The "14th Five-Year Plan" begins, what will life be like in five years?
Note: ①  is the cumulative number in 5 years.
②The data with * are for 2019.
③Comprehensive energy production capacity refers to the sum of coal, oil, natural gas, and non-fossil energy production capacity.
④ In 2020, the ratio of days with good air quality in cities at prefecture-level and above and the index value of the ratio of surface water reaching or better than Class III water bodies are affected by factors such as the new crown pneumonia epidemic, which are significantly higher than normal years.
⑤The total labor productivity growth of 2.5% in 2020 is expected.
Beijing News Graphics/Gao Junfu
On March 5, the fourth session of the 13th National People's Congress opened.
Compared with previous years, the desks of nearly 3,000 delegates have a thick "Draft Outline" of the 14th Five-Year Plan.
my country's national economic and social development plan (plan) every five years has reached its 14th.
Under the guidance of a five-year plan (plan), one after another, China is moving toward modernization step by step.
"14" was originally an ordinary number, but the raging global epidemic and the uncertain international situation, the construction of a new domestic development pattern and the establishment of a well-off society in an all-round way have made historic achievements, making "14" and 2021 have new achievements. duty of.
13 "five years" review
New China's first five-year plan started in 1953.
In accordance with the requirements of the party's general line during the transition period, the basic task determined by the "First Five-Year Plan" is to concentrate the main forces on industrial construction and establish the preliminary foundation for my country's socialist industrialization.
Industrial construction was one of the priorities of the first few five-year plans.
The basic tasks of the second five-year plan include continuing industrial construction centered on heavy industry, advancing the technological transformation of the national economy, and establishing a solid foundation for my country's socialist industrialization.
The implementation of the "Three Five-Year Plan" to the "Five Five-Year Plan" has made a great contribution to the establishment of a relatively complete industrial system and national economic system.
The "Seventh Five-Year Plan" implemented in 1986 put forward the insistence on putting reform in the first place so that reform and construction can adapt and promote each other. After the "Seventh Five-Year Plan", China has basically solved the problem of food and clothing.
On September 28, 1995, the Fifth Plenary Session of the 14th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China passed the "Proposals of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Formulating the Ninth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development and Long-Term Goals for 2010."
This is China's first mid-to-long-term plan under the conditions of China's socialist market economy and a cross-century development plan.
The main goal of the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" was determined as: to complete the second-step strategic deployment of modernization in an all-round way. In 2000, the per capita GDP will be quadrupled from 1980.
During the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period, the people's living standards have reached a moderately prosperous level, with a per capita GDP reaching US$850, making it one of the lower middle-income countries.
In 2006, the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" changed the "Five-Year Plan" to the "Five-Year Plan" for the first time. The proposed goal is to achieve sustained, rapid, coordinated and healthy development of the national economy and comprehensive social progress during the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" period. An important staged progress in building a moderately prosperous society, achieving a doubling of per capita GDP in 2010 compared to 2000.
After the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan", my country has leaped from the ranks of lower middle-income countries to the ranks of upper middle-income countries.
Yang Yongheng, executive vice-president of the China Development Planning Institute of Tsinghua University and professor of the School of Public Administration, believes that the five-year plan (plan) has witnessed the continuous improvement and qualitative leap of the people’s living standards from addressing food and clothing, to an overall well-off life, and then to a comprehensive well-off life. .
Leading economic and social development with planning is an important way for our party to govern the country and an important institutional advantage, and it is also an important manifestation of the development model of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
The "13th Five-Year Plan" that just passed was a decisive stage for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. The "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan" put forward the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. In 2020, the GDP and the per capita income of urban and rural residents doubled compared with 2010.
As a large country with a population of more than 1.4 billion, the per capita GDP in 2019 exceeded the $10,000 mark for the first time.
In 2020, China is the only major economy in the world to achieve positive economic growth, and its total GDP (gross domestic product) will achieve a historic breakthrough, exceeding one hundred billion for the first time.
Yang Yongheng said that during the 13th Five-Year Plan period, my country's economic and social development has made overall progress. Except for a few indicators such as the proportion of added value of the service industry and the intensity of R&D investment, the main indicators have been completed or even exceeded at the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan period. , Especially the binding indicators in the fields of people’s livelihood protection, resources and environment, which embodies our government’s people-centered development concept, and outstanding achievements in the field of ensuring people’s livelihood and welfare and promoting sustainable development.
Where is the "new" in the 14th Five-Year Plan
Standing at the key point of decisive achievements in the centenary of the founding of the party and the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects, the "14th Five-Year Plan" has embarked on a new journey.
