Vocational College Entrance Examination: Another "track" can also go to university

  Author: reporter Chen Peng

  "Guangming Daily" (08 January 07, 2022)

  Shen Junjie never expected that he and his junior high school classmates would be admitted to the same university.

  Since only 240 points were taken during the high school entrance examination, Shen Junjie participated in the independent enrollment of Hangzhou Tourism Vocational School, and was successfully admitted to the school to study accounting.

And his classmate went through the process step by step and was admitted to a local high-quality high school.

In the past three years, they have moved towards their goals in different learning paths.

In the end, both of them were admitted to the undergraduate college of Ningbo University of Finance and Economics, one majoring in financial management and the other majoring in financial technology.

  Among secondary vocational students, such "perfect counterattack" stories are not rare, but they are rare.

However, in the future there will be more and more students, like Shen Junjie, who can go to an undergraduate course without taking the general college entrance examination.

  From 2022, tens of thousands of secondary vocational students in Shandong and Henan provinces are expected to pass the vocational college entrance examination for undergraduate studies. Both provinces adopt the "cultural quality + vocational skills" enrollment examination method, and applicants can graduate from secondary vocational colleges. For students and social workers, the weight of "vocational skills" test scores shall not be less than 50%.

  After the National Vocational Education Conference in 2021, the Central Office and the State Council issued the "Opinions on Promoting the High-quality Development of Modern Vocational Education", which clearly stated that the establishment of the "vocational education college entrance examination" system should be accelerated.

Chen Ziji, Director of the Department of Vocational Education, Ministry of Education, listed the "establishment of a vocational education college entrance examination system" as the first of the "three key things to do" during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period.

What kind of college entrance examination is the college entrance examination for vocational education?

What does it have to do with the general college entrance examination?

How will it work?

  Parallel to the general college entrance examination

  Recently, the Ministry of Education website announced the "Response to Recommendation No. 2629 of the Fourth Session of the 13th National People’s Congress", in response to the "Recommendation on Lowering the Threshold for Secondary School Students Entering Higher Education Institutions for Full-time Education", stating that it will gradually establish a "professional system". The "Teaching College Entrance Examination" system enables secondary vocational graduates to enjoy more diversified educational options and a smoother path for academic improvement.

  Previously, if secondary vocational graduates wanted to further their studies, they mostly targeted higher vocational colleges and took part in the connection between secondary and higher vocational colleges and their counterparts or general college entrance examinations.

Statistics show that there are 9,865 secondary vocational schools nationwide, with 16.281 million students.

  "Secondary vocational school students do not have an open path to enter higher education. If they are employed immediately, they will be too young. If things go on like this, the middle vocational school is currently permeated with confusion about the orientation of running a school, whether it is for further education or to improve employment skills. Office." Xu Guoqing, director of the Institute of Vocational Education and Adult Education of East China Normal University, said frankly.

  "Currently, the vocational education provided by vocational education lacks selectivity, and the channels are extremely narrow. Not only does it fail to attract students enough, but it makes universal professional teaching standards disappear. Demand space." Xu Guoqing said.

  When it comes to the college entrance examination for vocational education, the spring college entrance examination has to be mentioned.

  Starting in 2012, Shandong Province and other places have implemented the spring college entrance examination. Up to now, two college entrance examination models have been implemented. The spring college entrance examination includes cultural knowledge, professional theoretical knowledge and professional skills. It can be used by secondary vocational schools and ordinary high school students. Apply for the exam.

  "The spring college entrance examination is designed to reduce the pressure of candidates, increase exam opportunities, and explore classified examinations. However, after the implementation of the pilot program, it has not been launched nationwide. Few, and prestigious schools rarely participate in spring admissions, so it is not very attractive to candidates." Hu Xiangdong, director of the Measurement and Evaluation Research Center of Central China Normal University, introduced that there is a big difference between the spring college entrance examination and the vocational college entrance examination, but the summer college entrance examination has part of the plan. In the spring.

  Compared with the spring college entrance examination, the open vocational college entrance examination, from the source of candidates to the admission institutions, both ends of the enrollment examination are expanding.

It allows all high school graduates, including ordinary high school graduates and secondary vocational graduates to apply for the exam. In addition, veterans and laid-off unemployed persons with the same academic ability can also apply for the exam. Higher vocational colleges, vocational education undergraduate colleges, and applied undergraduate colleges All schools can enroll students.

  In terms of test content and difficulty design, there are also differences between the vocational college entrance examination and the ordinary college entrance examination.

