4 Geologists killed in Ailao Mountain: Why did they lose their temperature? Are they going to stay overnight when entering the mountain?

  Ailao Mountain, which runs north-south, claimed the young lives of four geologists.

The reason for their unfortunate death is currently unclear.

  The journey of the victims is still unknown. The only information left to the outside world at the last moments of their lives is the clothes, food and working tools they carried.

  This incident left many mysteries.

What kind of mountain is Ailao Mountain? Will you get lost and the compass in it?

What kind of work is forest resource investigation?

The four people lost contact at noon on November 13. Why did the Zhenyuan County Government of Pu'er City receive the report and start the rescue operation on the evening of the 15th? What happened to the four team members in the past two days and when did they die?

Did the victims have expertise in field survival and were adequately prepared? Is anyone temporarily transferred?

Since the beginning of this year, a word that has repeatedly appeared in emergencies-loss of temperature, what is going on?

  In response to questions such as "whether it is temporarily transferred", Fan Zhongyu, party secretary of the Kunming Natural Resources Survey Center of the China Geological Survey, to which the four belonged, said in response to The Paper (www.thepaper.cn): "We firmly believe that the public has the ability to distinguish right from wrong."

  In response to this incident, The Paper interviewed local villagers involved in the rescue, rescuers of the Yunnan Fire and Rescue Corps, and experts with more than 40 years of field survival investigation experience, trying to restore the experience of the four people.

1. What kind of mountain is Ailao Mountain?

  After the incident, netizens mourned the four investigators who died in their duties from the media and Moments, sighing, "Ailao Mountain, it sounds like a sad name."

  To the outside world, Ailao Mountain is not as famous as its neighboring Wuliang Mountain.

Unfortunately, the four investigating team members were killed this time, and Ailao Mountain entered a wider public view.

  In fact, Ailao Mountain and Wuliang Mountain are not only adjacent to each other, but parts of the northern region are also connected.

At the beginning of 2021, at the Fourth Session of the 13th National People's Congress of Yunnan Province, the representative of the People's Congress put forward the "Proposal on Speeding up the Construction of Ailao Mountain-Wulang Mountain National Park in Yunnan Province".

The Forestry and Grass Bureau of Yunnan Province introduced the basic situation in its reply on May 25: The Ailao Mountain-Wuliang Mountain area is located in the central part of Yunnan Province. The Wuliangshan ecological barrier of Ailao Mountain in the basic pattern of the "three screens and two belts" of the provincial ecological protection red line is included in the ecological protection red line with an area of ​​8575.58 square kilometers, which is an important part of the southwest ecological security barrier; it is the transition from tropical to temperate on the Asian continent. An important corridor for species migration and gene exchange, it is one of the regions with the largest conservation area of ​​subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in my country. The species diversity patterns and causes of the first-level protected plants Yunnan yew, cycads, ginkgo biloba, and long-stamen magnolia have been highly concerned by scholars at home and abroad.

  Specific to the Ailao Mountain National Nature Reserve, on both sides of its north-south direction, there are two management sub-bureaus of Zhenyuan and Jingdong in Pu'er City on the west slope, and two management sub-bureaus of Shuangbai and Chuxiong in Chuxiong Prefecture and Yuxi on the east slope. The Xinping Administration Branch of the city, and the Nanhua Administration Branch of Chuxiong Prefecture in the northwest, with a total area of ​​67,700 square kilometers, the highest peak elevation of 3,166 meters, and an average elevation of 2,000 meters.

  This is not the first time a tragedy of loss of contact has occurred in Ailao Mountain.

With more than 40 years of field survival survey experience, Han Lianxian, a professor of ornithology and field survival at Southwest Forestry University, recalled that more than 20 years ago, several teachers and students from the Art Department of Simao Teachers College (predecessor of Pu'er College) went to Ailao Mountain to sketch , One of the students went over the mountain to see the monkeys in Chuxiong, but got lost on the way back. He did not return that night. The local area began to organize search and rescue. The search and rescue failed on the second day. When he was found on the third day, the student was lying in a ravine. By the pond, he has lost his vital signs and there are no traces on his body.

