Vaccination for young adults aged 18 to 49 has started.

The total number of subjects was 15.22 million.

So far, 66% have applied for vaccination.

The inoculation vaccines are mRNA vaccines, Pfizer and Moderna.

Recently, news of deaths after vaccination continues, and 'vaccine phobia' is spreading among young people.

Young people are relatively sick and pass through even if they are infected with the Corona virus, so there is even a voice saying that 'there is less chance of dying from corona infection than dying from getting a corona vaccine'.

As the number of vaccine recipients is rapidly increasing, there are also many complaints about not being able to find a place that accurately answers questions and questions about vaccines.

On SNS, if you ask a public health center, there are posts saying, "There is no information from the authorities," the KCDC call center is "on the phone" or "I don't know because this is the first inquiry like this".

There are guidelines for vaccination on the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, but it is difficult to find and does not contain all of the questions you may have.

In response, the quarantine authorities prepared a separate event to explain their questions with experts on the 26th for the worried young and old.

We have compiled the most frequently asked questions on online bulletin boards, including questions and answers invited by experts from quarantine authorities.

Curious about vaccinations?

Q. What should I do if I have a fever on the day of vaccination?

A. If you have a fever of 37.5℃ or higher, it is better to postpone the vaccination until the fever goes down and the symptoms disappear.

You can schedule the next possible vaccination date in consultation with the medical institution that made a reservation for the corona vaccination.

Subjects who were excluded by the doctor's judgment must complete the inoculation within the first inoculation period.

If you refuse to vaccinate and do not make a reservation within the deadline, the vaccination ranking will be pushed down.

Q. Can people with allergies be vaccinated?

A. In general, having an allergy, such as a food allergy, does not mean that vaccination is impossible.

However, if there is a history of a severe allergic reaction to a substance constituting the vaccine, or if an anaphylactic reaction occurs during the first inoculation, the vaccine should not be administered.

Consult your doctor if you have a history of other serious allergic reactions.

Pfizer and Moderna vaccines cannot be vaccinated if they have a history of severe allergic reactions to polyethylene glycol (PEG).

AstraZeneca and Janssen vaccines cannot be vaccinated if they have a history of severe allergy to polysorbate.

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is contained in products such as drugs, intestinal cleansers for colonoscopy, cough syrups, cosmetics, medical products used for skin and surgery, toothpaste, and contact lens cleaning solutions.

If you have experienced severe urticaria with colonoscopy cleaners, various types of cosmetics or medicines, it is better to get tested in advance.

Q. What if I take Tylenol or a pain reliever in advance and get it right?

A. It is better not to eat beforehand.

Usually, if you have a fever after getting the vaccine, you are told to take an acetaminophen-based antipyretic such as Tylenol, because if you take it before the vaccination, it can interfere with the formation of antibodies.

It is best to eat only when you have a fever after vaccination.

Q. Can I exercise or drink alcohol before and after vaccination?

A. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends avoiding strenuous exercise or alcohol before and after receiving the vaccine.

This is because when an adverse reaction occurs, it is difficult to determine whether it is due to exercise or drinking or a side effect.

Also, alcohol should not be consumed because acetaminophen, taken during a fever, can put a great strain on the liver when it comes into contact with alcohol.

It is best not to take a bath on the day of the vaccination.

Q. I got cosmetic fillers, can I get a vaccine?

(This is a case of edema after Moderna inoculation reported in a paper published in February by a research team at Wake Forest University in North Carolina, USA. Edema (a) started to appear 36 hours after inoculation, and became worse 48 hours after inoculation (b), 60 It started to get better after some time (c) and almost subsided after 72 hours (d))

A. During the Phase 3 clinical trial of Moderna vaccine, 3 out of 30,000 people who had the filler procedure experienced side effects such as facial edema occurred

Treatment was completed with oral steroids, and since then, no country has officially mentioned facial edema due to Moderna vaccine in adverse reaction safety reports of countries using Moderna worldwide.

However, it is necessary to observe the reaction after inoculation.

I'm curious about the side effects.

Q. It is said that more people died from the vaccine than those who died from Corona?

A. That's not true. As of the 26th, there were 492 death reports received after vaccination, and the cumulative number of deaths after being confirmed by Corona was 2,222. The report of death after vaccination does not prove a causal relationship with the vaccine. The health authorities are currently looking at two deaths (one Pfizer and one AZ) with recognized causality. Therefore, he stresses that the benefits outweigh the potential harms of vaccination.