  "The general college entrance examination has the characteristics of high difficulty, and the design of the degree of discrimination of the test paper often focuses on the group of students entering the undergraduate study. For students with ordinary or even at the bottom, the degree of discrimination is often not reflected." Hu Xiangdong said.

  In the general college entrance examination in 2021, the minimum scores for higher vocational (specialist) approval in all provinces are about 200 to 400 points, and the admission line for many colleges and universities in Jiangxi Province is only 150 points.

  "From the perspective of examination channels, students who take higher vocational college entrance examinations should be separated from students who take undergraduate entrance examinations. General higher education and vocational higher education are two types of education, and there are also differences in the content of test papers and ability requirements. It is generally classified as a general college entrance examination. The test paper cannot reflect the characteristics and development needs of higher vocational education." Hu Xiangdong said.

  Like the general college entrance examination, the college entrance examination for vocational education is a part of the entrance examination system with Chinese characteristics under classified examination, comprehensive evaluation, and multiple admission goals.

Hu Xiangdong said: “The college entrance examination for vocational education will be planned separately and held separately. The number of enrollment plans for the undergraduate section is also increasing every year. It is another'track' college entrance examination that runs parallel to the ordinary college entrance examination."

  Set up examination subjects based on major categories

  What exactly does the vocational college entrance examination take?

  At present, the college entrance examination for vocational education has not been widely implemented nationwide. Hubei implements the college entrance examination for skills, and Guangdong conducts the "3+ certificate" exam. These exams are regarded as pilot explorations for the college entrance examination for vocational education.

The above examination content can be summarized as "setting examination subjects based on major categories" and "determining examination scope based on basic content".

  According to the "Professional Catalogue of Secondary Vocational Schools (2021)", there are 358 majors in secondary vocational education. Each major has its own professional basic courses, professional core courses, and professional elective courses. The number of subjects involved in the vocational college entrance examination will be Far more than 358.

  "If you have to produce a test paper for each subject every year, the workload of setting the questions will not be estimated. Therefore, the vocational college entrance examination is not conducted in a single professional unit, but in the professional category as a unit. The vocational college entrance examination is enrolled There is no one-to-one correspondence between majors and those offered in secondary vocational education. Therefore, according to the commonality of the knowledge and skills learned in different majors, they should be integrated into a major category, and corresponding examination subjects should be set so as to be compatible with higher education majors. Establish a docking relationship between the major categories." A person in charge of admissions at a higher vocational college in Beijing told reporters.

  The person in charge gave an example: “Culinary majors have not become independent majors in applied undergraduate colleges and can be classified as food and nutrition. In this way, the channels for secondary vocational students to enter higher education are broadened so that they can Get the opportunity to enter applied undergraduate colleges."

  "After the major categories are divided, the basic education content in the major categories will be included in the examination content of the vocational college entrance examination." Professor Qi Zhanyong of Shaanxi Normal University introduced that at present, the vocational college entrance examinations of various provinces are usually designed as "1+2" ​​courses Model, that is, 1 professional basic course plus 2 professional core courses, 3 courses should cover the most important professional basic theoretical knowledge and skills of the major category.

At the same time, candidates also need to test three subjects: Chinese, Mathematics, and Foreign Language.

  How to test the skill test of vocational college entrance examination

  On January 6, the cultural quality test of the "3+Certificate" exam in Guangdong Province in 2022 ended. Candidates took part in the unified proposition and unified organization of the three cultural subjects of Chinese, mathematics, and English. The "certificate" test is the professional skills course. The certificate exam was completed in the previous year.

  Up to now, the vocational education college entrance examination plans announced in various places have adopted the comprehensive examination mode of "cultural quality + vocational skills".

  The Hubei Skills College Entrance Examination is based on the mechanical and electrical machining technology major. The assessment standard is the technical standard of the junior engineer. The test content is fitter, turner, and miller. Candidates can choose one of them to participate.

The test scores are divided into five grades: A, B, C, D, and E. Candidates must have a skill test score of D or higher to be eligible to take the cultural test in June of the second year.

  Wuhan Vocational and Technical College undertakes the organization of computer, construction technology and tourism examinations in the Hubei Skills College Entrance Examination.

Li Hongqu, secretary of the party committee of the college, introduced: "In addition to the computer class, which passes the mock examination system (platform) exam, the construction technology practice includes construction drawing recognition and measurement operations, which must be applied to software and actual measurement tools. Tourism includes tour guides and There are two professional categories in hotel management. The actual tour guides mainly include tour guide explanations and talent display parts; the hotel management practice exams include guest rooms, Chinese and Western cuisine, and basic skills in the front hall."

