How many modes of cooperation between museums and schools

Several middle school students watched the exhibition at the National Museum.

Photo by our reporter Li Yun/Guangming Picture

  Recently, the "Middle School Students' Natural History Journey: Ancient China" research series jointly developed by the National Museum and Beijing No. 4 Middle School was published and released in Beijing.

  In recent years, museums have paid great attention to the educational function of young people.

In 2019, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage launched the first batch of demonstration projects for museums entering campuses, and selected the three regions of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Shaanxi, and Chongqing as the first batch of pilot projects for museums entering campuses, and carried out fruitful practical explorations.

In 2020, the Ministry of Education and the National Cultural Heritage Administration issued the "Opinions on the Use of Museum Resources to Carry out Primary and Secondary Education and Teaching" (hereinafter referred to as the "Opinions") to further promote the establishment and improvement of the museum-school cooperation mechanism. System documents promote the implementation of the "Opinions".

Under this opportunity, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage continued to organize the second batch of demonstration projects for museums entering campuses.

In policy guidance, system guarantees, and practical explorations, a large number of distinctive and popular cases have emerged from the use of museum resources to carry out primary and secondary education and teaching, and valuable experience has been accumulated.

Use advantages to discover resources

  In order to promote the effective connection between museum resources and school education, and stimulate students' interest and initiative in learning, the design of cooperative courses between museums and schools in various regions has shown a diversified development trend from content to form.

  The "Middle School Students' Natural History Journey: Ancient China" study series is a series of in-depth collaborations with experienced first-line gold commentators from the Ministry of Social Education of the National Museum of China and outstanding teachers from Beijing No. Fan argumentation.

This series of books is not just for Beijing No. 4 Middle School, but is a popular science reading material developed for middle school students and teachers across the country and has the significance of research and study.

The series focuses on 64 cultural relics carefully selected from the basic display of the National Museum of "Ancient China". The history is explained by objects and the history is evidenced by objects. It fully absorbs the latest academic research results and connects the evolution of Chinese civilization through the representative cultural relics with the most contemporary characteristics. Historical footprint.

  Ma Jinglin, the principal of Beijing No. 4 Middle School, introduced that since the cooperation with the National Expo in 2016, 20 teachers from 11 subjects of Beijing No. 4 Middle School have voluntarily joined the project, presenting 64 cultural relics to students in the form of courses.

In the past few years, teachers have actively participated in training, independently learning about history and cultural relics, devoting themselves to design teaching plans, and taking students into museums to see objects and read history.

"In the past few years, museum courses have been liked by middle and high school students," he said.

  Beijing No. 8 Middle School and the Capital Museum formally signed a museum-school cooperation strategic development agreement. Relying on the “Reading City” project of the first expo, they jointly designed ten interdisciplinary courses for students to choose independently, such as “The Art of Curation” and “The Soul of Ancient Architecture” ——Ton-and-mortise joints, "Bo's "Enlighten" English", "Traditional Craft Practice of Cultural Relics Protection", "Central Axis Strategy", etc., are deeply loved by students.

In the course design and implementation process, the museum project team members exchanged many times with teachers of various subjects in the school to continuously improve the form and content of the course.

  The China National Silk Museum undertook the demonstration project of Silk Road culture on campus. Zhou Yang, deputy curator, believes: “Using the'structured' model of school curriculum to reorganize the museum's scattered learning resources, so that students can learn cultural knowledge more systematically and avoid The learning method of'walking through the horse and looking at the flowers' and the learning effect of'forgetting when looking at the eye' has been achieved."

  Relying on the collection resources of the museum, the Shaanxi History Museum has created a series of original education courses for youth museums, such as "Zhou, Qin, Han, Tang", "Shaanxi Liboxing Class", "Ancient Inventions Hidden in the Museum", and "Silk Road Frame". A bridge of communication" series of courses, etc.

In view of the characteristics of the library-school cooperative curriculum, Bu Yan, director of the Social Education Department of Shaanxi History Museum, said: “Compared with the on-campus curriculum, in the library-school cooperative curriculum, students obtain more information than reading through observation and learning of actual cultural relics. The written materials are more impressive, and face-to-face with the real objects can fully blend the cognitive and emotional activities of students. This kind of experiential and exploratory learning is more enjoyable."

  The High School Affiliated to Capital Normal University incorporates the "Expertise" course into the school curriculum system, combining "going out" and "inviting in", and arranges half a day every week for students to enter various venues, involving visits, expert lectures, exchanges and discussions , Practical operation, after-class display and other links.

Teacher Liu Fangfang, who presided over related topics, said: “This kind of teaching method combining library and school, multi-disciplinary inquiry learning and practice can supplement and perfect the subject content learned in class, and comprehensively develop the core literacy of students.”