In response to the criticism that the standards are too strict even though there are few cases of compensation for damages, the government explains that the causality evaluation of adverse reactions to vaccination is conducted according to internationally accepted standards. For causality evaluation, the damage investigation team of the provincial and central governments and experts in each field deliberate on cases every week. For cases where there is insufficient evidence to determine the causality of vaccination and side effects, a separate classification standard is established to support medical expenses. The government plans to re-evaluate causality in these cases when data are accumulated.

Q. What is the fatality rate of vaccination among young people and the probability of progression to severe disease?

A. If you look at the vaccination history of 66,489 confirmed cases in that age group from April 3 to August 14, when those aged 18 to 49 years of age had completed vaccination in Korea, 93.7% were unvaccinated, 4.2% were primary, and 2.1% were inoculated. was fully vaccinated.

After May, among 35,826 confirmed patients aged 18 to 49, 292 were in critical condition or died within 28 days of being confirmed, whereas only 1 was completed.

(※ However, the government did not disclose whether there were any underlying diseases among the unvaccinated deaths.)

Even with vaccination, infection can occur rarely.

Currently, the number of confirmed cases of Corona after completing vaccination in Korea is low at 0.035%.

Vaccination prevents 85% and 97% of going to severe seriousness and leading to death, respectively.

Q. What are the side effects of the Pfizer Moderna vaccine?

A. Acute shock, that is, anaphylaxis, was the most common among 129 side effects of vaccination in Korea recognized by the vaccination damage investigation team with 123 cases.

In the United States, the incidence was 2.5 per million after vaccination with Pfizer Moderna.

Severe hives can make you dizzy, drop your blood pressure, and even worsen fainting.

Most were allergic to the polyethylene glycol (PEG) substances described above.

Heart inflammation is also a concern.

If your chest hurts like a stabbing pain for a few minutes and feels uncomfortable for hours, you should be suspicious.

There is one case of death in Korea, but most of them get better with early treatment, and ibuprofen-based anti-inflammatory drugs are helpful for treatment.

Q. What should I do if myocarditis or pericarditis is suspected?

A. If you experience chest pain, palpitations, or shortness of breath within 2 days to 2 weeks after vaccination, you may be suspicious. To diagnose myocarditis, the level of myocardial enzymes in the blood must be checked, but it is difficult to confirm at a local primary hospital. In addition, the diagnosis of pericarditis requires an echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, and blood inflammation level. These tests are available at quasi-general hospitals (secondary hospitals under the Medical Act) or higher. In particular, if myocarditis is suspected, it is recommended to go to a hospital where cardiac MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is available.

Q. I have had myocarditis and pericarditis. Is it okay to vaccinate with mRNA?

A. Myocarditis and pericarditis are curable diseases. Heart function usually returns to normal within 6 months. In the case of pericarditis, most cases are cured within 1 to 2 weeks. If you have not been ill recently, getting the vaccine is not a problem. However, the health authorities are saying that if you have symptoms of myocarditis or pericarditis after the first vaccination, it is advisable not to do the second vaccination.

Q. Pfizer Moderna vaccine can cause thrombosis?

A. A woman in her 20s in Jeju who died of cerebral thrombosis on the 7th was not properly tested.

This was because he had the Moderna vaccine and his first blood test had normal platelet counts.

However, a recent European study found that mRNA vaccines can also very rarely cause thrombosis.

In the early stages of thrombosis, the platelet count may be normal, but in this case, it may worsen if a general thrombosis treatment is used.

If there is severe headache, blurred vision, or abdominal pain between 4 and 42 days after vaccination, active examination is necessary.

Q. In Japan, an article about severe hair loss due to a side effect of Moderna vaccine became a hot topic, but is there any connection?

(July 21, Japanese woman A's scalp condition / A's blog)

A. It is known that hair loss can occur as a result of corona, but no cases of hair loss as a result of a vaccine side effect have been confirmed.

There is currently no information on whether the phenomenon was caused by a vaccine, how often it occurs, and whether it is reversible.

I'm curious about the vaccine.

