 people were awarded the "July 1st Medal".

  They are national merits and national idols.

When the social spotlight shines on this group of people who have been silently dedicated to the cause of the party and the country, positive energy becomes a big flow, and the main melody becomes the strongest voice.

  Zheng Shipeng, deputy dean of the School of Marxism at Beijing Jiaotong University, pointed out that the establishment and improvement of the national meritorious honor system and the launch of national meritorious honor recognition activities have promoted the formation of a good atmosphere in the whole society to see the meritocracy, advocate heroes, and strive to be pioneers, and guide young people to use The role model is the benchmark, and in the face of the intrusion of complex cultural phenomena, consciously promote and practice the core socialist values.

  "To carry out national medals and national honorary titles awarding activities, and solemnly commend the meritorious and exemplary figures who have made outstanding contributions to national construction and development, that is, by affirming their historical achievements, giving the highest honor in the name of the People's Republic of China to demonstrate their political reputation and The lofty status sends a strong signal to the whole society to care about, cherish, and respect heroes." Huang Yufei said that through recognition, it will help to form a common historical memory of the people of all ethnic groups in the country, strengthen national awareness, and unite the socialist system with Chinese characteristics. The recognition of the road will better inspire the Chinese people to establish a strong spiritual pillar and inject the great power of the times to realize the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

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  The "Medal of the Republic" is mainly colored in red and gold. The body of the medal adopts the national emblem, five-pointed star, the Yellow River, the Yangtze River, mountain peaks, peony and other elements. Enamel and other craftsmanship symbolize the great contributions made by the medal winners to the construction and development of the Republic, praise the country's highest honor, wish the motherland prosperity and prosperity, and symbolize the unity of the people of all ethnic groups in the country to build the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

  “七一勋章”是党内最高荣誉,以朴素、庄重为主要设计理念,以红色、金色、白色为主色调,使用冷压成型、花丝镶嵌、彩丝织锦等工艺制作。章体采用党徽、五角星、旗帜、丰碑与光芒、向日葵、大山大河、如意祥云等元素。有别于国家勋章和国家荣誉称号奖章的金属章链,“七一勋章”使用织物绶带,采用向日葵、光芒、星光等元素。寓意在党的阳光沐浴下,勋章获得者一心向党,全心全意为人民服务,不忘初心、牢记使命、砥砺前行。

  “八一勋章”采用了八一军徽、五角星、利剑、旗帜、光芒和长城、橄榄枝等设计元素。五角星衬托八一军徽,表明中国人民解放军从红军走来,并象征军队至高荣誉;五个利剑组合与五角星相呼应,象征我军是听党指挥、能打胜仗、作风优良的人民军队,具有坚不可摧的向心力凝聚力战斗力;旗帜、光芒,象征受勋者在党的旗帜引领下取得辉煌成绩,其事迹和精神也具有旗帜般导向作用,是全军官兵学习的榜样;长城,象征人民军队忠实履行党和人民赋予的神圣使命,坚决捍卫国家主权、安全、发展利益;橄榄枝,象征中国坚定不移走和平发展道路,以及人民军队为捍卫世界和平作出的突出贡献。

  “友谊勋章”以金色、蓝色为主色调,章体采用和平鸽、地球、握手、荷花等元素,章链采用中国结、万年青、牡丹、玉璧、兰草等元素,整体使用花丝镶嵌、掐丝珐琅等传统工艺手工制作,象征中国人民同各国人民友好团结、友谊长存,祝愿世界各国共同繁荣发展。

  国家荣誉称号奖章以红色、金色为主色调,章体采用五星、天安门、牡丹、旗帜、光芒等元素,章链采用中国结、花卉等元素,整体使用冷压成型、花丝镶嵌、珐琅等工艺制作,象征国家荣誉称号获得者在各领域各行业作出的重大贡献,彰显示范引领作用,激励全国各族人民不忘初心、牢记使命,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而不懈奋斗。

  (本报记者 刘华东)

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