  Han Lianxian remembers that a foreigner was lucky enough to survive the loss of contact in Ailao Mountain in the past.

Just next to the place where the four geologists lost contact, in Xujiaba, Jingdong County, in the hinterland of the Ailao Mountain where the Chinese Academy of Sciences positioning station is located, a foreigner lost his way while going to bird watching and did not return that night.

It was December, and the temperature was lower than when the four survey team members lost contact.

At that time, the staff at the location station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences were in a hurry, but they knew that they could not search and rescue at night. The next day they sent people to look for it while reporting the news layer by layer. As a result, they found the missing foreigner during the search. Successfully rescued.

Han Lianxian said that this was because the foreigner also had experience in survival in the wild. On the night of losing contact, he chopped many branches with a Swiss army knife, and climbed in to avoid the cold after stacking layers in a sheltered place to avoid loss of temperature. Second Climb to the top of the mountain at dawn, "The higher you stand, the easier it is to be discovered by the outside world."

  Getting lost in Ailao Mountain is no stranger to field surgery examiners like Han Lianxian.

Han Lianxian stated that he, his colleagues at the Institute of Zoology, and the students he led have all had the experience of getting lost in Ailao Mountain, but in the end they were able to use their professional knowledge to overcome danger and get out of trouble in time, "Ailao Mountain" It is most easy to get lost because the tops of each of its mountain packs are high round noodles. Each top of the mountain is exactly the same without any characteristics, so it is extremely difficult to distinguish it after walking in.

  According to the perception of local Zhangpen villagers, what they fear most when entering the mountain is rain, because the temperature difference in Ailao Mountain is very large, and the mountain is filled with heavy fog after rain, visibility is low, and the temperature is lower. This is why they go up the mountain. taboo.

2. What kind of work is forest resource survey?

  The mission of the four lost contact geologists who went into the mountain was to investigate forest resources, not geological prospecting.

  Han Lianxian introduced that my country's forestry resource survey is divided into two parts: one is the second-category survey of forest resources, and the other is the continuous inventory of forest resources.

The task of 4 persons this time belongs to the second-class investigation of forest resources.

  The second category of forest resource survey is a forest resource survey carried out every ten years with counties as the unit.

Public information on the official website of the Yunnan Provincial Forestry and Grass Bureau shows that Zhenyuan County, Pu'er City, where the incident occurred, has carried out a second-class forest resource survey, while the entire Yunnan Province has carried out the fourth forest survey after the "18th" National Congress of the Third Plenary Session. Work.

Gu Bojian, a field surgery examiner who surveyed the green peacock habitat in the Shiyang River Valley at the foot of the eastern slope of Ailao Mountain, said that similar surveys generally require the consent of the protected area and have to go through relevant procedures at the Provincial Forestry and Grass Bureau.

  Han Lianxian introduced that forestry resource investigation has a set of standardized operation methods, including fixed sample points, parameters, coordinates, etc., to complete the investigation in the field, and finally form a plan report.

  According to the Operational Rules for Forest Resources Planning and Design Investigation in Yunnan Province, the main task of investigators is to find out the types, quantity, quality and distribution of forest, woodland and forest resources, objectively reflect the natural, social, and economic conditions of the surveyed area, and make comprehensive analysis and analysis. Evaluate the status quo of forest resources and management, and put forward opinions on the cultivation, protection and utilization of forest resources.

It mentioned that the unit undertaking the investigation task must have the corresponding qualifications. After receiving the investigation task, it should prepare the technical force and materials, determine the project leader, the technical leader and the investigator, and organize the study of working methods and Technical standards, quality education; and collecting recent topographic maps, aerial photos, satellite data and images of the survey area; organizing all personnel participating in the survey to conduct work training, pilot exercises and assessments.

  The Kunming Natural Resources Comprehensive Survey Center of China Geological Survey, which undertook this investigation, was originally the 10th Detachment of the Armed Police Golden Force.

