There are more than 47 million infants under 3 years old. Who will bring your baby?

  Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, December 24 -

Title: 3 years of age over 47 million infants and young children, who will bring your baby?

  Xinhua News Agency reporter Tian Xiaohang

  No one will be forced to resign after having a baby, for fear that no one will give up having a second child...The childcare problem that has entangled couples of childbearing age has become more prominent since the implementation of the comprehensive two-child policy.

  Who will bring the baby?

How to bring it?

Recently, the China Population and Development Forum hosted by the China Family Planning Association and others have launched a lively discussion on the topic of "difficult childcare".

Over 47 million infants and children under 3 years old, and the enrollment rate is only about 5%

  Insufficient supply of childcare services is an important factor that causes anxiety about childcare and inhibits the willingness to bear children.

He Dan, director of the China Population and Development Research Center, said that the center's survey found that among families with 0 to 3 years old infants, 30% of those in need of childcare services, 90% of which are families with 2 to 3 years old infants.

However, survey data from the National Health Commission show that the enrollment rate of infants and children aged 0 to 3 in my country is only about 5%.

  He Dan said that less than 20% of the existing childcare institutions are public and inclusive, and most of them are private institutions.

The latter is more expensive in order to ensure operation.

"Our survey found that less than one-third of households can accept the price."

  According to Ou Xiaoli, Director of the Department of Social Development of the National Development and Reform Commission, the number of infants and children under the age of 3 in my country exceeds 47 million, and there are more than 15 million newborns each year. However, childcare services are still in their infancy and are suffering from the epidemic. In the long run, it will face challenges such as a large gap in service system construction, high cost pressures from inclusive institutions, and human resource bottlenecks.

  Compared with urban babies, rural poor and left-behind children may be more vulnerable.

According to Li Wei, chairman of the China Development Research Foundation, a survey conducted by the foundation and the All-China Women’s Federation on more than 5,000 infants and young children in impoverished areas shows that 86.4% of infants and young children have not received any early nurturing and care services, and the family nurturing environment is also very good. difference.

  "A considerable number of children in poverty-stricken areas are in an'unfavorable growth environment'." In Li Wei's view, if there is no public policy intervention, the intergenerational transmission of poverty may continue for most of them.

Under the policy "combined boxing", the infant care service system is taking shape

  0 to 3 years old is a key stage in the growth and development of infants and young children.

Good care services for infants and young children undoubtedly have an important basic role in the overall improvement of the national quality and coordinated economic and social development, and it also has special social significance in eliminating poverty and promoting social equity.

  In order to solve the problem of childcare, in April 2019, the General Office of the State Council issued the "Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Development of Care Services for Infants and Children under 3 Years of Age". It was proposed that by 2020, a system of policies, regulations and standards for infant care services will be initially established , To build a batch of demonstrative infant care service institutions.

  To implement the guidance, the relevant departments play a policy "combination punch".

According to Yu Xuejun, deputy director of the National Health Commission, the National Health Commission and relevant ministries and commissions have researched and issued a series of policies and regulations on the establishment of nursery institutions, management norms, registration and filing methods, and carried out support for the development of inclusive nursery services for social forces. Special actions and other work.

  The China Family Planning Association and all levels of family planning associations also give full play to the role and advantages of group organizations, extensively carry out the "Prenatal and postnatal care for thousands of families" activity, conduct publicity and consultation and home guidance, promote the establishment of infant care service demonstrations, and implement the "Sunflower Plan" Establish parent-child huts to promote early development of rural children.

  "After the guidance was announced, within a year and a half, the number of enterprises with clear childcare labels registered with the industrial and commercial sector alone was three times that of the past 10 years, and the momentum of development is very good." Said Yang Wenzhuang, director of the Department of Population Monitoring and Family Development.

  Commercial complex embedded, community-run sites, kindergarten extension, family "neighbor care", corporate welfare... Yu Xuejun introduced that various localities are also actively exploring and practicing, and developing diversified infant and child care service models and infant care service systems Is being built gradually.

Seize the "14th Five-Year" window period and develop inclusive education

  The "14th Five-Year Plan" proposes to develop an inclusive childcare service system to reduce the cost of childbirth, parenting, and education.

The China Population and Development Research Center predicts that the number of births during the "14th Five-Year Plan" period will be less than that of the "13th Five-Year Plan" by more than 2 million per year on average.

"This just created conditions for the rational allocation of kindergarten degrees and nursery places, and the promotion of the construction of nursery service system." He Dan said.

  What should we do in the rare window period?

  Yang Wenzhuang believes that family childcare services are low in price, neighbors trust, and infants and young children have little sense of alienation, which is worthy of vigorous promotion.

However, this model currently faces some problems. For example, laws and regulations do not allow business registration of family-owned residences, supervision is not easy, and coordination between neighbors is difficult.

He said that he will study the management regulations and normative standards for the development of family childcare as soon as possible, support the pilot projects of family childcare, and promote them in due course.

  Wang Peian, Secretary of the Party Group and Executive Vice President of the China Family Planning Association, suggested that childcare services should be included in the scope of basic public services; in areas where the birth population is declining and preschool education resources are abundant, “integration of childcare and childcare” should be encouraged and the establishment of conditional kindergartens should be promoted. In kindergarten, the childcare services for children aged 2 to 3 years old are included in the inclusive preschool education service system based on public institutions.

  At the same time, improve family welfare policies, study the inclusion of childcare expenses from 0 to 3 years old in the scope of personal income tax deduction, explore the establishment of a childcare subsidy system; appropriately increase parental leave such as spouse nursing leave and family parenting leave, encourage men to participate in child care, and encourage families Intergenerational support for childcare; encourage qualified enterprises to support employees' paid vacations, explore flexible working systems, etc.

  “Public policy interventions for infant care services in poverty-stricken areas have no time to delay." Li Wei believes that consideration can be given to incorporating infant care services in underdeveloped areas into the basic public service system, playing the role of family planning associations, public welfare foundations and other organizations to explore diversification , A full coverage infant care service model.