  An examinee who took the hotel management skills test told reporters that the topics she picked were Chinese food setting and etiquette display.

Chinese food set-up requires three positions to be placed in three positions within five minutes, while folding flowers are placed in the cup.

The etiquette display is an oral answer, "the questions of the etiquette display are all in the question bank, and you only need to recite it".

  "At present, the most prominent problem facing the college entrance examination for vocational education is how to test the skill-based exam, which is related to the fairness and scientificity of the college entrance examination for vocational education." Xu Guoqing analyzed which tasks should be selected as test questions and which are important to examine in the task. The key to the validity of the test, and what kind of carrier is designed to comprehensively examine these skills.

  Li Hongqu said frankly: "The candidates come from different cities and prefectures in the province, and it takes at least two days to complete the exam. There are many practical exams, and the preparation of facilities and equipment and the organization of test personnel are also very difficult for schools."

  Be wary of the score-only college entrance examination for vocational education

  "Shandong Vocational Education College Entrance Examination Policy 15 Questions" introduced that the number of undergraduate enrollment in Shandong Vocational Education College Entrance Examination is increasing year by year, and will increase to about 70,000 by 2022, and the undergraduate enrollment rate of vocational education college entrance examination will increase.

  "The college entrance examination for vocational education is an entrance examination system constructed to improve skills. The purpose is to provide fairer and higher-quality educational opportunities for individuals who are interested in specialties and innate talents who are engaged in the study of a certain vocational skill, and will not seize higher education resources. "Qi Zhanyong thinks.

  The effect of the college entrance examination of vocational education on the quality of vocational education is mainly reflected in the two links of enrollment and classified training.

However, for parents and students, whether they are willing to participate in the college entrance examination for vocational education reflects the attractiveness of vocational education.

  In 2021, the employment rate of 1,240 graduates of Wuhan Vocational and Technical College for the technical college entrance examination was 98.06%, of which 339 were enrolled, and the enrollment rate was 27.34%. Compared with previous data, more and more people are willing to take the vocational college entrance examination.

Li Hongqu said: "After receiving vocational education, whether children can continue to improve their academic qualifications, whether they can find suitable jobs, and have decent salaries, are common concerns among parents. If these two points are improved, the attractiveness of vocational education will be solved. "

  "Vocational college entrance examination is about to be implemented on a large scale, but we must be wary of grading, generalization, and formalization of the vocational college entrance examination." Qi Zhanyong reminds that the vocational college entrance examination needs to put the individual's technical skill level and development potential in the first place. The quality of the examination results is the only criterion; the vocational college entrance examination is a type of examination that is different from the ordinary college entrance examination. It reflects its type characteristics in terms of assessment subjects, assessment content, and assessment methods. "; In terms of test content, test methods and standards, highlight the practical orientation; focus on the awareness and ability of problem-solving; you cannot simply set up a few assessment questions or judge the completed works and give the test results.

  Vocational college entrance examination should be designed as a whole, and multiple channels should be paralleled. After all, it directly corresponds to professional needs, and the examination should be designed based on the needs of professional development.

Xu Guoqing suggested: “In terms of examination orientation, we must give full play to the leading role of the vocational college entrance examination for vocational education, and design the selection criteria, examination content and methods in combination with the actual teaching of vocational education.”

  In Li Hongqu's view: "The vocational college entrance examination and the general college entrance examination are only different in selection methods, and there is no difference between good and bad. Screening and screening of students' application and hands-on practical ability, vocational skills and vocational orientation."

  As of September 30, 2021, there are 1,486 colleges and 32 vocational undergraduate schools across the country. In addition, some provincial undergraduate colleges and applied undergraduates have also set up relevant vocational education majors, but the planned enrollment is not large.

  "It is necessary to open up the path for vocational college entrance examination to higher vocational colleges, applied undergraduates and ordinary undergraduates. Ordinary undergraduate colleges and universities should also recruit students who participate in the vocational college entrance examination, so as to achieve both horizontal and vertical integration. Even in Tsinghua, Peking University, etc. Research universities also have many applied majors. As a college entrance examination system that has the same functions as the general education college entrance examination system, the vocational college entrance examination only needs to be designed and adjusted in the examination content, examination subjects, and examination format, and the selection meets the professional learning ability Therefore, the country must clarify the construction plan and progress of the vocational college entrance examination from an overall perspective." Xu Guoqing said.

  (Reporter Chen Peng)

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