Understand the needs in a targeted manner

  During the interview, the reporter learned that museums and schools understand each other's needs, which is an important factor for both parties to build a win-win situation.

  For example, Guan Zhanxiu, director of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Museum’s Collaborative Development Promotion Office, revealed: “In recent years, many cultural and cultural content has been added to the entrance examination. Therefore, the teaching and research department is very supportive of the museum’s campus project to improve students’ cultural and cultural literacy. We will also promote museums. Cooperation between education and teaching and research departments."

  Li Fei, director of the Guizhou Provincial Museum, also said: “There is a need to establish a benign feedback mechanism between the museum and the school, which will not only help improve the quality of school curriculum teaching, but also enable the museum to understand the needs of social education and enhance its own construction.” Guizhou The Provincial Museum cooperated with the Guiyang Bureau of Education during the exhibition "Ping Tian Xia: Qin's Unity" to convene more than 500 middle school history teachers and enter the museum many times to carry out on-site teaching and research exchanges in history subjects.

After the teaching and research activities, the museum issued a questionnaire on the "Influence of Museum Exhibitions on History Classes" to the history teachers, which provided important information for the future direction of museum-school cooperation.

  Compared with the cultural resources and services owned by students in urban areas, teenagers in suburbs have fewer opportunities for museum education.

The reporter learned that more and more museums are aware of this and are beginning to try to balance museum educational resources.

The two batches of demonstration projects for museums on campus organized by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage have gradually expanded their coverage, and various practices of museum-school cooperation are also committed to actively constructing an equalized and extensive museum education network.

The social education activities of the Guo Shoujing Memorial Hall, a small and micro museum in Xicheng District, Beijing, not only serve the primary and middle school students in the jurisdiction, but also actively promote cooperation with schools in the suburbs of Fangshan and Changping.

With the help of Internet live broadcast technology, the "Bringing Village Children to the Museum" live public welfare class conducted a series of "Cloud Museum" web live classes in conjunction with the National Museum of China, Capital Museum, Shanghai Museum, Nanjing Museum, Shaanxi History Museum and many other well-known domestic museums. It breaks through the limitation of space, so that more rural children can learn about the cultural relics in the museum and bathe in the rain of museum education.

Learn from each other's strengths and cultivate "tinder"

  Museums have content resources and lack educational talents; schools have educational experience and lack knowledge reserves.

Cooperation between the two parties to learn from each other's strengths has become an inevitable way for museum education.

  Nanjing Museum focuses on the "Seed Teacher Training Program" to improve the operability and spreadability of library-school cooperation.

The college trains elementary and middle school teachers in the form of "one-to-many" to expand the coverage of museum courses.

Under the framework of the National Cultural Heritage Administration’s project of the Grand Canal Culture on Campus Demonstration Project, Nanjing Museum has joined forces with education experts and 33 museums along the Grand Canal to create textbooks of Grand Canal culture for students of different ages.

Zheng Jing, Director of the Office of Nanjing Museum and Director of the Yangzhou Grand Canal Museum in China, said: “We hope to keep the museum curriculum in schools and encourage individual schools to carry out personalized teaching so that it can be normalized and developed.” The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Museum enters. The project team established by the campus demonstration project has accumulated experience in research and practice, and compiled the "Cooperative Development of Museum-School Co-construction-Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Museum Entering Campus Demonstration Project Guide", and developed 12 themed teaching contents based on the regional history. The connected "Yanzhao Culture" will provide a professional "information package" for school teaching, and provide guidance on theoretical methods, demonstration projects, and practical operations to the majority of primary and secondary schools.

  Multi-party participation is also a new aspect of current library-school cooperation.

For example, the Silk Road Culture Campus Demonstration Project takes the Silk Road culture as the core of the project, and unites 6 museums including Shaanxi History Museum, Gansu Provincial Museum, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Museum, Inner Mongolia Museum, China Port Museum, and Guizhou Provincial Museum, representing the starting point of the Silk Road, The Desert Oasis Silk Road, the Grassland Silk Road, the Sea Silk Road and the Southwest Silk Road are combined with multiple pavilions for joint development, sharing results, and realizing the optimal allocation of resources.

The China National Silk Museum has also introduced social forces. Its brand social education activities-popular science sericulture activities, on the premise of adhering to public welfare and popular science, this year, it has teamed up with companies to promote the activities to more than 80 in 16 provinces across the country. School.

For another example, the High School Affiliated to Beijing Jiaotong University cooperated with the private holiday museum team to develop the "Campus Museum of Cat Curator" and developed the "Museum Science Series Courses" with videos and experience teaching aids, which are very popular among middle school students.

The participation of social forces has given new ideas and approaches to the use of museum resources for elementary and middle school education, which will help to form reproducible, easy-to-promote, and product-oriented educational services.

(Our reporter Li Yun, our correspondent Su Xiaotong)