At the end of October 2020, the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China made recommendations on formulating the "14th Five-Year Plan" for national economic and social development and the 2035 long-term goals.
The first proposal is to "build a well-off society in an all-round way and start a new journey of building a modern socialist country in an all-round way." It requires that "the whole party must coordinate the overall strategy of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and the great changes unseen in the world in a century, and have a deep understanding of the main contradictions and changes in our society. It brings new characteristics and requirements, and has a deep understanding of the new contradictions and challenges brought about by the complex international environment. "Be good at nurturing opportunities in crises and opening new games in changes."
The proposal puts forward that during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, new development advantages will be comprehensively shaped.
These new advantages include strengthening the national strategic scientific and technological strength, enhancing the technological innovation capabilities of enterprises, stimulating the innovative vitality of talents, and improving the scientific and technological innovation system and mechanism.
Among them, it is recommended to strengthen basic research, focus on original innovation, optimize the layout of disciplines and R&D, promote interdisciplinary integration, and improve the supply system of common basic technologies.
Aiming at cutting-edge fields such as artificial intelligence, quantum information, integrated circuits, life and health, brain science, biological breeding, aerospace science and technology, and deep seas, we will implement a number of forward-looking and strategic national major scientific and technological projects.
During the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, China will form a strong domestic market and build a new development pattern.
Relying on a strong domestic market, link production, distribution, circulation, and consumption links to form a higher level of dynamic balance in which demand drives supply and supply creates demand, and promotes a virtuous cycle of the national economy.
At the same time, promote the domestic and international dual cycle.
Based on the domestic cycle, we will coordinately promote the construction of a strong domestic market and a strong trade country, form a strong gravitational field of global resource elements, promote the coordinated development of domestic and external demand, import and export, foreign investment and foreign investment, and accelerate the cultivation of new advantages in international cooperation and competition.
Regarding "accelerating the construction of a new development pattern with domestic and international double cycles as the main body", Yang Yongheng believes that the construction of a new development pattern is the biggest highlight of the "14th Five-Year Plan", which is the central government based on my country's development stage. The major decisions and deployments made by changes in the environment and conditions have pointed out the direction for promoting high-quality development and realizing the "14th Five-Year Plan" and the long-term goals of 2035.
Yang Yongheng said, “The new development pattern is dominated by the domestic cycle, but it is not about doing it yourself behind closed doors.” China is the world’s largest “production factory” and the world’s largest “consumer market”. It must continue to make good use of both. Two markets and two resources make domestic and international cycles mutually promote each other.
The "double cycle" has been written into the local "14th Five-Year" plan. For example, according to the members of the drafting group of Beijing's "14th Five-Year" plan, the focus of the domestic big cycle falls on both the supply and demand sides. Beijing is the core fulcrum, which embodies the super large Market and super supply capacity; the domestic and international dual cycle focuses on the "two regions", which is a key move to achieve systemic traction and realize the interoperability of the two markets at home and abroad. Beijing is the core hub, reflecting the influence of Beijing’s ability to allocate resources Ability and deep participation in international division of labor and cooperation.
Shanghai’s "14th Five-Year Plan" proposes to accelerate the formation of the central node of the domestic cycle and become a strategic link between the domestic and international double cycles.
Development goals of the "14th Five-Year Plan"
Whenever a new five-year plan is released, the GDP growth rate is the most important and the most concerned indicator of society.
However, the draft of the "14th Five-Year Plan" did not specify the average growth rate for next year. Instead, it required that "economic operations be maintained within a reasonable range, and economic growth targets should be proposed in accordance with the actual conditions in each year." Fairer, more sustainable and safer development".
Yang Yongheng said that for a long period of time in the past, GDP growth has been an important indicator of my country's five-year plan.
Although the GDP growth rate is an expected indicator, for a long time, some local governments have regarded it as a very important development indicator.
Excessive emphasis on rapid economic growth can easily distort local government behavior, expand inefficient investment, and may create a crowding out effect on market players.
He suggested that more attention should be paid to indicators that reflect the efficiency and quality of economic growth, and GDP growth indicators should be downplayed.
During the "14th Five-Year Plan" period, economic indicators should not emphasize too much how fast the growth rate is, but how good quality and efficiency are.
It is recommended that the focus of attention be directed to the labor productivity of all employees, the proportion of the added value of the digital economy in GDP, the number of high-value invention patents per 10,000 people, and the GDP output per unit input (such as land, capital, etc.) reflecting the optimization of the economic structure and the improvement of efficiency. index of.
In the "14th Five-Year Plan" of various localities, indicators have begun to reflect the efficiency and quality of economic growth.