Public information shows that it was established in March 1979 and was collectively transferred to the China Geological Survey of the Ministry of Natural Resources after its decommissioning in August 2018.

  The National Survey Team, which also belongs to the Ministry of Natural Resources, has worked out a set of its own safety manual during field survey operations.

For example, bring communication equipment that can meet actual needs, clarify contact matters, including GPS, satellite phones, etc.; pay attention to the weather forecast; determine your position in the forest area at any time, keep in touch with fellow personnel, and leave a mark on the operation route; wear well Protective clothing, etc.

This is because in the wild forest areas, accidents, getting lost, poisoning, natural disasters, wild animals, forest encephalitis, contact skin allergies, etc. may be encountered at any time.

3. Did the four killed team members have no plans and equipment to spend the night on the mountain?

  In summary, in view of the complex terrain of Ailao Mountain and the work performed by the four victims, the prerequisite for their operations in the virgin forest is to have corresponding field safety awareness and survival skills.

  According to the list released by the front-line search and rescue headquarters, the four of them were from Zhang Jinbang in Junlian County, Yibin, Sichuan, Yang Min in Nanchang, Jiangxi, Liu Yu in Guandu District, Kunming, and Zhang Yu in Chongqing. The ages were 25, 27, and 29. Years old, 32 years old.

  After the incident, a person who claimed to be an insider of the Kunming Natural Resources Comprehensive Survey Center of the China Geological Survey revealed to the media that on September 7, 2021, the unit issued an internal notice and selected 75 comrades to participate in the national forest resources survey. Yang Min is from the logistics service center of the unit. He is not a field operation professional, but is temporarily transferred. There are 33 people in a "statistical table of undistributed labor insurance clothing", and Yang Min's name is listed.

  In response to "temporary transfers" and other questions, The Paper has repeatedly sought verification from the Kunming Natural Resources Survey Center of the China Geological Survey.

Fan Zhongyu, secretary of the party committee of the unit, responded: "We firmly believe that the public has the ability to distinguish right from wrong."

  The Paper previously reported that the food left by the 4 people when they were found specifically included: 2 packets of egg yolk pie, 4 cans of eight-treasure porridge, 1 packet of chocolate, 1 packet of melon seeds, 4 packets of chicken wings, 4 bottles of beverages, and a few cigarettes.

Clothes include: Zhang Jinbang (yellow jacket + thermal underwear), Yang Min, Zhang Yu (camouflage clothes + thermal underwear), Liu Yu (down jacket + allotted jacket).

  "From the food, clothing and equipment they carried, the four of them were not prepared to spend the night on the mountain." Han Lianxian analyzed that in terms of the remaining food found during the search and rescue, the food carried by the four was snack food or small fast food. A full meal is not counted as a meal, and there is no tool for preparing meals, and it is not equipped by field professionals.

As far as clothing and equipment are concerned, the most basic sleeping bags are not carried.

According to the supplies they carried, they should hurry up the mountain, hurry up to complete the task, and then go down the same day, and there is no sign of intending to spend the night on the mountain.

Xie Changhong, a local Zhangpen village forest ranger who first began to participate in the rescue, also said that in the past, when the weather conditions were good, the staff who carried out investigation activities usually entered the mountain on the same day and left the mountain on the same day.

  Han Lianxian said that overnight stays in the wild are divided into camping and camping.

According to his experience in investigating in virgin forests, one moisture-proof mat and one sleeping bag are essential.

He once took the staff of the reserve, rangers, and his students through a tropical rainforest reserve. It was still in the summer, and regardless of the temperature loss, he still required everyone in addition to moisture-proof pads and sleeping bags. The tent was equipped, but due to the heavy luggage, the men gave up the tent on the way, and still brought the tent to the lady. They called this camping.

In the mountain forest area, there is no preparation beforehand, and it is impossible to go down in the mountain forest due to an accident or emergency.