Q. What is the difference between Pfizer Moderna and the two vaccines?

A. The effect on the existing corona virus is not much different with both of them being more than 90%. However, the effect on delta variation is mixed among studies. According to Canadian researchers, the prevention rate of the delta mutation was 72% for Moderna and 56% for Pfizer at the first dose. On the other hand, a study by the British Public Health Agency found that the first dose was only 36% effective in preventing Pfizer's delta mutation. However, after the second vaccination, the prevention rate rose to 88%.

Q. What does that mean when the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has officially approved the Pfizer vaccine?

A. In the meantime, the coronavirus vaccine used in the United States, the European Union (EU), and Korea was in the state of 'emergency' approval by the FDA. Emergency use authorization is a temporary measure taken to increase the utilization of medicines in times of public health crisis. The requirements are simpler than formal approval. This is why there were criticisms about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. As the FDA officially recognizes the safety of vaccines, the United States is strengthening its vaccination obligations.

Following Pfizer, American pharmaceutical company Moderna has completed the submission of data necessary to obtain formal approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for a COVID-19 vaccine.

Q. Why is the AstraZeneca residual vaccine available for those over the age of 30 recently?

A. The age of approval for the AstraZeneca vaccine is 18 years or older in both Korea and Europe.

Although it is not used in the United States, there is no age limit for the Janssen vaccine, which is also at risk of developing thrombocytopenic thrombosis.

In each country, the age criterion is determined by considering the degree of difference in the risk of developing thrombocytopenic thrombosis after the corona infection and vaccination.

As the corona epidemic is much bigger and longer than before, it seems that the policy judgment that the benefit of vaccination is high and that you can inoculate if you want has worked.

Q. The second vaccination is given 6 weeks after the first vaccination. Is the vaccine effective?

A. Initially, Pfizer recommended inoculation 3 weeks apart and Moderna 4 weeks apart.

However, for vaccines that are administered multiple times, an immune response must be shown after the first inoculation to maintain the immune response for a long time after subsequent inoculations.

According to some studies, even if the dose of Pfizer vaccine was increased to 6 to 14 weeks, the immune response was similar or higher when compared to the dose at the originally recommended interval.

However, the concern when increasing the interval is that the completion of inoculation is delayed due to the spread of the delta mutation rather than the effect.

I wonder if I can vaccinate

Q. After being infected with Corona, I was completely cured. Should I get vaccinated?

A. Health authorities recommend vaccination. Over time, the risk of re-infection reappears. Studies show that it increases after 5-6 months. Recent mutant viruses require higher levels of neutralizing antibodies, so the risk may have been earlier.

As a result of vaccine clinical studies, most of the antibodies after vaccination were several times higher than those of those who recovered after infection. However, in order to be vaccinated, the state of health must be restored. Health authorities recommend that patients be vaccinated after 90 days if they have been treated with antibody therapy or plasma therapy.

Q. If I miss the timing after the 1st vaccination and it exceeds 6 weeks, do I have to get the 1st dose again?

A. If the second inoculation is delayed, it should be administered as soon as possible. However, if the second vaccination is delayed, it is not necessary to administer the first vaccination again.

Q. Should I be vaccinated if I am planning to become pregnant or if there is a possibility of getting pregnant?

A. Even if you are planning to become pregnant, it is much safer to get vaccinated. According to the guidelines of the American Academy of Obstetrics and Gynecology, even in pregnant women, there is little difference in risk between vaccinated and non-vaccinated women. Pregnant women are at greater risk of premature birth and stillbirth when they contract the coronavirus. Experts also recommend getting the vaccine as a preventative measure.

Q. I became pregnant after the 1st dose, can I get the 2nd dose?

A. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended vaccination for pregnant women, but in Korea, pregnant women are not allowed to be vaccinated because they do not have safety and efficacy data.

Vaccinations for pregnant women are currently being discussed, but no conclusion has been reached.

Vaccination is expected to be possible after October at the earliest.

Q. I am breastfeeding, can I get the corona vaccine?

A. Breastfeeding mothers do not have any problems getting vaccinated.

The Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) say that the coronavirus vaccine is available and that the antibodies formed in the mother are transmitted to the baby through breast milk, thereby helping to protect the baby.

Although there is concern among mothers that the vaccine's mRNA may be passed on to the baby and cause problems in the baby, a recent study found that the mRNA is not transmitted to the baby through breast milk.

