Why is there always a shortage of people in these positions with lower barriers to employment?
The reason why it is difficult for job types such as marketers, cleaners, and restaurant waiters to continue to recruit workers, professionals believe that, on the one hand, it is affected by the concept of job selection of workers, and on the other hand, it is due to the low quality and attractiveness of these jobs. Insufficiency, coupled with the fact that automation and intelligence are difficult to replace for a while.
Issue rankings of shortage occupations to provide guidance for both parties in wage bargaining, recruitment and job search decisions.
Marketer, marketer, or marketer!
Not long ago, in the fourth quarter of 2020, the ranking of the 100 “most missing jobs” was released in the fourth quarter of 2020.
The reporter combed and found that since the launch of the ranking in the third quarter of 2019, "marketers" have topped the rankings for six consecutive periods.
Not only marketers, some types of jobs with lower barriers to employment have repeatedly been listed and ranked in the forefront, such as cleaners, restaurant waiters, security guards, merchandise salespersons, family waiters, turners, etc.
Speaking of the "most lack of jobs" occupations, many people must first think of technical skills in the "high-precision" field.
However, in reality, those who lack jobs are those with lower barriers to employment.
Why do these low-skilled jobs continue to lack people?
High demand for talents in manufacturing services
"When the demand for a certain profession exceeds the supply, we can simply understand that there is a shortage of labor in this profession." Tian Yongpo, director and researcher of the Human Resource Market and Flow Management Research Office of the Chinese Academy of Personnel Sciences, explained the shortage of occupations.
The person in charge of the China Employment Training Technical Guidance Center told reporters that the "shortage rankings" are released quarterly to improve the pertinence and effectiveness of vocational skills training, and to provide direction for workers and employers to recruit and participate in vocational skills training. Guidelines.
Looking at the 6-issue rankings that have been released, three types of occupations, including production and manufacturing personnel, social production service and life service personnel, and professional and technical personnel, account for more than 90% of the occupations, and they are the main players in the shortage of labor market.
"Manufacturing and service industries have an advantage in young and middle-aged labor." According to Tian Yongpo, my country's current demographic structure is undergoing major changes. The total working-age population and the proportion of the total population are declining, and the population aging is increasing. .
This structural change in age has directly led to a shortage of supply and demand in labor-intensive industries and jobs in the manufacturing and service industries.
At the same time, Tian Yongpo said, driven by technological progress and industrial adjustments, the labor market's demand for labor with a certain level of technology and expertise has been increasing, making professional and technical personnel increasingly scarce.
On the other hand, the continuous emergence of new economies and new business formats has produced a "siphon" effect on the labor supply of traditional manufacturing, leading to a shortage of manufacturing personnel.
This is confirmed in the ranking of the "most lacking jobs" occupations in the fourth quarter of 2020.
Of the 25 new occupations in the ranking, 15 are directly related to manufacturing, such as smelting engineering technicians, foundries, automotive engineering technicians, and metal heat treatment workers.
Among the 34 occupations with increasing shortages, 16 occupations are directly related to manufacturing, such as steel bar workers, mechanic fitters, and textile dyers.
Judging from the data in the fourth quarter of 2020, the number of recruitment needs has increased significantly from the previous month, and the supply-demand relationship of the 100 "most lacking jobs" has generally tightened.
The number of gaps rose to 929,000, and the overall job opening ratio rose from 2.67 to 2.90 in the third quarter, both ranking the highest since the ranking was released.
Lack of work due to automation and intelligence that are difficult to replace
In the 6-season list of job shortages that have been released, the top ten "most job shortage" jobs are basically stable with occasional changes.
Among them, six types of work, including salesperson, restaurant waiter, security guard, cleaner, merchandise salesperson, and turner, rank among the top ten consecutively.
At the same time, domestic workers, cashiers, welders and other types of work have also repeatedly appeared in the top ten on the list.
"The shortage of work types is a reflection of all occupations or all occupations covered by statistical data. The continuous shortage does reflect the supply and demand status of such personnel in the market. This is a rough feature." Tian Yongpo believes The shortage of different occupations is different due to the influence of occupational tendency and occupational prestige.
According to Yin Baoming, an assistant researcher at the China Academy of Labor and Social Security Sciences, it is difficult to recruit some jobs with low barriers to employment. The main reason is that these jobs are of low quality and lack of attractiveness leading to high mobility.
He also noticed that most of these types of jobs belong to the service industry, which are jobs that cannot be replaced by automation and intelligence.
At the same time, this also reflects the structural contradiction of employment-the mismatch between "there are no jobs" and "there are no jobs" continues.
"High-skilled talents and basic positions with low skill requirements are in short supply." Yin Baoming said.
Tian Yongpo likened this situation of short supply at both ends to the "smiling curve", that is, labor-intensive labor that cannot be completely replaced by machines and high-tech labor demand and shortages. "This is the job structure triggered by technological progress. Variety".
"However, this change is not comprehensive. It only reflects part of the situation." Yin Baoming said that the ranking of shortfall occupations only collected data on the supply and demand of the human resources market of public employment service agencies. The booming Internet recruitment and related information were not included in the statistics.
In Yin Baoming's view, the reason why some types of jobs with lower technical requirements frequently appear in the top of the list may be related to the source of the data to a certain extent.
The employees in these positions are generally older and less literate. Most of them seek jobs through offline public employment service agencies, and companies also tend to recruit through offline public employment service agencies.
To alleviate the "most lack of labor", companies must provide benefits
The “most shortage of jobs” ranking list, in addition to the ranking of the shortage of jobs, also lists typical cities with demand in descending order of the number of job gaps.
Among them, many jobs are lacking in the north, south and east and west.
For example, the 5 cities most in short supply are Shanghai, Changchun, Beijing, Tianjin, and Luoyang for the "most in demand" salesperson positions in more than a year; the housekeeping waiters who have repeatedly ranked among the top ten in the "most in demand" list, Changchun, Xiamen, Guangzhou, Beijing, Kunming and other places are particularly short.
"From a regional perspective, the shortage of professional and technical personnel is even greater in the eastern region." At the same time, Tian Yongpo observed that with the development and rise of urban agglomerations in the central and western regions, the local demand for talents has increased, although there are some personnel. Backflow, but there are still many jobs in a state of shortage.
In view of the situation that some types of jobs with low barriers to employment are always short of jobs, Yin Baoming believes that companies must improve the competitiveness of these positions, smooth career development channels, reduce job mobility, reduce recruitment costs, and achieve a win-win situation with employees.
At the same time, the units responsible for training should improve the relevant professional standards and training norms, improve the practicality and pertinence of training, and give preference to the subsidy policy for vocational skills improvement.
"Publishing jobs in short supply can guide workers to participate and receive some vocational training purposefully, and improve their ability to respond to labor market changes." Tian Yongpo said, this information can also provide a reference for workers to understand their position in the labor market. Provide references for both parties in wage bargaining, recruitment and job search decisions.
Tian Yongpo suggested that when conditions permit or in a region, appropriate wage level data for shortage occupations should be provided for the reference of employers and workers.
Yin Baoming suggested that the data coverage should be expanded in the future, and data source channels should be increased, so as to provide more accurate and effective guidance for laborers' job search and employer recruitment.