  In other words, the 4 team members who were killed camped in the mountains due to insufficient preparation and unable to return.

"We can't piece together the fragmented reports about the journey of the four of them, but they should think about the work simply. From the equipment they carry, it can be seen that there is no plan to spend the night on the mountain in their entire work plan. If it is winter If you set up a simple shack in Ailao Mountain for the night, you will definitely not be able to hold it. High-altitude mountain weather changes are the most vulnerable to danger. Professionals should understand this."

  A compulsory course in the research of Han Lian Xiandai is field safety and survival in distress.

He said that for fieldwork, he should think of unexpected situations such as getting lost, losing temperature, and running out of food. He and his students have also experienced it. Lead to serious consequences".

4. How to deal with distress in the wild?

  In addition to advance planning and preparation, the ability to deal with emergencies during field operations also tests the professionalism of field investigators.

  According to Han Lianxian, there are two situations of getting lost in the wild mountain forest: one is knowing the direction and where you are, but you can't find the way; the worse one is losing your way and you don’t know where you are. where.

According to his analysis, the 4 team members who were killed should belong to the first situation.

  According to previous media reports, Han Lianxian believes that the four people who were tragically killed were not lost.

He analyzed that in a north-south mountain range like Ailao Mountain, four people lost contact after entering Ailao Mountain from Zhangpen Village, Zhedong Town, Zhenyuan County, Pu'er City on the west slope. Eight days later, their remains were lost. It was found in the mountains near Shuitang Town, Xinping County, Yuxi City, Dongpo. "Go straight down to the east slope, which is the east side. They know where the east is and where is the west. There is nothing wrong in this direction. So the media reported that the compass was not working. It is inaccurate to get lost in the direction. The compass failure is not the cause of the four deaths. They have a direction."

  Han Lianxian stated that compass positioning is useful for long-distance orientation, such as finding accurate directions on the prairie and Gobi desert, but it is not practical in the mountains and virgin forests of Yunnan.

"Because a few steps are mountains, and a climb is a hillside." He said, people with field experience generally have to walk the ridge and climb to the top of the mountain. On the one hand, they are more easily discovered by search and rescue helicopters. My field of vision is wider, and the mobile phone signal is also smoother.

  "Like the mountains in the northeast and northern Europe, you can go out along the gullies, but in the mountains in southern my country, no outdoor expert advises you to go down the gullies and mountain streams." Han Lianxian said, this is because of the Zhongshan Mountains in Yunnan. There are often precipices between the mountains and cliffs. Once you encounter a cliff in distress, you have no tools. At this time, you are exhausted when you want to return.

As a result, after years of observation and research, he found that most of the victims in the wild in Yunnan ended up in the ravine instead of falling on the top of the mountain. They generally walked on the ridgeline and were not easy to hit the cliffs and were more likely to be rescued.

  Recently, Han Lianxian was investigating on a field mountain in Yiliang County, Yunnan Province. He deliberately chose a sunny day.

"The weather is very sunny. We still have to keep making signs. We have taken the wrong intersection several times, and we use the mobile phone software to constantly correct the direction." Han Lianxian said, the visibility of Ailao Mountain in rainy and foggy Ailao Mountain is limited, and most people will definitely do it. People who don’t have experience in survival in the wild can’t get out of trouble. Don’t worry if you’re lost. The safest option is to return to the original way. Wait until the next day to return or ask for help from the outside, because there is no condition for search and rescue at night.

5. Distressed in search and rescue, 4 people were killed or due to loss of temperature

  After the death of the four investigators, various speculations emerged from the outside world, ranging from being attacked by beasts and lightning to the compass malfunctioning, losing the way and losing temperature.

  According to previous media reports, villagers and rescuers in Zhangpen Village had encountered black bears at close range, but when four were found, they were intact and showed no signs of being attacked by wild animals.

  Professor Han Lianxian said that some mountainous areas in Yunnan do have high incidence of lightning strikes, but they are concentrated in July, August, and September. There are few lightning strikes in Ailao Mountain in November, and the human skin will leave traces after lightning strikes. The exclusion was caused by lightning strikes.