Beijing's "14th Five-Year Plan" set a total of 25 small indicators in seven categories, with an average annual GDP growth target of 5%, which is significantly lower than the 6.5% average annual GDP growth rate of the "13th Five-Year Plan".
Among the seven categories of indicators, reduction and quality improvement and safety and stability are two new types of indicators. There are 3 small indicators for reduction and quality improvement. The total production and domestic water requirements are less than 3 billion cubic meters. The scale of urban and rural construction land is maintained. On a downward trend, the permanent population is no more than 23 million.
Shanghai’s "14th Five-Year Plan" lists 20 "main indicators", of which 9 are new indicators.
The expected target for the average annual GDP growth rate is also 5%.
In the "Thirteenth Five-Year Plan", indicators such as the total amount of construction land did not appear. Instead, "the gross value of unit construction land production increased by 20%."
It is understood that Shanghai is beginning to formulate a comprehensive performance evaluation index system for high-quality development. One of its important features is the emphasis on per capita and ratio.
At the district level, the “14th Five-Year Plan” of Dongcheng District of Beijing introduced innovative development indicators for the first time. For example, it stipulated that the average annual growth rate of the digital economy during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period was about 5%, and it was owned by every 10,000 people. Strive to reach around 82 high-value invention patents.
He Lifeng, Director of the National Development and Reform Commission, stated that from a goal-oriented perspective, the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China made a two-stage strategic development arrangement for the realization of the second centenary goal. The long-term goal of 2035 is to basically realize socialist modernization. The main goals of economic and social development during the Five-Year Plan period have firmly anchored the 2035 long-term goal.
From a problem-oriented perspective, the main social contradiction in our country has been transformed into a contradiction between the people’s growing needs for a better life and unbalanced and inadequate development. The main goals of economic and social development during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period will be firmly focused on solving development. The problem of insufficient imbalance.
What will life be like in five years
"Adhere to the realization, maintenance, and development of the fundamental interests of the most people as the starting point and goal of development, and do our best and do our best." This is the proposal of the "14th Five-Year Plan" of the Fifth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. , Specifically, it will improve the basic public service system, improve the social governance system of co-construction, co-governance and sharing, and solidly promote common prosperity.
For example, insist on the coexistence of distribution according to work and the coexistence of multiple distribution methods to increase the proportion of labor remuneration in the primary distribution; implement an action plan for expanding middle-income groups; Unleash consumption potential.
“Resident income is the basis for enhancing residents’ consumption power and a prerequisite for expanding residents’ freedom of choice. The fiscal and taxation policies and the social security system should be further reformed to reduce residents’ various tax burdens, increase the proportion of residents’ income in the primary distribution of national income, and ensure that residents Revenue has achieved steady growth." Yang Yongheng said.
In terms of education, consolidate the basic balanced results of compulsory education, improve school running standards, promote the high-quality and balanced development of compulsory education and the integration of urban and rural areas; consolidate and improve the level of popularization of high school education, encourage the diversified development of high school schools; improve inclusive preschool education and special education Education and special education guarantee mechanism.
In terms of medical and health care, adhere to the public welfare attributes of basic medical and health services, deepen the reform of the medical and health system, accelerate the expansion of high-quality medical resources and the balanced distribution of regions, strengthen the construction of public hospitals, accelerate the establishment of a modern hospital management system, and promote the national organization of drugs and consumables. Procurement and use reforms, etc.
In this regard, Yang Yongheng suggested that a full-life-cycle education and health service system should be established to promote capacity expansion, quality improvement, and upgrading.
Realize the "forward extension" of the public education system to pre-school education, solve the problem of "difficulty in entering kindergartens" and "expensiveness" of school-age children, and "extend backward" to high school education and vocational education.
Local governments at all levels should plan and build public facilities such as education, medical care, culture and sports, and public rental housing on the basis of the permanent population; include the migrant population in the public service system, especially to ensure that school-age children of the migrant population enjoy compulsory education.
In establishing a life-cycle health service system, coordination between medical and prevention should be promoted, risk factors for chronic diseases should be controlled, diagnosis and treatment should be strengthened and standardized, and residents’ health and quality of life should be improved.
In order to reverse the concept of healthy work, it is recommended to gradually introduce per capita healthy life expectancy as an indicator to measure the level of healthy development.
"In 2017, the expected number of years of education in my country is 13.8 years, which is lower than the level of 17.4 years in the United Kingdom, 16.5 years in the United States, and 15.2 years in Japan. Investing in education means investing in the future. In the future, the investment and coverage of educational resources should be increased and further improved. The accumulation of national human capital will empower the country's long-term development." Yang Yongheng said.
Li Yukun, chief reporter of the Beijing News