I'm curious about the mutation

Q. The number of breakthrough infections with mutated viruses is increasing. Is a vaccine useful?

A. When you are infected with a virus, two things occur: one is an antibody and the other is an immune cell.

Antibodies prevent the virus from entering the body at all, and immune cells fight and kill the virus that has already entered the body.

The same goes for mutated viruses.

Mutant viruses make the vaccine less effective.

However, even if the antibody's ability to block the virus from entering is reduced, immune cells that can fight and kill the virus can be made.

The effectiveness is being proven in practice.

Although the number of corona patients around the world is rapidly increasing due to the

mutant virus, in the case of the UK

, where the

inoculation rate has exceeded 50%, the number of patients is falling regardless of the mutant virus.

If you have been vaccinated, even if you contract the mutant virus, your chances of dying are almost zero.

For this reason, experts emphasize that the more the mutant virus spreads, the more active the elderly and high-risk people with underlying diseases should be vaccinated.

I'm curious about this too

Q. Can children not be vaccinated?

A. The corona vaccine is often described in comparison to the flu vaccine, but the flu vaccine is equally suitable for both adults and children. However, the corona vaccine is suitable for adults but not yet for children. This is not because the vaccine is dangerous to children, but because it has not yet been sufficiently tested in children. Children's immune cells appear to respond better to the coronavirus than adults. It doesn't work well, and most of the time, there are no symptoms.

As the coronavirus situation worsens recently, countries around the world are conducting clinical trials for children. In the United States, the same dose as adults is vaccinated up to 6th grade and 12 years of age, and in September, it announced that it would be vaccinated until the age of 5. We are also preparing a vaccine for children. As long as safety is confirmed, children are expected to get it just like the flu vaccine.

Q. How can I check if I have developed antibodies after completing the corona vaccine?

A. Even if you get a vaccine, there are cases where antibodies are not produced enough. Based on infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or influenza, it is correct to re-vaccinate if the antibody test result is negative. However, there is still no universal recommendation for a coronavirus vaccine.

You can tell how many coronavirus antibodies you have by drawing blood and testing it. You cannot receive it at public health centers, and you can test it after receiving medical treatment at a general hospital. It takes at least two weeks for antibodies to form after receiving the vaccine. Therefore, it is recommended to receive the antibody test 4 weeks after the inoculation. Antibody tests are not covered tests, so the cost varies from hospital to hospital.

Q. After the vaccination, my arm was very sore. Why do I need to get the vaccine in my arm?

A. Recently, among high school seniors, there are many people who complain of pain in their arms after vaccination to such an extent that there is a saying, "If I can't hold a pencil, I can take a few days off from studying, so I vaccinated my right shoulder."

Could it be that it is not suitable for other areas? All four vaccines introduced in Korea recommend 'intramuscular injection' as the inoculation method. Intramuscular injection is a method used when injections need to be injected quickly, because there are many blood vessels in the muscle and absorption is fast. The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) also specified that the injection site should be 'injected intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle of the upper arm (shoulder to elbow)' in the guidelines for vaccination.

If you can't fit the arm inevitably, it will fit the thigh. In the case of breast cancer surgery patients, the armpit lymph node is removed, and it has been reported that all four vaccines introduced in Korea may cause side effects to the arm and armpit lymph nodes. So, avoid the arm close to the armpit and hit the thigh.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended the 'brachial deltoid muscle' for the injection site for the four corona vaccines, and specified the 'thigh (thigh)' as a replacement site. The reason that many medical institutions around the world allow the vaccine to fit on the shoulder rather than the thigh is because if you are inoculating on the shoulder, you only need to roll your sleeve, so you can reduce the effort of lowering and raising your pants.

Q. Among the side effects of Pfizer, are breast enlargement real?

A. After receiving the Pfizer vaccine, claims that 'my breasts grew bigger' came out one after another overseas. Experts explain that "swelling of the axillary lymph glands may occur in 10% of vaccinated people. Because of this, they sometimes feel like their breasts are enlarged." Pfizer also said, "We have not received any reports of side effects of breast enlargement after vaccination."

In a clinical trial conducted by Pfizer and Moderna, some subjects showed temporary swelling of the lymph glands in the armpits and neck 2 to 4 days after the inoculation. map continued.

(Composition: Senior Correspondent Lee Hyun-sik, Reporter Seon-i Jang, Editor Hwi-ran Kim / Design: Ha-eun Myung / Advisor: Dong-chan Cho, Medical Correspondent)