  Regarding the compass failure, Han Lianxian said, judging from the experience of the people around him and rescuers, there is indeed something in Ailao Mountain.

His friend was on the side of Xinping County on the eastern slope of Ailao and had the experience of a compass malfunctioning; Li Yeling, captain of the Kunming Brigade of the National Mountain Rescue Team of the Yunnan Fire and Rescue Corps, told The Paper on November 25 that after the rescue was over, his mobile phone’s gyroscope was used. There has been a malfunction, and it has not returned to normal so far.

Han Lianxian analyzed that the so-called forest compass is actually a mechanical compass. Under normal circumstances, the compass fails in two situations: one is that there is a strong current of ultra-high voltage nearby, and electromagnetic radiation will cause the compass to fail; and the other is that there are abundant underground in the active area. Iron ore or magnetite will cause the compass to malfunction.

Both situations occur under specific circumstances.

In addition, their field investigators usually install an electronic compass on their mobile phones. The working principle of this electronic compass is completely different from that of a mechanical compass. "As long as the mobile phone has electricity, this compass will not fail. I don’t know the four investigators who were killed. Have you installed this software on your phone."

  Han Lianxian said that most of the time the electronic compass is not used to confirm the direction after getting lost, but to confirm the slope and direction of the survey record.

  Earlier, some media reported that one of the victims found had lifted his clothes on his stomach and was smiling.

Han Lianxian said that if it is true, this is a typical behavioral characteristic of hallucinations after severe hypothermia. A few years ago, an outdoor person in Kunming was killed in Cangshan, Dali, and died of hypothermia. The situation is exactly the same.

  What is hypothermia?

According to Han Lianxian, the human body is at a constant temperature. Food, clothing, and exercise are used to maintain the body's constant temperature. Once this constant temperature drops, physiological functions cannot function normally. It takes only two hours for severe hypothermia to lose its vital signs. It is almost impossible to save after two hours, so once the human body loses temperature, except for heating methods such as bonfires, you must take off your wet clothes and wrap your neck with a dry towel to ensure that the blood circulation in the carotid artery is warmed up.

"After the human body loses temperature, the heart is beating and the brain still has blood supply, thinking hallucinations, and other abnormal behaviors."

  Another question that puzzled the outside world is that the four victims lost contact after noon on November 13, and the Zhenyuan County government began to organize search and rescue after receiving the report on the evening of November 15. What happened during the two days?

Xie Changhong, a villager in Zhangpen Village, Zhedong Township, Zhenyuan County, said that the local weather in Ailao Mountain was not good on November 13, and the mountains were filled with heavy fog. The four team members entered the mountain and it started to rain.

On the evening of November 14, the drivers of the four victims asked their villager group leader for help after waiting for the four people to fail, hoping to get the support of the villagers. On the 14th, the administrator of the reserve went up the mountain to search.

  The villager group immediately assembled 6 people to prepare to enter the mountain for search and rescue. However, the weather and mountain environment did not meet the conditions for night search and rescue. The road was slippery in dark and their flashlights were out of power. It was not fully lighted until about 7 in the morning on the 15th. The 6 of them immediately went into the mountain to look for them with dry food. After the search was unsuccessful at 15:00 on the 15th, the 6 of them decided to stop the search and rescue and return. After arriving at the mountain pass at 18:00 in the evening, they immediately reported the crime.

Subsequently, the news was reported layer by layer, and the county government that received the report began to organize personnel to participate in the rescue until the remains of the four investigators who had been killed were found eight days later.

  According to an earlier report by JiMu News, a staff member of the relevant department of Zhenyuan County stated that the last time the lost contact contacted the outside world was on the afternoon of the 13th. The dry food can only last for one day. But until the 15th, they were still not seen going down the mountain. The driver who had not entered the mountain reported the loss of 4 people to Zhenyuan County."

The Paper Journalist Wang Wanchun and intern Zhang Ruohan