根据第七次全国人口普查数据,2020年我国总人口为14.1亿,总和生育率仅为1.3,已处于较低水平;虽然在2015年全面放开二孩政策后出生人口有所增加,但经历2016年生育小高峰后出生人口呈现逐年下降的趋势。2020年我国出生人口较2019年减少260万,下降18个百分点。2020年我国60岁及以上老年人口占总人口比例为18.7%,65岁及以上老年人口比重也已达13.5%。根据人口惯性和生命周期,1962年-1973年“婴儿潮”时期的出生人口(10年全国出生人口近2.6亿,是我国出生规模最大的一次“婴儿潮”)开始陆续退出劳动力市场,我国也将迎来高速老龄化阶段。一方面出生人口持续减少,老年人口快速增长,人口总抚养比也在不断增大;另一方面,劳动年龄人口减少,人口结构失衡以及由此引发的一系列人口和社会问题,将是严重制约我国经济社会发展的重要因素。

  2021年7月,中央公布了《关于优化生育政策促进人口长期均衡发展的决定》,进一步优化生育政策,实施一对夫妻可以生育三个子女政策及配套支持措施。8月20日全国人大常委会会议表决通过了关于修改人口与计划生育法的决定,“三孩”生育政策正式写入法律。修改后的人口与计划生育法规定:国家提倡适龄婚育、优生优育,一对夫妻可以生育三个子女;国家采取财政、税收、保险、教育、住房、就业等支持措施,减轻家庭生育、养育、教育负担。这是继2015年全面两孩政策之后,中国生育政策的又一次重大调整,也是针对当前我国人口形势所作出的重要政策响应。实施三孩生育政策及配套支持措施是党和国家科学把握人口发展规律,进一步适应人口形势新变化和推动高质量发展新要求的重要举措,有利于改善我国人口结构、保持人力资源禀赋优势,有利于推动实现适度生育水平和巩固全面建成小康社会成果。

  《决定》还对组织实施好三孩生育政策,提高优生优育服务水平,发展普惠托育服务体系,降低生育、养育、教育成本,加强政策调整有序衔接和强化组织保障等方面作了重要安排。

  Since the implementation of the three-child birth policy, many provinces and regions across the country have successively formulated and promulgated corresponding birth-encouraging policies and supporting measures.

  Panzhihua City, Sichuan Province announced the "Sixteen Policy Measures for Promoting Human Resource Aggregation" on July 28. Among them, for families with Panzhihua household registration who have two or three children according to the policy, a monthly childcare subsidy of 500 yuan per child will be issued. , until the child is 3 years old, this is the first city in the country to issue childcare subsidies.

Chaoyang District, Beijing has launched the direct allocation of public rental housing for families with many children, and is the first urban district in the country to implement the three-child policy in the allocation of public rental housing.

The "Implementation Opinions on Optimizing Birth Policies in Linze County to Promote Long-term Balanced Development of the Population (Trial)" issued by Linze County, Gansu Province pointed out that 2,000 yuan, 2,000 yuan and 2,000 yuan will be given to resident mothers who give birth to one, two, and three children at one time. Maternity allowances of 3,000 yuan and 5,000 yuan; for families with permanent residence in Linze who have two or three children, a child-raising subsidy of 5,000 yuan per year for the second child and 10,000 yuan per year for the third child until the child is three years old; Linze households with second and third children will be given a government subsidy of 40,000 yuan when they purchase commercial housing in the urban area of ​​Linze County.

Guangdong Province implements a maternity leave system of maternity leave plus reward leave (paternity leave). In addition to maternity leave, couples who have children in accordance with laws and regulations, the woman enjoys 80 days of reward leave, and the man enjoys 15 days of paternity leave.

  The important goal of implementing the three-child birth policy and supporting measures is to reduce the costs of birth, rearing, and education, and establish a positive birth support policy system; reducing birth, rearing, and education costs is also included in the "14th Five-Year Plan".

Economic pressure, work pressure and educational pressure are the main pressures faced by school-age groups to have children, and at the same time, they face a lot of time and energy costs to raise children.

Maternity allowances, maternity subsidies or housing subsidies, and public rental housing rationing, to varying degrees, reduce maternity costs and living costs for maternity families, especially multi-child families; maternity leave is to reduce the time cost of maternity families and ensure the safety of newborns. take care.

At the same time, the implementation of the "Opinions on Further Reducing Students' Homework Burdens and Off-campus Training Burdens in Compulsory Education", that is, the implementation of the "double reduction" policy, has reduced the cost and pressure of families in education to a certain extent.

  优化生育政策,建立配套政策体系,需要深入了解不同孩次生育、养育和教育服务需求,保障优质服务供给。降低生育、养育、教育成本,完善产假休假制度,加强住房补贴、个税减免、托幼服务等对于生育家庭属于普适性的支持政策,同时应深入了解不同孩次生育家庭的服务需求。对于大多数一胎新生子女家庭,新生儿父母面临较多的则是生产生育知识缺乏、养育护理照料等方面的“手忙脚乱”和心理适应焦虑等问题,相对而言经济收入、居住条件等方面的压力次之,因此服务需求较多表现为孕产期心理辅导、新生儿喂养、护理指导等方面。对于已经生育一孩,有过生育经历、生育二孩的家庭,则主要表现为照料的时间成本和精力大大增加,同时经济压力、家庭压力增大,需要同时做到家庭和工作的平衡,如提供优质的低龄幼儿托育服务,建立3岁前婴幼儿托育服务模式。而对于生育三孩的家庭,可能更多的面临经济压力、居住条件的改善等问题,则需要政府对生育家庭加大生育补贴,加强住房补贴等的支持政策,减免孕前、产前检查的各项医疗费用、减免儿童医疗费用等,同时也需要减轻家庭照料压力。此外,应有针对性地破解部分适龄青年群体不婚化、不育化的倾向和社会问题。

  (作者魏慧静,系天津社会科学院法学研究所助理研究员)

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